Photocatalytic degradation is among the promising technology for removal of various dyes and organic contaminants from environment owing to its excellent catalytic activity, low energy utilization, and low cost. As one of potential photocatalysts, Fe2O3 has emerged as an important material for degradation of numerous dyes and organic contaminants caused by its tolerable band gap, wide harvesting of visible light, good stability and recyclability. The present review thoroughly summarized the classification, synthesis route of Fe2O3 with different morphologies, and several modifications of Fe2O3 for improved photocatalytic performance. These include the incorporation with supporting materials, formation of heterojunction with other semiconductor photocatalysts, as well as the fabrication of Z-scheme. Explicitly, the other photocatalytic applications of Fe2O3, including for removal of heavy metals, reduction of CO2, evolution of H2, and N2 fixation are also deliberately discussed to further highlight the huge potential of this catalyst. Moreover, the prospects and future challenges are also comprised to expose the unscrutinized criteria of Fe2O3 photocatalyst. This review aims to contribute a knowledge transfer for providing more information on the potential of Fe2O3 photocatalyst. In the meantime, it might give an idea for utilization of this photocatalyst in other environmental remediation application.
A new anthraquinone, 2-hydroxymethyl-10-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone (1), was isolated from Hedyotis herbacea along with three other known derivatives: 1,4-dihydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (2); 2, 3-dimethoxy-9-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone; and 1,4-dihydroxy-2, 3-dimethoxyanthraquinone. The structure of 1 was determined based on analysis of its spectroscopic data.
The application of microorganisms in azo dye remediation has gained significant attention, leading to various published studies reporting different methods for obtaining the best dye decolouriser. This paper investigates and compares the role of methods and media used in obtaining a bacterial consortium capable of decolourising azo dye as the sole carbon source, which is extremely rare to find. It was demonstrated that a prolonged acclimation under low substrate availability successfully isolated a novel consortium capable of utilising Reactive Red 120 dye as a sole carbon source in aerobic conditions. This consortium, known as JR3, consists of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain MM01, Enterobacter sp. strain MM05 and Serratia marcescens strain MM06. Decolourised metabolites of consortium JR3 showed an improvement in mung bean's seed germination and shoot and root length. One-factor-at-time optimisation characterisation showed maximal of 82.9% decolourisation at 0.7 g/L ammonium sulphate, pH 8, 35 °C, and RR120 concentrations of 200 ppm. Decolourisation modelling utilising response surface methodology (RSM) successfully improved decolourisation even more. RSM resulted in maximal decolourisation of 92.79% using 0.645 g/L ammonium sulphate, pH 8.29, 34.5 °C and 200 ppm RR120.
In this study, a newly isolated ascomycete fungus Trichoderma lixii F21 was explored to bioremediate the polar [Alizarin Red S (ARS)] and non-polar [Quinizarine Green SS (QGSS)] anthraquinone dyes. The bioremediation of ARS and QGSS by T. lixii F21 was found to be 77.78 and 98.31 %, respectively, via biosorption and enzymatic processes within 7 days of incubation. The maximum biosorption (ARS = 33.7 % and QGSS = 74.7 %) and enzymatic biodegradation (ARS = 44.1 % and QGSS = 23.6 %) were observed at pH 4 and 27 °C in the presence of glucose and yeast extract. The laccase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase produced by T. lixii F21 were involved in the molecular conversions of ARS and QGSS to phenolic and carboxylic acid compounds, without the formation of toxic aromatic amines. This study suggests that T. lixii F21 may be a good candidate for the bioremediation of industrial effluents contaminated with anthraquinone dyes.
Reactive green 19, acid orange 7 and methylene blue are employed as the organic pollutants in this work. A photocatalytic fuel cell is constructed based on the idea of immobilizing zinc oxide onto zinc photoanode and platinum loaded carbon cathode, both evaluated under sunlight and ultraviolet irradiation, respectively. Influence of light and dye structures on the performance of photocatalytic fuel cell are examined. With reactive green 19, 93% and 86% of color removal are achieved after 8 h of photocatalytic fuel cell treatment under sunlight and ultraviolet irradiation, respectively. The decolorization rate of diazo reactive green 19 is higher than acid orange 7 (monoazo dye) when both dyes are treated by photocatalytic fuel cell under sunlight and ultraviolet irradiation, as the electron releasing groups (-NH-triazine) allow reactive green 19 easier to be oxidized. Comparatively, acid orange 7 is less favorable to be oxidized. The degradation of methylene blue is enhanced under sunlight irradiation due to the occurrence of self-sensitized photodegradation. When methylene blue is employed in the photocatalytic fuel cell under sunlight irradiation, the short circuit current (0.0129 mA cm-2) and maximum power density (0.0032 mW cm-2) of photocatalytic fuel cell greatly improved.
Despite its extraordinary price, ceramic membrane can still be able to surpass polymeric membrane in the applications that require high temperature and pressure conditions, as well as harsh chemical environment. In order to alleviate the high cost of ceramic material that still becomes one of the major factors that contributes to the high production cost of ceramic membrane, various attempts have been made to use low cost ceramic materials as alternatives to well-known expensive ceramic materials such as alumina, silica, and zirconia in the fabrication of ceramic membrane. Thus, local Malaysian kaolin has been chosen as the ceramic material in this study for the preparation of kaolin hollow fibre membrane since it is inexpensive and naturally abundant in Malaysia. Due to the fact that the sintering process plays a prominent role in obtaining the desired morphology, properties, and performances of prepared ceramic membrane, the aim of this work was to study the effect of different sintering temperatures applied (ranging from 1200 to 1500 °C) in the preparation of kaolin hollow fibre membrane via dry/wet phase inversion-based spinning technique and sintering process. The morphology and properties of membrane were then characterised by SEM, AFM, FTIR, XRD, and three-point bending test, while the performances of membrane were investigated by conducting water permeation and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye rejection tests. From the experimental results obtained, the sintering temperature of 1400 °C could be selected as the optimum sintering temperature in preparing the kaolin hollow fibre membrane with the dense sponge-like structure of separation layer that resulted in the good mechanical strength of 70 MPa with the appreciable water permeation of 75 L/h m(2) bar and RB5 rejection of 68%.
Triphenylmethane dyes (TPM) are recalcitrant colorants brought into the environment. In this study, a lesser-known white rot fungus Coriolopsis sp. (1c3), isolated from compost of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm, was explored for its decolorization potential of TPM dyes. The isolate 1c3 demonstrated good decolorization efficiencies in the treatment of Crystal Violet (CV; 100 mg l(-1)), Methyl Violet (MV; 100 mg l(-1)) and Cotton Blue (CB; 50 mg(-1)), with 94%, 97% and 91%, within 7, 7 and 1 day(s), respectively. Malachite Green (MG; 100 mg l(-1)) was the most recalcitrant dye, with 52% decolorization after 9 days. Dye removal by 1c3 was presumably via biosorption, whereby the process was determined to be influenced by fungal biomass, initial dye concentrations and oxygen requirements. Biodegradation was also a likely mechanism responsible for dye removal by 1c3, occurred as indicated by the reduction of dye spectra peaks. Detection of laccase, lignin peroxidase and NADH-DCIP reductase activities further substantiate the possible occurrence of biodegradation of TPM dyes by 1c3.
During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes.
The world water resources are contaminated due to discharge of a large number of pollutants from industrial and domestic sources. A variety of a single and multiple units of physical, chemical, and biological processes are employed for pollutants removal from wastewater. Adsorption is the most widely utilized process due to high efficiency, simple procedure and cost effectiveness. This paper reviews the research work carried out on the use of geopolymer materials for the adsorption of heavy metals and dyes. Geopolymers possess good surface properties, heterogeneous microstructure and amorphous structure. The performance of geopolymers in the removal of heavy metals and dyes is reported comparable to other materials. The pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models mostly fit to the adsorption data suggesting homogeneous distribution of adsorption sites with the formation of monolayer adsorbate on the surface of geopolymers. Adsorption of heavy metals and dyes onto geopolymers is spontaneous, endothermic and entropy driven process. Future research should focus on the enhancement of geopolymer performance, testing on pollutants other than heavy metals and dyes, and verification on real wastewater in continuous operation.
The ability of aluminum coagulant extracted from red earth to treat Terasil Red R (disperse) and Cibacron Red R (reactive) synthetic dye wastewater was studied. The effects of extractant concentration, soil-to-volume of extractant ratio, and the types of extracting agents (NaOH vs. KCl) on the concentration of aluminum extracted were also investigated. In addition, the efficiency of extracted aluminum was compared with aluminum sulfate, in terms of its capability to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and to remove synthetic color. Factorial design was applied to determine the effect of selected factors on the amount of aluminum extracted from red earth (i.e., pH, dose of coagulant, type of coagulant on COD reduction, and color removal). It was found that only selected factors exhibited a significant effect on the amount of aluminum extracted from red earth. It was also determined that all factors and their interactions exhibited a significant effect on COD reduction and color removal when applying the extracted aluminum in a standard coagulation process. The results were also compared to aluminum sulfate. Furthermore, NaOH was found to be a better extractant of aluminum in red earth than KCl. Therefore, the best extracting conditions for both extractants were as follows: 2 M NaOH and in a 1:5 (soil/volume of extractant) ratio; 1 M KCl and 1:5 ratio. In treating synthetic dye wastewater, the extracted coagulant showed comparable treatment efficiency to the commercial coagulant. The extracted coagulant was able to reduce the COD of the dispersed dye by 85% and to remove 99% of the color of the dispersed dye, whereas the commercial coagulant reduced 90% of the COD and removed 99% of the color of the dispersed dye. Additionally, the extracted coagulant was able to reduce the COD of the reactive dye by 73% and to remove 99% of the color of the reactive dye. However, the commercial coagulant managed to reduce the COD of the reactive dye by 94% and to remove 96% of the color for the reactive dye.
Oil palm fibre was used to prepare activated carbon using physiochemical activation method which consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) gasification. The effects of three preparation variables: the activation temperature, activation time and chemical impregnation (KOH:char) ratio on methylene blue (MB) uptake from aqueous solutions and activated carbon yield were investigated. Based on the central composite design (CCD), a quadratic model and a two factor interaction (2FI) model were respectively developed to correlate the preparation variables to the MB uptake and carbon yield. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the significant factors on each experimental design response were identified. The optimum activated carbon prepared from oil palm fibre was obtained by using activation temperature of 862 degrees C, activation time of 1h and chemical impregnation ratio of 3.1. The optimum activated carbon showed MB uptake of 203.83 mg/g and activated carbon yield of 16.50%. The equilibrium data for adsorption of MB on the optimum activated carbon were well represented by the Langmuir isotherm, giving maximum monolayer adsorption capacity as high as 400mg/g at 30 degrees C.
Wastewaters from textile industries may contain a variety of dyes that have to be removed before their discharge into waterways. Rice hull, an agricultural by-product, was modified using ethylenediamine to introduce active sites on its surface to enable it to function as a sorbent for both basic and reactive dyes. The sorption characteristics of Basic Blue 3 (BB3) and Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by ethylenediamine modified rice hull (MRH) were studied under various experimental conditions. Sorption was pH and concentration dependent. Simultaneous removal of BB3 and RO16 occurred at pH greater than 4. The kinetics of dye sorption fitted a pseudo-second order rate expression. Increase in agitation rate had no effect on the sorption of BB3 but increased uptake of RO16 on MRH. Decreasing particle size increased the uptake of dyes in binary dye solutions. Equilibrium data could be fitted into both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Maximum sorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir model are 14.68 and 60.24 mg/g for BB3 and RO16, respectively in binary dye solutions. This corresponds to an enhancement of 4.5 and 2.4 fold, respectively, compared to single dye solutions. MRH therefore has the potential of being used as an efficient sorbent for the removal of both dyes in textile wastewaters.
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) serve as low-costing alternatives to silicon solar cells because of their low material and fabrication costs. Usually, they utilize Pt as the counter electrode (CE) to catalyze the iodine redox couple and to complete the electric circuit. Given that Pt is a rare and expensive metal, various carbon materials have been intensively investigated because of their low costs, high surface areas, excellent electrochemical stabilities, reasonable electrochemical activities, and high corrosion resistances. In this feature article, we provide an overview of recent studies on the electrochemical properties and photovoltaic performances of carbon-based CEs (e.g., activated carbon, nanosized carbon, carbon black, graphene, graphite, carbon nanotubes, and composite carbon). We focus on scientific challenges associated with each material and highlight recent advances achieved in overcoming these obstacles. Finally, we discuss possible future directions for this field of research aimed at obtaining highly efficient DSSCs.
In many industrial areas such as in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, printing, and textile, the use of synthetic dyes has been integral with products such as azo dye, anthrax, and dyestuffs. As such, these industries produce a lot of waste by-products that could contaminate the environment. Bioremediation, therefore, has become an important emerging technology due to its cost-sustainable, effective, natural approach to cleaning up contaminated groundwater and soil via the use of microorganisms. The use of microorganisms in bioremediation requires the optimisation of parameters used in cultivating the organism. Thus the aim of the work was to assess the degradation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye on soil using Plackett-Burman design by the basidiomycete, M. cladophyllus UMAS MS8. Biodegradation analyses were carried out on a soil spiked with RBBR and supplemented with rice husk as the fungus growth enhancer. A two-level Plackett-Burman design was used to screen the medium components for the effects on the decolourization of RBBR. For the analysis, eleven variables were selected and from these four parameters, dye concentration, yeast extract concentration, inoculum size, and incubation time, were found to be most effective to degrade RBBR with up to 91% RBBR removal in soil after 15 days.
Trichoderma asperellum (Ta) was first cultured in synthetic medium (Potato Dextrose Broth, PDB) of various concentrations (100, 75, 50, 25%). The biomass was harvested and inoculated into dye solutions (crystal violet, CV; methyl violet, MV; malachite green, MG; and cotton blue, CB). Reduced concentrations (20, 50, 75%) affected growth rate but their decolourization efficacies remained unaffected. This was attributed to similar numbers and types of functional groups (hydroxyl, amine, ester-lipid, alkane groups) found on the surface of fungal biomass, as revealed by the Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Their production of NADH-reductase for degradation, and their biosorption activities were also unaffected. In general, Ta cultured in reduced concentrations (20, 50, 75%) retained the ability to perform biosorption and biodegradation, similar to cultures from control (100% PDB). This suggested that reduced nutrient levels (as a cost-feasible strategy) could be used to cultivate biomass of Ta for dye removal activities.
This study investigates the effects of stirring duration on the synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) using an improved Hummers' method. Various samples are examined under different stirring durations (20, 40, 60, 72, and 80 h). The synthesized GO samples are evaluated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy. The GO sample with 72 h stirring duration (GO72) has the highest d-spacing in the XRD results, highest atomic percentage of oxygen in EDX (49.57%), highest intensity of oxygen functional group in FTIR spectra, and highest intensity ratio in Raman analysis (ID/IG = 0.756). Results show that GO72 with continuous stirring has the highest degree of oxidation among other samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis shows that GO72-titanium dioxide (TiO2) exhibits smaller charge transfer resistance and higher electron lifetime compared with the TiO2-based photoanode. The GO72 sample incorporating TiO2 nanocomposites achieves 6.25% photoconversion efficiency, indicating an increase of more than twice than that of the mesoporous TiO2 sample. This condition is fully attributed to the efficient absorption rate of nanocomposites and the reduction of the recombination rate of TiO2 by GO in dye-sensitized solar cells.
Phosphorylated chitosan (P-CS) was successfully synthesized using a facile experimental setup of hydrothermal method that was applied to the adsorption of anionic Acid Red 88 (AR88) from aqueous media. The adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic model. In contrast, the adsorption isotherm conformed to the Langmuir model, with the maximum adsorption capacity (qm = 230 mg g-1) at 303 K. Both external and intraparticle diffusion strongly influenced the rate of adsorption. The insights from this study reveal that P-CS could be easily prepared and regenerated for reusability applications. The adsorption mechanism and intermolecular interaction between P-CS and AR 88 were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and calculations via Density Functional Theory (DFT). The key modes of adsorption for the P-CS/AR 88 system are driven by electrostatic attractions, H-bonding, and n-π interactions. The findings herein reveal that P-CS is a promising adsorbent for the removal of anionic dyes such as AR88 or similar pollutants from water.