Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 104 in total

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  1. Nor-Khaizura, M.A.R., Zaiton, H, Jamilah, B., Gulam Rusul, R.A.
    MyJurnal
    Keropok lekor is an important fish product in Malaysia. The customer demands for keropok lekorhave been increasing. This study was conducted to analyze the microbiological quality of keropok lekor in every stage of its processing, namely mincing, mixing, kneading, boiling and cooling. When processing keropok lekor, the boiling of keropok lekor at 100°C for 10 min reduced the Total Plate Counts (4.38±0.47 log10 cfu/g), psychrotrophic counts (2.00 ± 0.00 log10 cfu/g), mesophilic sporeformer counts (1.26 ± 0.34 log10 cfu/g) and total coliform counts (1.71±0.51 log Most Probable Number/g) significantly (p>0.05). However, the microbial counts were found to increase significantly (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  2. Lee HY, Chai LC, Pui CF, Wong WC, Mustafa S, Cheah YK, et al.
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2011 Sep;21(9):954-9.
    PMID: 21952372
    There have been a number of studies conducted in order to compare the efficiencies of recovery rates, utilizing different protocols, for the isolation of L. monocytogenes. However, the severity of multiple cell injury has not been included in these studies. In the current study, L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was injured by exposure to extreme temperatures (60°C and -20°C) for a one-step injury, and for a two-step injury the cells were transferred directly from a heat treatment to frozen state to induce a severe cell injury (up to 100% injury). The injured cells were then subjected to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the ISO-11290, and the modified United States Department of Agriculture (mUSDA) protocols, and plated on TSAyeast (0.6% yeast), PALCAM agar, and CHROMAgar Listeria for 24 h or 48 h. The evaluation of the total recovery of injured cells was also calculated based on the costs involved in the preparation of media for each protocol. Results indicate that the mUSDA method is best able to aid the recovery of heat-injured, freeze-injured, and heat-freeze-injured cells and was shown to be the most cost effective for heat-freeze-injured cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial/economics; Colony Count, Microbial/methods*; Colony Count, Microbial/standards
  3. Sabow AB, Zulkifli I, Goh YM, Ab Kadir MZ, Kaka U, Imlan JC, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(4):e0152661.
    PMID: 27035716 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152661
    The influence of pre-slaughter electrical stunning techniques and slaughter without stunning on bleeding efficiency and shelf life of chevon during a 14 d postmortem aging were assessed. Thirty two Boer crossbred bucks were randomly assigned to four slaughtering techniques viz slaughter without stunning (SWS), low frequency head-only electrical stunning (LFHO; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz), low frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (LFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz) and high frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (HFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 850 Hz). The SWS, LFHO and HFHB goats had higher (p<0.05) blood loss and lower residual hemoglobin in muscle compared to LFHB. The LFHB meat had higher (p<0.05) TBARS value than other treatments on d 7 and 14 d postmortem. Slaughtering methods had no effect on protein oxidation. Higher bacterial counts were observed in LFHB meat compared to those from SWS, LFHO and HFHB after 3 d postmortem. Results indicate that the low bleed-out in LFHB lowered the lipid oxidative stability and microbiological quality of chevon during aging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  4. Yong, W.Z., Haresh, K.K., Wong, W.C., 1 Pui, C.F., Son, R.
    MyJurnal
    The objectives highlighted in the present study were to determine the estimates of measurement uncertainty associated with PALCAM and CHROMagarTM Listeria media, to compare the efficacy between both media in relation to their measurement uncertainties. In addition, this study was carried out to assess the performance characteristics of spread and spiral plating procedures based on the comparison of Listeria monocytogenes enumeration between PALCAM and CHROMagarTM Listeria media. This work involved pure culture experiment, artificially contaminated samples experiment and naturally contaminated samples experiment. In pure culture experiment, PALCAM performance was relatively inferior to CHROMagarTM Listeria medium for both plating procedures. From the artificially contaminated samples, the results revealed that the values of repeatability, reproducibility, and measurement uncertainty at 95% confidence interval were comparable between both media under evaluation. However, at the level of naturally contaminated samples, the performance of CHROMagar
    TM Listeria medium was refutable as the presence of high number of competitive microorganisms reduced the clarity of the medium. The current emphasis in ensuring microbiological safety which requires use of accredited laboratories has led to measurable need for measurement uncertainty to ensure reliability of test results for global acceptance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  5. Chan ES, Lee PP, Ravindra P, Krishnaiah K, Voo WP
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2010 Mar;86(1):385-91.
    PMID: 20033402 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-009-2384-y
    The aim of this work was to develop a standard quantitative method to measure the acid tolerance of probiotic cells when exposed to a simulated gastric fluid. Three model strains of different cell concentrations were exposed to a standard simulated gastric fluid of fixed volume. The fluid pH ranged from pH 1.5 to 2.5. In general, the death kinetics followed an exponential trend. The overall death constant, k (d), for all strains was found to be in a power relationship with the pH value and the initial cell concentration, and it can be expressed as k(d)=k(AII) (pH(-9.0)N(0)(-0.19)) where k (AII) is defined as the acid intolerance indicator and N (0) is the initial cell concentration (CFU/ml). This equation was validated with the experimental data with an average R (2) of 0.98. The acid intolerance of cells can be quantitatively expressed by the k (AII) values, where higher value indicates higher intolerance. In conclusion, a standard quantitative method has been developed to measure the acid tolerance of probiotic cells. This could facilitate the selection of probiotic strains and processing technologies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  6. Hossain MA, Islam JMM, Hoque MM, Nahar S, Khan MA
    Heliyon, 2021 Jan;7(1):e05881.
    PMID: 33458447 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05881
    Sodium alginate oligomers were tested for tea plant growth promoter and anti-fungal agent in this experiment. Sodium alginate solutions were irradiated by Co-60 gamma radiation with different radiation doses to produce the oligomers. Irradiated solutions were then diluted into 150, 300 and 500 ppm prior to foliar application. Solutions were applied through foliar spraying at 7 days interval and the best response of tea plants in terms of various attributes were recorded. Tea buds were collected in 10 days of interval and the growth attributes like- total number of buds, fresh weight of buds, average leaf area and weight per bud, weight of made tea etc. were calculated. The experiment was continued up to 12 weeks and the attributes were averaged to get results per plucking. 12 kGy radiation doses along with 300ppm solution showed the best results and about 36% increase in productivity was found based on the fresh weight of buds. Total fungal count in tea leaves was also found to be reduced greatly. Based on the present study, irradiated sodium alginate could be used as safe and environmentally friendly agent to increase tea production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  7. Abatcha MG, Tan PL, Chuah LO, Rusul G, Chandraprasad SR, Effarizah ME
    Food Sci Biotechnol, 2020 Aug;29(8):1141-1148.
    PMID: 32670668 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-020-00762-2
    The effectiveness of two different rapid methods involving the 3M™ molecular detection assay Listeria and the 3M™ Petrifilm environmental Listeria Plate were evaluated for the rapid detection of Listeria from naturally contaminated vegetables and chicken-processing environments against the standard culture-based method. A total of 178 samples were examined for the presence of Listeria. A total of 47/178 (26.4%) by standard ISO culture-based method (EN ISO 11290-1), 42/178 (23.6%) by 3M™ MDA Listeria and 40/178 (22.5%) by 3M™ Petrifilm EL Plate showed positive results, respectively. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for 3M™ MDA Listeria and 3M™ Petrifilm EL Plate were 97.2, 89.4, 99.3, 97.7, 96.4% and 96.1, 85.1, 100.0, 100.0, 94.9%, respectively. Based on the Cohen's Kappa value, there was a complete and robust concordance between 3M™ MDA Listeria (0.911) and 3M™ Petrifilm EL Plates (0.894) as compared to the standard culture-based method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  8. Mohamed R, Jong PL, Nurul Irdayu I
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2014 Sep;30(9):2427-36.
    PMID: 24840100 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-014-1668-2
    Aquilaria malaccensis produces agarwood in response to wounding and fungal attack. However, information is limited regarding Aquilaria's interaction with its diverse fungal community. In this study, time-related changes of three natural fungal colonizers in two wounded wild A. malaccensis were tracked, beginning a few hours after wounding up to 12 months. Using species-specific primers derived from their nrITS sequences in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), we quantified the amount of Cunninghamella bainieri, Fusarium solani and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Because time is a major factor affecting agarwood quantity and quality, 14 wood samples were collected at different time points, i.e., 0-18 h, 2-13 days, 2-18 weeks, and 6-12 months after wounding. qPCR data revealed that the abundance of the three species decreased over time. The fungi were detected in high numbers during the first few hours and days after wounding (40- to 25,000-fold higher levels compared with initial counts) and in low numbers (<1- to 3,200-fold higher than initially) many months later. Consistent with its role in defense response, the accumulation of secondary metabolites at the wounding site could have caused the decline in fungal abundance. Succession patterns of the two trees were not identical, indicating that fungal populations may have been affected by tree environment and wound microclimate. Our results are important for understanding the diversity of microbial community in wild Aquilaria species and their association to wound-induced agarwood formation. Fungi could be secondary triggers to agarwood production in situations where trees are wounded in attempt to induce agarwood.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial*
  9. Shafarin MS, Zamri-Saad M, Jamil SM, Siti Khairani B, Saharee AA
    PMID: 17381677
    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by Pasteurella multocida 6:B. Outbreaks of the disease have been closely associated with carrier animals that transmit the organism to susceptible animals during stressful condition. This study was conducted to determine whether goats exposed intranasally to P. multocida 6:B can transmit the organism to contact goats. Thirty-six healthy local Katjang goats were divided into four groups and goats of groups 1 and 3 were each inoculated intranasally with a 1-ml inoculum that contained 1 x 10(9) CFU/ml of live P. multocida 6:B. Following the exposure, all goats of groups 3 and 4 were injected with dexamethasone at the rate of 1 mg/kg for three consecutive days. At the end of the dexamethasone treatment, goats of groups 1 and 2 were commingled but kept separate from goats of groups 3 and 4, which were commingled in another pen. Three surviving goats from each group were killed on days 7, 14 and 21 post-exposure for postmortem examination. Naso-pharyngeal mucus and heart blood were collected on swabs. Tissues from lungs, lymph nodes and tonsils were collected for bacteriological isolation and identification. Only one goat of group 3 died 6 days post-exposure showing clinical signs and lesions typical of HS. Other goats showed mild signs of upper respiratory tract infection. Goats of all groups developed acute mild pneumonic lesions, however, those treated with dexamethasone had significantly (P < 0.05) more extensive lesion scoring based on the lesion scoring system. P. multocida 6:B was isolated from the nasal mucosa and lung lesions of exposed and contact goats not treated with dexamethasone. Exposed and contact goats treated with dexamethasone carried the organism for 21 days. P. multocida isolation from heart blood was made only from exposed and contact goats treated with dexamethasone. P. multocida was isolated from the lymph node of the goat that died during the experiment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial/veterinary
  10. Praveena SM, Chen KS, Ismail SN
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2013 Nov 15;76(1-2):417-9.
    PMID: 24050128 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.08.028
    This study aims to determine the concentrations of total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in beach water, Teluk Kemang beach. This study was also aimed to determine relationship between total coliforms, E. coli and physicochemical parameters. As perceived health symptoms among beach visitors are rarely incorporated in beach water studies, this element was also assessed in this study. A total of eight water sampling points were selected randomly along Teluk Kemang beach. Total coliforms concentrations were found between 20 and 1940 cfu/100ml. E. coli concentrations were between 0 and 90 cfu/100ml. Significant correlations were found between total coliforms and E. coli with pH, temperature and oxidation reduction potential. Skin and eyes symptoms were the highest reported though in small numbers. Microbiological water quality in Teluk Kemang public beach was generally safe for recreational activities except sampling location near with sewage outfall.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  11. Lee FC, Hakim SL, Kamaluddin MA, Thong KL
    PMID: 23082563
    Clostridium perfringens (CP) and sulphite reducing clostridia (SRC) densities in the Selangor River, Bernam River and Tengi River Canal were examined between April 2007 and January 2008. Water samples were taken from two or three locations along each river, using either depth-integration or grab sampling methods. The downstream sampling site of the Selangor River, Rantau Panjang, reported the highest arithmetic mean of CP and SRC densities (583.45 and 8,120.08 cfu/100 ml, respectively). Both CP and SRC densities in the Selangor River increased further downstream, but the reverse was true in the Bernam River. The SRC densities in these rivers were significantly different from each other (p < 0.05) when comparing upstream and downstream results, but CP densities were not significantly different (p > 0.05). SRC densities were significantly correlated (p < 0.05) in different locations along the Selangor River and the Bernam River. The CP densities did not show such pattern (p > 0.05). River discharge had no significant correlation with SRC or CP densities by study site (p > 0.05). Since the Selangor River has a denser human population along its banks, this study confirms CP as a suitable indicator of human fecal contamination. However, tracing CP distribution along the river is more difficult than SRC. To our knowledge, this is the first study of CP and SRC densities from Malaysian rivers. CP densities found in this study were within the range of general water bodies reported from other countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  12. Abdullah N, Nawawi A, Othman I
    Mycopathologia, 1998;143(1):53-8.
    PMID: 10205885
    In a survey of starch-based foods sampled from retail outlets in Malaysia, fungal colonies were mostly detected in wheat flour (100%), followed by rice flour (74%), glutinous rice grains (72%), ordinary rice grains (60%), glutinous rice flour (48%) and corn flour (26%). All positive samples of ordinary rice and glutinous rice grains had total fungal counts below 10(3) cfu/g sample, while among the positive rice flour, glutinous rice flour and corn flour samples, the highest total fungal count was more than 10(3) but less than 10(4) cfu/g sample respectively. However, in wheat flour samples total fungal count ranged from 10(2) cfu/g sample to slightly more than 10(4) cfu/g sample. Aflatoxigenic colonies were mostly detected in wheat flour (20%), followed by ordinary rice grains (4%), glutinous rice grains (4%) and glutinous rice flour (2%). No aflatoxigenic colonies were isolated from rice flour and corn flour samples. Screening of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 using reversed-phase HPLC were carried out on 84 samples of ordinary rice grains and 83 samples of wheat flour. Two point four percent (2.4%) of ordinary rice grains were positive for aflatoxin G1 and 3.6% were positive for aflatoxin G2. All the positive samples were collected from private homes at concentrations ranging from 3.69-77.50 micrograms/kg. One point two percent (1.2%) of wheat flour samples were positive for aflatoxin B1 at a concentration of 25.62 micrograms/kg, 4.8% were positive for aflatoxin B2 at concentrations ranging from 11.25-252.50 micrograms/kg, 3.6% were positive for aflatoxin G1 at concentrations ranging from 25.00-289.38 micrograms/kg and 13.25% were positive for aflatoxin G2 at concentrations ranging from 16.25-436.25 micrograms/kg. Similarly, positive wheat flour samples were mostly collected from private homes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  13. Yusoff, N. A. H., Sanuan, F. M., Rukayadi, Y.
    MyJurnal
    Nowadays consumer is more demand on natural foodstuff instead of synthetic product due to their concern on health. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of C. caudatus extract on the number of microflora in oyster mushroom at different concentration of C. caudatus extract and exposure time using dilution method. The results showed that the number of microorganisms (Log10 CFU/g) in oyster mushroom in term of Total Plate Count (TPC), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were 6.13 ± 0.04, 6.15 ± 0.09, 5.97 ± 0.04, and 6.46 ± 0.00, respectively. The effect of C. caudatus extract on microflora in oyster mushroom at concentrations of 0.00%, 0.05%, 0.5%, and 5.0% with exposure time of 0, 5, 10, and 15 min demonstrated that the reduction number of microflora in oyster mushroom was dependent on the concentration of C. caudatus extract and exposure times. The number of TPC (Log10 CFU/g) in oyster mushroom was significantly reduced after treated with C. caudatus extract at concentration of 0.05% for 15 min; 6.13 ± 0.04 reduced to 2.62 ± 0.07. Moreover, B. cereus (Log10 CFU/g) in oyster mushroom was significantly reduced by treatment of C. caudatus extract at concentration of 0.05% for 5 min; 6.15 ± 0.09 reduced to 3.77 ± 0.15. Meanwhile, the number of E. coli (Log10 CFU/g) in oyster mushroom was significantly reduced at concentration of 0.05% for 10 min; 5.97 ± 0.04 reduced to 3.21 ± 0.13. Lastly, the survival number of S. aureus in oyster mushroom was significantly reduced after treated with C. caudatus extract at concentration of 0.05% for 15 min; 6.46 ± 0.00 reduced to 4.83 ± 0.07. In conclusion, C. caudatus extract has potentiality to be developed as natural sanitizer for rinsing raw food materials such as oyster mushroom.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  14. Li TC, Ambu S, Mohandas K, Wah MJ, Sulaiman LH, Murgaiyah M
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Sep;31(3):540-56.
    PMID: 25382482 MyJurnal
    Airborne bacteria are significant biotic constituents of bioaerosol. Bacteria at high concentrations in the air can compromise indoor air quality (IAQ) and result in many diseases. In tropical environments like Malaysia that extensively utilize air-conditioning systems, this is particularly significant due to continuous recirculation of indoor air and the potential implications for human health. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of airborne bacteria on IAQ in Malaysia. This study was prompted by a need for reliable baseline data on airborne bacteria in the indoor environment of tropical equatorial Malaysia, that may be used as a reference for further investigations on the potential role played by airborne bacteria as an agent of disease in this region. It was further necessitated due to the threat of bioterrorism with the potentiality of release of exotic pathogenic microorganisms into indoor or outdoor air. Before scientists can detect the latter, a gauge of the common microorganisms in indoor (as well as outdoor) air needs to be ascertained, hence the expediency of this study. Bacterial counts from the broad-based and targeted study were generally in the order of 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU) per m(3) of air. The most prevalent airborne bacteria found in the broad-based study that encompassed all five levels of the building were Gram-positive cocci (67.73%), followed by Gram-positive rods (24.26%) and Gram-negative rods (7.10%). Gram-negative cocci were rarely detected (0.71%). Amongst the genera identified, Kytococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Leifsonia sp., Bacillus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. predominated in indoor air. The most dominant bacterial species were Kytococcus sedentarius, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus. The opportunistic and nosocomial pathogen, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was also discovered at a high percentage in the cafeteria. The bacteria isolated in this study have been increasingly documented to cause opportunistic infections in immuno-compromised patients, sometimes with fatal outcomes. Furthermore, some of them are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics. Hence, we propose that indoor reservoirs of these bacteria and their associated clinical and more subtle health effects, if any, be investigated further.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  15. Zamri-Saad M, Ernie ZA, Sabri MY
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2006 Oct-Nov;38(7-8):541-6.
    PMID: 17265769
    This study aimed to determine the effect of intranasal exposure to low doses of Pasteurella multocida B:2 on survival of goats challenged with high doses of the same organism. Eighteen goats were selected and divided into three groups. Goats of group 1 were exposed intranasally twice, with a two-week interval, to 7 x 10(6) cfu/ml of live P. multocida B:2. Goats of group 2 were not exposed to P. multocida B:2 but were kept together with the exposed group 1. Goats of group 3 remained as unexposed controls and were kept separated from the other two groups. Serum samples were collected at weekly intervals to determine the antibody levels. At week 5 post exposure, all goats were challenged subcutaneously with 3.7 x 10(10) cfu/ml of live P. multocida B:2. Following challenge exposure, 8 (67%) goats (4 goats from each of groups 1 and 2) were killed owing to haemorrhagic septicaemia. Four goats were killed peracutely within 48 h post challenge, while the other four goats were killed acutely between 2 and 4 days post challenge. None of the goats of group 3 were killed for haemorrhagic septicaemia. Goats of groups 1 and 2 showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher antibody levels following the first intranasal exposure to P. multocida B:2. However, only group 1 retained the significantly (p < 0.05) high antibody levels following a second intranasal exposure, and remained significantly (p < 0.05) higher than groups 2 and 3 at the time of challenge. P. multocida B:2 was successfully isolated from various organs of goats that were killed between 1 and 4 days post challenge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial/veterinary
  16. Kumbargere Nagraj S, Eachempati P, Paisi M, Nasser M, Sivaramakrishnan G, Verbeek JH
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2020 10 12;10:CD013686.
    PMID: 33047816 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013686.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Many dental procedures produce aerosols (droplets, droplet nuclei and splatter) that harbour various pathogenic micro-organisms and may pose a risk for the spread of infections between dentist and patient. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to greater concern about this risk.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of methods used during dental treatment procedures to minimize aerosol production and reduce or neutralize contamination in aerosols.

    SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases on 17 September 2020: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (in the Cochrane Library, 2020, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (from 1946); Embase Ovid (from 1980); the WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease; the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov); and the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) on aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) performed by dental healthcare providers that evaluated methods to reduce contaminated aerosols in dental clinics (excluding preprocedural mouthrinses). The primary outcomes were incidence of infection in dental staff or patients, and reduction in volume and level of contaminated aerosols in the operative environment. The secondary outcomes were cost, accessibility and feasibility.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened search results, extracted data from the included studies, assessed the risk of bias in the studies, and judged the certainty of the available evidence. We used mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the effect estimate for continuous outcomes, and random-effects meta-analysis to combine data. We assessed heterogeneity.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 studies with 425 participants aged 5 to 69 years. Eight studies had high risk of bias; eight had unclear risk of bias. No studies measured infection. All studies measured bacterial contamination using the surrogate outcome of colony-forming units (CFU). Two studies measured contamination per volume of air sampled at different distances from the patient's mouth, and 14 studies sampled particles on agar plates at specific distances from the patient's mouth. The results presented below should be interpreted with caution as the evidence is very low certainty due to heterogeneity, risk of bias, small sample sizes and wide confidence intervals. Moreover, we do not know the 'minimal clinically important difference' in CFU. High-volume evacuator Use of a high-volume evacuator (HVE) may reduce bacterial contamination in aerosols less than one foot (~ 30 cm) from a patient's mouth (MD -47.41, 95% CI -92.76 to -2.06; 3 RCTs, 122 participants (two studies had split-mouth design); very high heterogeneity I² = 95%), but not at longer distances (MD -1.00, -2.56 to 0.56; 1 RCT, 80 participants). One split-mouth RCT (six participants) found that HVE may not be more effective than conventional dental suction (saliva ejector or low-volume evacuator) at 40 cm (MD CFU -2.30, 95% CI -5.32 to 0.72) or 150 cm (MD -2.20, 95% CI -14.01 to 9.61). Dental isolation combination system One RCT (50 participants) found that there may be no difference in CFU between a combination system (Isolite) and a saliva ejector (low-volume evacuator) during AGPs (MD -0.31, 95% CI -0.82 to 0.20) or after AGPs (MD -0.35, -0.99 to 0.29). However, an 'n of 1' design study showed that the combination system may reduce CFU compared with rubber dam plus HVE (MD -125.20, 95% CI -174.02 to -76.38) or HVE (MD -109.30, 95% CI -153.01 to -65.59). Rubber dam One split-mouth RCT (10 participants) receiving dental treatment, found that there may be a reduction in CFU with rubber dam at one-metre (MD -16.20, 95% CI -19.36 to -13.04) and two-metre distance (MD -11.70, 95% CI -15.82 to -7.58). One RCT of 47 dental students found use of rubber dam may make no difference in CFU at the forehead (MD 0.98, 95% CI -0.73 to 2.70) and occipital region of the operator (MD 0.77, 95% CI -0.46 to 2.00). One split-mouth RCT (21 participants) found that rubber dam plus HVE may reduce CFU more than cotton roll plus HVE on the patient's chest (MD -251.00, 95% CI -267.95 to -234.05) and dental unit light (MD -12.70, 95% CI -12.85 to -12.55). Air cleaning systems One split-mouth CCT (two participants) used a local stand-alone air cleaning system (ACS), which may reduce aerosol contamination during cavity preparation (MD -66.70 CFU, 95% CI -120.15 to -13.25 per cubic metre) or ultrasonic scaling (MD -32.40, 95% CI - 51.55 to -13.25). Another CCT (50 participants) found that laminar flow in the dental clinic combined with a HEPA filter may reduce contamination approximately 76 cm from the floor (MD -483.56 CFU, 95% CI -550.02 to -417.10 per cubic feet per minute per patient) and 20 cm to 30 cm from the patient's mouth (MD -319.14 CFU, 95% CI - 385.60 to -252.68). Disinfectants ‒ antimicrobial coolants Two RCTs evaluated use of antimicrobial coolants during ultrasonic scaling. Compared with distilled water, coolant containing chlorhexidine (CHX), cinnamon extract coolant or povidone iodine may reduce CFU: CHX (MD -124.00, 95% CI -135.78 to -112.22; 20 participants), povidone iodine (MD -656.45, 95% CI -672.74 to -640.16; 40 participants), cinnamon (MD -644.55, 95% CI -668.70 to -620.40; 40 participants). CHX coolant may reduce CFU more than povidone iodine (MD -59.30, 95% CI -64.16 to -54.44; 20 participants), but not more than cinnamon extract (MD -11.90, 95% CI -35.88 to 12.08; 40 participants).

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no studies that evaluated disease transmission via aerosols in a dental setting; and no evidence about viral contamination in aerosols. All of the included studies measured bacterial contamination using colony-forming units. There appeared to be some benefit from the interventions evaluated but the available evidence is very low certainty so we are unable to draw reliable conclusions. We did not find any studies on methods such as ventilation, ionization, ozonisation, UV light and fogging. Studies are needed that measure contamination in aerosols, size distribution of aerosols and infection transmission risk for respiratory diseases such as COVID-19 in dental patients and staff.

    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial/methods
  17. Shah AH, Saleha AA, Murugaiyah M, Zunita Z, Memon AA
    J Food Prot, 2012 Aug;75(8):1474-8.
    PMID: 22856572 DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-487
    A total of 106 beef samples which consisted of local (n = 59) and imported (n = 47) beef and 180 milk samples from cows (n = 86) and goats (n = 94) were collected from Selangor, Malaysia. Overall, 30.2% (32 of 106) of beef samples were found positive for Arcobacter species. Imported beef was significantly more contaminated (46.80%) than local beef (16.9%). Arcobacter butzleri was the species isolated most frequently from imported (81.8%) and local (60%) beef, followed by Arcobacter cryaerophilus in local (33.3%) and imported (18.2%) beef samples. Only one local beef sample (10%) yielded Arcobacter skirrowii. Arcobacter species were detected from cow's milk (5.8%), with A. butzleri as the dominant species (60%), followed by A. cryaerophilus (40%), whereas none of the goat's milk samples were found positive for Arcobacter. This is the first report of the detection of Arcobacter in milk and beef in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  18. Hossain MS, Balakrishnan V, Rahman NN, Sarker MZ, Kadir MO
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2012 Mar;9(3):855-67.
    PMID: 22690168 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9030855
    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  19. Shamekhi F, Shuhaimi M, Ariff A, Manap YA
    Folia Microbiol (Praha), 2013 Mar;58(2):91-101.
    PMID: 22843029 DOI: 10.1007/s12223-012-0183-9
    The purpose of this study was to improve the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 10140 during freeze-drying process by microencapsulation, using a special pediatric prebiotics mixture (galactooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides). Probiotic microorganisms were encapsulated with a coat combination of prebiotics-calcium-alginate prior to freeze-drying. Both encapsulated and free cells were then freeze-dried in their optimized combinations of skim milk and prebiotics. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to produce a coating combination as well as drying medium with the highest cell viability during freeze-drying. The optimum encapsulation composition was found to be 2.1 % Na-alginate, 2.9 % prebiotic, and 21.7 % glycerol. Maximum survival predicted by the model was 81.2 %. No significant (p > 0.05) difference between the predicted and experimental values verified the adequacy of final reduced models. The protection ability of encapsulation was then examined over 120 days of storage at 4 and 25 °C and exposure to a sequential model of infantile GIT conditions including both gastric conditions (pH 3.0 and 4.0, 90 min, 37 °C) and intestinal conditions (pH 7.5, 5 h, 37 °C). Significantly improved cell viability showed that microencapsulation of B. lactis 10140 with the prebiotics was successful in producing a stable symbiotic powdery nutraceutical.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
  20. Mousa W, Ghazali FM, Jinap S, Ghazali HM, Radu S
    J Appl Microbiol, 2011 Nov;111(5):1262-74.
    PMID: 21883729 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05134.x
    This study was conducted to characterize the growth of and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus on paddy and to develop kinetic models describing the growth rate as a function of water activity (a(w)) and temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Colony Count, Microbial
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