Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 73 in total

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  1. Karobari MI, Noorani TY, Halim MS, Ahmed HMA
    Aust Endod J, 2021 Aug;47(2):202-216.
    PMID: 33159714 DOI: 10.1111/aej.12454
    This cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) study aimed to evaluate the root canal morphology of permanent anteriors in Malaysian population using two classification systems (Vertucci 1984 and Ahmed et al 2017). CBCT images of 856 patients with 10,080 anterior teeth were analysed. Results showed that, except for six mandibular canines, all anterior teeth were single-rooted. According to Ahmed et al's system and Vertucci's classification, code 1 MaxA1 and type I were the most common types except in mandibular laterals where 1 ManA1-2-1 and type III were the most common, respectively. The prevalence of canal variations in mandibular incisors was higher in males and the 20-30 age group than in females and other age groups (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography*
  2. Tan WY, Ng JZL, Ajit Bapat R, Vijaykumar Chaubal T, Kishor Kanneppedy S
    J Prosthet Dent, 2021 May;125(5):766.e1-766.e8.
    PMID: 33752904 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2021.02.018
    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Lingual plate perforation can be life-threatening when vital structures are damaged during implant placement. Knowledge of the anatomy of lingual concavities is imperative for safe implant surgery.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this clinical study was to determine the prevalence of type of posterior mandibular ridge morphology in a Malaysian population and to evaluate the buccolingual width of the alveolar ridge (Wb and Wc); alveolar ridge height (Vcb); and concavity angle, length, and depth for both left and right first and second molars in different age groups and sexes by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bilateral posterior mandibular lingual concavities at the first and second molars were retrospectively studied in cross-sectional views of 150 CBCT scans (n=600 sites evaluated). The sample size was calculated at a power of 80%, confidence interval of 95%, and margin of error of .05. The buccolingual width from the base and crest of the ridge and the ridge height were measured to determine the type of ridge. For the U-shaped ridge, the concavity angle, length, and depth were assessed. The independent t test was used to compare mean values of CBCT measurements between sexes and tooth type, while the ANOVA and Pearson chi-squared test were used to determine the correlations with age groups and types of ridge morphology, respectively. To compare the left and right readings for first and second molars in the same patient, the paired t test was performed (α=.05 for all tests).

    RESULTS: The Pearson correlation showed a strong agreement between the 2 examiners with an interobserver reliability of 87.3%. Significant difference was noted in all dimensional measurements when comparing right and left first and second molars (P

    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography*
  3. Gupta K, Singh S, Singh S
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2019 Aug 01;20(8):907-914.
    PMID: 31797846
    AIM: Assessing the accuracy of surgical guides generated with the help of a simple chair side ridge mapping technique by comparing the planned implant position with the achieved implant position on post-op computerized tomography scans.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 20 implant sites in patients were selected. Ridge mapping was done through a vacuum press template at three buccal (B1, B2, B3), three lingual (L1, L2, L3), and one crestal (C) points for each implant site. Readings were transferred onto the cast, and surgical guides were fabricated for implant placement. Postoperative cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) was done to assess planned and achieved implant position. Comparison was done between soft tissue depths and implant distance from the crest of alveolar bone determined by the ridge mapping technique with measurements done on CBCT. The points used for ridge mapping were used as the reference for measurements. The data were analyzed using paired t test. p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

    RESULTS: On comparing the mean values of soft tissue depths from the ridge mapping and CBCT data, insignificant differences were found at B1, B2, L1, L2, L3, and C, but significant differences were found at B3. On comparing the implant distances from alveolar bone from both the data, insignificant differences were found at B, B2, B3, L1, L2, and L3 and significant difference was found at the crest in the mean values.

    CONCLUSION: Under the limitations of the above study, it can be concluded that a simple chairside procedure like ridge mapping can be used as an effective way for guided implant placement in sufficient available alveolar bone.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography*
  4. Yusof NAM, Noor E, Reduwan NH, Yusof MYPM
    Clin Oral Investig, 2021 Mar;25(3):923-932.
    PMID: 32535703 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-020-03380-8
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), periapical radiograph, and intrasurgical linear measurements in the assessment of molars with furcation defects.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This parallel, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) consisted of 22 periodontitis patients who had molar with advanced furcation involvement (FI). All patients followed the same inclusion criteria and were treated following the same protocol, except for radiographic evaluation (CBCT vs. periapical). This study proposed and evaluated five parameters that represent the extent and severity of furcation defects in molars teeth, including CEJ-BD (clinical attachment loss), BL-H (depth), BL-V (height), RT (root trunk), and FW (width).

    RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between CBCT and intrasurgical linear measurements for any clinical parameter (p > 0.05). However, there were statistically significant differences in BL-V measurements (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  5. Aws Hashim Ali Al-Kadhim, Azlan Jaafar, Mohd Nazrin Isa
    MyJurnal
    Nonsurgical retreatment involves removing mechanical barriers such as gutta-percha to achieve proper cleaning and disinfection. The complexity of the anatomy of molar tooth gives challenge in retreatment procedure. Thus, this study evaluates the amount of residual gutta-percha after retreatment with rotary files (Reciproc Blue®) from each maxillary first molar canal using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the time required to accomplish it. Nine freshly extracted maxillary molars were instrumented and obturated. Preoperative CBCT was taken, and retreatment was done using Reciproc Blue®. CBCT was taken post retreatment, and the residual volume percentage of gutta-percha from each canal was calculated. The total retreatment time was recorded, and the data were statistically analyzed. The result shows no statistically significant difference in the amount of residual filling material in mesiobuccal, distobuccal, and palatal canal for maxillary first molar and total time used for retreatment with Reciproc Blue® system.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  6. Ahmed HMA, Ibrahim N, Mohamad NS, Nambiar P, Muhammad RF, Yusoff M, et al.
    Int Endod J, 2021 Jul;54(7):1056-1082.
    PMID: 33527452 DOI: 10.1111/iej.13486
    Adequate knowledge and accurate characterization of root and canal anatomy is an essential prerequisite for successful root canal treatment and endodontic surgery. Over the years, an ever-increasing body of knowledge related to root and canal anatomy of the human dentition has accumulated. To correct deficiencies in existing systems, a new coding system for classifying root and canal morphology, accessory canals and anomalies has been introduced. In recent years, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) have been used extensively to study the details of root and canal anatomy in extracted teeth and within clinical settings. This review aims to discuss the application of the new coding system in studies using micro-CT and CBCT, provide a detailed guide for appropriate characterization of root and canal anatomy and to discuss several controversial issues that may appear as potential limitations for proper characterization of roots and canals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  7. Ahmed HMA, Rossi-Fedele G
    Eur Endod J, 2020 12;5(3):159-176.
    PMID: 33353923 DOI: 10.14744/eej.2020.88942
    OBJECTIVE: Consistent reporting of publications in a given topic is essential. This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate the reporting items in previous publications related to root canal anatomy in major Endodontic journals.

    METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive literature search was performed by 2 independent reviewers using a customized search strategy in major Endodontic journals through Scopus until November 2019. Studies investigating root and canal anatomy were included. The selected publications were divided into 7 categories according to the study design: micro-computed tomography (microCT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) experimental studies (extracted teeth), CBCT and 2D clinical studies, CBCT and 2D case reports in addition to others (i.e. staining and clearing method and root sectioning). The selected studies were evaluated according to three domains: 1) Criteria for study sample selection; 2) Criteria for methodological procedures and 3) Criteria for detection and evaluation.

    RESULTS: After the removal of duplicated and irrelevant papers, 137 articles were included. Results showed that microCT studies reported accurately the tooth type, number of teeth, classifications used, qualitative and/or quantitative analysis (if required) and the evaluation process. However, sample size calculation, calibration, and reproducibility were not reported in the majority of microCT studies. CBCT clinical studies presented information for the type of study, inclusion/exclusion criteria, number of patients, tooth type, and number of teeth. However, the majority did not report sample size calculation and calibration of examiners. Radiographic exposure descriptions and classifications used were not reported adequately in CBCT and 2D case reports. Sample size calculation, calibration and reproducibility were not reported in staining and clearing method.

    CONCLUSION: Despite accurate presentation of certain items, there is considerable inconsistent reporting of root and canal morphology regardless of the type of study and experimental procedure used. The PROUD checklist protocol presented in this systematic review aims to provide an accurate description of root canal anatomy in experimental, clinical, and case report publications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography*
  8. Haszelini Hassan, Hikmah Mohd Nor, Nur Athiah Shaberi, Nur Aqila Syaqina Zuber, Nur Hasnaa Hishamudin
    MyJurnal
    Adequate space is required in the interforaminal region for anterior mandibular
    surgery, where the anterior loop is located within this region. The aim of this study is to evaluate
    the prevalence of the anterior loop (AL) of the inferior alveolar nerve, and to measure its length
    and position in patients attending Kulliyyah of Dentistry using cone beam computed tomography
    (CBCT). (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  9. Ong TK, Harun N, Lim TW
    Eur Endod J, 2019;4(2):90-95.
    PMID: 32161894 DOI: 10.14744/eej.2019.13007
    In this case report, three teeth with complete or incomplete cemental tear in two patients were presented. Even though periapical radiograph could detect cemental tear in these three teeth, the cone-beam computed tomography scanning clearly revealed the pattern of the cemental tear, which was later confirmed by histopathological examination. Therefore, this case report shows the benefits of incorporating both cone-beam computed tomography and histopathological examination to diagnose cemental tear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  10. Ibrahim N, Parsa A, Hassan B, van der Stelt P, Rahmat RA, Ismail SM, et al.
    BMC Oral Health, 2021 05 08;21(1):249.
    PMID: 33964918 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-021-01595-z
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the trabecular bone microstructures of anterior and posterior edentulous regions of human mandible using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and micro computed tomography (µCT).

    METHODS: Twenty volumes of interests consisting of six anterior and fourteen posterior edentulous regions were obtained from human mandibular cadavers. A CBCT system with a resolution of 80 µm (3D Accuitomo 170, J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan) and a µCT system with a resolution of 35 µm (SkyScan 1173, Kontich, Belgium) were used to scan the mandibles. Three structural parameters namely, trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were analysed using CTAn software (v 1.11, SkyScan, Kontich, Belgium). For each system, the measurements obtained from anterior and posterior regions were tested using independent sample t-test. Subsequently, all measurements between systems were tested using paired t-test.

    RESULTS: In CBCT, all parameters of the anterior and posterior mandible showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). However, µCT showed a significant different of Tb.Th (p = 0.023) between anterior and posterior region. Regardless of regions, the measurements obtained using both imaging systems were significantly different (p ≤ 0.021) for Tb.Th and Tb.N.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrated that only the variation of Tb.Th between anterior and posterior edentulous region of mandible can be detected using µCT. In addition, CBCT is less feasible than µCT in assessing trabecular bone microstructures at both regions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  11. Al-Amery SM, Nambiar P, John J, Purmal K, Ngeow WC, Mohamed NH, et al.
    J Vet Dent, 2018 Jun;35(2):96-102.
    PMID: 29865987 DOI: 10.1177/0898756418776448
    This case report illustrates the teeth morphology of a chimpanzee and its anatomical variations. A well-preserved skull of a male Pan troglodytes troglodyte chimpanzee was scanned using a cone-beam computed tomography machine. Measurements included tooth and crown height, root length, root canal length and width (posterior teeth), and pulp cavity length (anterior teeth). Nonmetrical parameters included number of canals and foramina per root of every root. Interestingly, the mandibular central incisor was longer than the lateral incisor, and all the mandibular anterior teeth presented with a solitary flame-shaped or conical-calcified structure in their pulp cavity. The premolars are usually dual rooted except for the first maxillary premolar that displayed 3 roots. Other unusual discoveries were the presence of bilateral radicular dens invaginatus in the mandibular first premolars and the possibility of having 2 canals and 2 foramina in the roots of the posterior teeth. The presence of conical stone mineralizations at the pulp cavity and the presence of dens invaginatus were of particular interest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/veterinary*
  12. Cheng CS, Jong WL, Ung NM, Wong JHD
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry, 2017 Jul 01;175(3):357-362.
    PMID: 27940494 DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncw357
    This work evaluated and compared the absorbed doses to selected organs in the head and neck region from the three image guided radiotherapy systems: cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and kilovoltage (kV) planar imaging using the On-board Imager® (OBI) as well as the ExacTrac® X-ray system, all available on the Varian Novalis TX linear accelerator. The head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom was used to simulate patients' head within the imaging field. Nanodots optically stimulated luminescent dosemeters were positioned at selected sites to measure the absorbed doses. CBCT was found to be delivering the highest dose to internal organs while OBI-2D gave the highest doses to the eye lenses. The setting of half-rotation in CBCT effectively reduces the dose to the eye lenses. Daily high-quality CBCT verification was found to increase the secondary cancer risk by 0.79%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography*
  13. Saber SEDM, Ahmed MHM, Obeid M, Ahmed HMA
    Int Endod J, 2019 Mar;52(3):267-278.
    PMID: 30225932 DOI: 10.1111/iej.13016
    AIM: To investigate the number of roots and root canal configurations using two coding systems and the root canal diverging and merging levels in extracted maxillary premolars in an Egyptian subpopulation using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

    METHODOLOGY: A total of 700 maxillary premolars were examined using CBCT in an Egyptian subpopulation. The number of roots was identified, and root canal configurations were classified according to Vertucci's classification and a new system for classifying root and canal morphology. In addition, the position where roots bifurcated and the levels where canals merged or diverged were identified. Fisher's exact test and independent t-test were used for statistical analysis, and the level of significance was set at 0.05 (P = 0.05).

    RESULTS: More than half of maxillary first premolars were double-rooted, and the majority of maxillary second premolars were single-rooted (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography*
  14. Al-Jaf, Nagham, Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab, Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Hassan
    Compendium of Oral Science, 2015;2(1):14-20.
    MyJurnal
    Objectives: To assess interradicular spaces of maxilla and mandible in subjects with class I sagittal skeletal relationship as an aid for miniscrew placement. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 47 adult subjects with class I skeletal relationship. Interradicular spaces were obtained at the alveolar processes from first premolar to second molar at 2 different vertical levels (6 and 8mm) from the cementoenamel junction (C.E.J). Results: In the maxilla, the highest inter-radicular space existed between second premolar and first molar. In the mandible, the highest interradicular space existed between first and second molar. All mandibular measurements were higher than their respective maxillary measurement. Generally, availability of interradicular space increases apically in both arches, but the difference is not significant. In the maxilla, male subjects’ measurement were significantly higher at 8 mm level between second premolar and first molar and between first and second molar Conclusions: Interradicular spac-es in the maxillary and mandibular alveolar spaces are available for miniscrew placement. In both arches, a more apical location provides more interradicular space. However, careful planning is needed to avoid sinus perforation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  15. Kewalramani R, Murthy CS, Gupta R
    J Oral Biol Craniofac Res, 2019 08 31;9(4):347-351.
    PMID: 31528537 DOI: 10.1016/j.jobcr.2019.08.001
    Introduction: Elusive second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) in maxillary first molar are often missed during endodontic therapy and are a major cause of treatment failures. Its prevalence is known to vary among different populations and there is limited information on its prevalence in Indian population.

    Aim: This study investigated the prevalence and location of second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal in mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images in an Indian population.

    Materials and methods: CBCT images of 598 three rooted maxillary first molars were studied. In each CBCT image, the floor of pulp chamber was located and advanced by 2 mm to standardize the observation for MB2 canal. Its location was determined in relation to mesiobuccal (MB1) and palatal (P) canal.

    Statistical analysis: The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. The presence of MB2 canal was correlated with age, gender and tooth position using Chi square test.

    Results: The prevalence of MB2 canal in three rooted maxillary first molar was 61.9%. It was seen that the prevalence of MB2 was highest in 20-40years age group (67.4%) followed by > 40 years (57.5%) and lowest in <20 years (50.6%) and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.005). It is located mesiopalatally; 2.5 mm ± 0.6 mm palatally and 1.0 ± 0.4mmmesially to the MB1 canal or present directly on the line joining the MB1 and palatal canal.

    Conclusion: There is a high probability of finding MB2 canal in Indian patients. The access cavity must be modified from a triangular shape to rhomboid shape. Troughingmesiopaltally (about 2.5 mm palatally and 1 mm mesially) from MB1 to a depth of about 2 mm from the floor of pulp chamber may be necessary for locating MB2 canal.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  16. Yusof MYPM, Mah MC, Reduwan NH, Kretapirom K, Affendi NHK
    Saudi Dent J, 2020 Dec;32(8):396-402.
    PMID: 33304083 DOI: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2019.10.010
    Objective: Knowledge and evaluation of the blood supply within the maxillary sinus before sinus augmentation are vital to avoid surgical complications. The lateral maxilla is supplied by branches of the posterior superior alveolar artery and infraorbital artery forming intraosseous anastomoses (IA) within the bony lateral antral wall. This study was undertaken to (i) measure mean diameter of IA and its distance from the alveolar ridge within dentate and posteriorly edentulous subjects and, (ii) qualitatively display the relationship of IA throughout its course within the lateral maxillary sinus in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

    Method: Maxillary CBCT images of two-hundred-and-fifty-seven consecutive patients (163 men, 94 women, mean age 42 years) were analyzed. Samples were later divided into dentate (n = 142) and posteriorly edentulous (n = 115) jaws. Using both alveolar ridge and tooth location as reference points, the distance and diameter of IA were assessed.

    Result: The IA was seen in 63.7% of all sinuses with 68.2% in dentate and 62.4% in edentulous. Mean distance and diameter of IA across the posterior tooth locations were 17.9 ± 3.0 mm and 1.4 ± 0.5 mm (dentate) and 15.1 ± 3.0 mm and 1.0 ± 0.5 mm (posteriorly edentulous), respectively. In each sample, there were no significant differences in distance-alveolar ridge and no significant correlations in diameter-tooth location. A statistically significant Pearson coefficient correlation between diameter and distance in dentate state was observed (r = -0.6).

    Conclusion: This study reveals that dentate maxillary jaws present larger diameters as compared to posteriorly edentulous jaws, although the IA course remains the same. As these canal structures contain neurovascular bundles with diameters that may be large enough to cause clinically substantial complications, a thorough pre-surgical planning is therefore highly advisable.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  17. Lim JTS, Kang WJ, Ajit Bapat R, Kanneppady SK, Pandurangappa R
    J Maxillofac Oral Surg, 2019 Dec;18(4):596-603.
    PMID: 31624443 DOI: 10.1007/s12663-018-1168-2
    Objectives: The risk of damaging the mandibular incisive canal (MIC) during surgery in the anterior mandible should not be overlooked. Hence, preoperative radiographic assessment is essential to avoid complications. This study was aimed to estimate the length of the MIC in the interforaminal safe zone, to analyse its course in relation to the lingual and the buccal cortical plates of the mandible using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and to relate the above findings to age, gender, dental status and Malaysian races.

    Methods: Retrospective analysis of 100 CBCT scans (n = 200) was performed on both sides of the mandible. Cross-sectional and panoramic images were reconstructed. The length of the MIC and the horizontal distances between the MIC and the buccal and the lingual cortical plates were measured at the three different points (starting, mid-, end points). Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA test were used to analyse the variation in the length and course of the MIC in gender, age, dental status and Malaysian races.

    Results: The mean length of the MIC was 11.31 ± 2.65 mm, with the Malays having the longest MIC, followed by the Chinese and the Indians (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  18. Muhammad AMA, Ibrahim N, Ahmad R, Asif MK, Radzi Z, Zaini ZM, et al.
    BMC Oral Health, 2020 02 10;20(1):48.
    PMID: 32041589 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-020-1035-7
    BACKGROUND: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is a reliable radiographic modality to assess trabecular bone microarchitecture. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CBCT image reconstruction parameters, namely, the threshold value and reconstruction voxel size, on trabecular bone microstructure assessment.

    METHODS: Five sectioned maxilla of adult Dorper male sheep were scanned using a CBCT system with a resolution of 76 μm3 (Kodak 9000). The CBCT images were reconstructed using different reconstruction parameters and analysed. The effect of reconstruction voxel size (76, 100 and 200 μm3) and threshold values (±15% from the global threshold value) on trabecular bone microstructure measurement was assessed using image analysis software (CT analyser version 1.15).

    RESULTS: There was no significant difference in trabecular bone microstructure measurement between the reconstruction voxel sizes, but a significant difference (Tb.N = 0.03, Tb.Sp = 0.04, Tb.Th = 0.01, BV/TV = 0.00) was apparent when the global threshold value was decreased by 15%.

    CONCLUSIONS: Trabecular bone microstructure measurements are not compromised by changing the CBCT reconstruction voxel size. However, measurements can be affected when applying a threshold value of less than 15% of the recommended global value.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods*
  19. Sultan T, Cheah CW, Ibrahim NB, Asif MK, Vaithilingam RD
    J Dent, 2020 Oct;101:103455.
    PMID: 32828845 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2020.103455
    OBJECTIVES: This clinical study assessed and compared the linear and volumetric changes of extraction sockets grafted with a combination of Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) and Calcium Sulfate (CS) (PRF-CS), and extraction sockets grafted with a combination of PRF and xenograft (X) (PRF-X).

    METHODS: Five single maxillary premolar extraction sockets received PRF-CS grafts and five single maxillary premolar sockets received PRF-X grafts. Linear (horizontal and vertical) measurements were accomplished using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images and volumetric changes were assessed using MIMICS software. Soft tissue level changes were measured using Stonecast models. All measurements were recorded at baseline (before extraction) and at 5-months post-extraction.

    RESULTS: Significant reduction in vertical and horizontal dimensions were observed in both groups except for distal bone height (DBH = 0.44 ± 0.45 mm, p = 0.09) and palatal bone height (PBH = 0.39 ± 0.34 mm, p = 0.06) in PRF-X group. PRF-CS group demonstrated mean horizontal shrinkage of 1.27 ± 0.82 mm (p = 0.02), when compared with PRF-X group (1.40 ± 0.85 mm, p = 0.02). Vertical resorption for mesial bone height (MBH = 0.56 ± 0.25 mm, p = 0.008), buccal bone height (BBH = 1.62 ± 0.91 mm, p = 0.01) and palatal bone height (PBH = 1.39 ± 0.87 mm, p = 0.02) in PRF-CS group was more than resorption in PRF-X group (MBH = 0.28 ± 0.14 mm, p = 0.01, BBH = 0.63 ± 0.39 mm, p = 0.02 and PBH = 0.39 ± 0.34 mm, p = 0.06). Volumetric bone resorption was significant within both groups (PRF-CS = 168.33 ± 63.68 mm3, p = 0.004; PRF-X = 102.88 ± 32.93 mm3, p = 0.002), though not significant (p = 0.08) when compared between groups. In PRF-X group, the distal soft tissue level (DSH = 1.00 ± 0.50 mm, p = 0.03) demonstrated almost 2 times more reduction when compared with PRF-CS group (DSH = 1.00 ± 1.00 mm, 0.08). The reduction of the buccal soft tissue level was pronounced in PRF-CS group (BSH = 2.00 ± 2.00 mm, p = 0.06) when compared with PRF-X group (BSH = 1.00 ± 1.50 mm, p = 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: PRF-CS grafted sites showed no significant difference with PRF-X grafted sites in linear and volumetric dimensional changes and might show clinical benefits for socket augmentation. The study is officially registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Registration (NCT03851289).

    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
  20. Etajuri EA, Suliman E, Mahmood WAA, Ibrahim N, Buzayan M, Mohd NR
    Dent Med Probl, 2021 1 16;57(4):359-362.
    PMID: 33448161 DOI: 10.17219/dmp/123976
    BACKGROUND: There is very little literature available on the reliability of the rapid prototyping technology in the production of three-dimension (3D)-printed surgical guides for accurate implant placement.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the deviation of implant placement performed with a surgical guide fabricated by means of the rapid prototyping technique (the PolyJet™ technology).

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty sheep mandibles were used in the study. Pre-surgical cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were acquired for the mandibles by using the Kodak 9000 3D cone-beam system. Two implants with dimensions of 4 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length were virtually planned on the 3D models of each mandible by using the Mimics software, v. 16.0. Twenty surgical guides were designed and printed using the PolyJet technology. A total of 40 implants were placed using the surgical guides, 1 on each side of the mandible (2 implants per mandible). The post-surgical CBCT scans of the mandibles were performed and superimposed on the pre-surgical CBCT scans. The amount of deviation between the virtually planned placement and the actual implant placement was measured, and a descriptive analysis was done.

    RESULTS: The results showed that the mean deviation at the implant coronal position was 1.82 ±0.74 mm, the mean deviation at the implant apex was 1.54 ±0.88 mm, the mean depth deviation was 0.44 ±0.32 mm, and the mean angular deviation was 3.01 ±1.98°.

    CONCLUSIONS: The deviation of dental implant placement performed with a 3D-printed surgical guide (the PolyJet technology) is within the acceptable 2-millimeter limit reported in the literature.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
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