Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 73 in total

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  1. Sheau-Ting L, Mohammed AH, Weng-Wai C
    J Environ Manage, 2013 Dec 15;131:196-205.
    PMID: 24178312 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.10.001
    This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  2. Motamedi S, Hashim R, Zakaria R, Song KI, Sofawi B
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:953830.
    PMID: 25097894 DOI: 10.1155/2014/953830
    Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  3. Lynam AJ
    Integr Zool, 2010 Dec;5(4):324-334.
    PMID: 21392350 DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-4877.2010.00220.x
    A century ago, tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) were so common in parts of Southeast Asia as to be considered pests, and governments sponsored their killing. Habitat loss and fragmentation, market-driven poaching and loss of prey have since led to the disappearance of Indochinese tigers from most their former range. Despite 15 years of dedicated tiger conservation funding, national estimates of Indochinese tiger subpopulations can at best only be roughly approximated. The future for the subspecies appears grim unless very focused efforts can be applied to stabilize and recover subpopulations. On a regional scale, the 2 proposed subspecies Panthera tigris corbetti and P. tigris jacksoni are effectively managed as separate conservation units. Evaluating where to place conservation efforts should consider the vulnerability (likelihood of extinction) and irreplaceability (likelihood that an area contributes uniquely to regional conservation) of tiger subpopulations. Only 1 site in Thailand supporting <200 individuals (Huai Kha Khaeng-Thung Yai) is considered low vulnerability, and is irreplaceable. Five sites in Lao, Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia are medium vulnerability and irreplaceable. Priorities at these 6 sites are to double tiger numbers within 10 years through protection and monitoring. Seven sites in Lao, Thailand and Myanmar are high vulnerability and irreplaceable, and might be recovered if government commitment to tigers, staff capacity and legal frameworks for tiger protection are established. Tigers are extremely vulnerable or even extinct in Cambodia's Eastern Plains and the site is irreplaceable for tigers because it represents the only large (>10,000 km(2) ) block of dry forest habitat available in the region. A reintroduction program is the only option to recover tigers there.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  4. Fulazzaky MA, Abdul Gany AH
    J Environ Manage, 2009 Jun;90(8):2387-92.
    PMID: 19346056 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.02.017
    Most developing countries, particularly Indonesia, will be facing problems of sludge pressure in the next decades due to the increase in practices of legal and illegal logging as well as land and water demands. Consequently, they will also be facing the challenges of soil erosion and sludge management due to increased quantities of sludge coming from several potential sources, such as activated sludge, chemical sludge, fecal sludge and solid wastes as well as erosion and sedimentation. Although the government of Indonesia has enacted laws and policies to speed up the implementation of the programs and activities related to sludge management, the detailed practice concepts in implementing the programs need to be identified. Discussion of role-sharing amongst the related government agencies, private institutions and other stakeholders is urgent for clarifying the participation of each party in the next years to come. This paper proposes a management approach and level of responsibilities in sludge management. Implementation of zero DeltaQ, zero DeltaS and zero DeltaP policies needs to be adopted by local and central governments. Application of sludge on the agricultural lands and other uses will promote sustainable development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  5. Agamuthu P
    Waste Manag Res, 2008 Dec;26(6):491-2.
    PMID: 19039063 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X08100096
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  6. Purcell SW, Uthicke S, Byrne M, Eriksson H
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2015 Nov 17;112(46):E6263.
    PMID: 26515101 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1515074112
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  7. Wearn OR, Carbone C, Rowcliffe JM, Bernard H, Ewers RM
    Ecol Appl, 2016 Jul;26(5):1409-1420.
    PMID: 27755763 DOI: 10.1890/15-1363
    Diversity responses to land-use change are poorly understood at local scales, hindering our ability to make forecasts and management recommendations at scales which are of practical relevance. A key barrier in this has been the underappreciation of grain-dependent diversity responses and the role that β-diversity (variation in community composition across space) plays in this. Decisions about the most effective spatial arrangement of conservation set-aside, for example high conservation value areas, have also neglected β-diversity, despite its role in determining the complementarity of sites. We examined local-scale mammalian species richness and β-diversity across old-growth forest, logged forest, and oil palm plantations in Borneo, using intensive camera- and live-trapping. For the first time, we were able to investigate diversity responses, as well as β-diversity, at multiple spatial grains, and across the whole terrestrial mammal community (large and small mammals); β-diversity was quantified by comparing observed β-diversity with that obtained under a null model, in order to control for sampling effects, and we refer to this as the β-diversity signal. Community responses to land use were grain dependent, with large mammals showing reduced richness in logged forest compared to old-growth forest at the grain of individual sampling points, but no change at the overall land-use level. Responses varied with species group, however, with small mammals increasing in richness at all grains in logged forest compared to old-growth forest. Both species groups were significantly depauperate in oil palm. Large mammal communities in old-growth forest became more heterogeneous at coarser spatial grains and small mammal communities became more homogeneous, while this pattern was reversed in logged forest. Both groups, however, showed a significant β-diversity signal at the finest grain in logged forest, likely due to logging-induced environmental heterogeneity. The β-diversity signal in oil palm was weak, but heterogeneity at the coarsest spatial grain was still evident, likely due to variation in landscape forest cover. Our findings suggest that the most effective spatial arrangement of set-aside will involve trade-offs between conserving large and small mammals. Greater consideration in the conservation and management of tropical landscapes needs to be given to β-diversity at a range of spatial grains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  8. Linkie M, Guillera-Arroita G, Smith J, Rayan DM
    Integr Zool, 2010 Dec;5(4):342-350.
    PMID: 21392352 DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-4877.2010.00215.x
    With only 5% of the world's wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) remaining since the last century, conservationists urgently need to know whether or not the management strategies currently being employed are effectively protecting these tigers. This knowledge is contingent on the ability to reliably monitor tiger populations, or subsets, over space and time. In the this paper, we focus on the 2 seminal methodologies (camera trap and occupancy surveys) that have enabled the monitoring of tiger populations with greater confidence. Specifically, we: (i) describe their statistical theory and application in the field; (ii) discuss issues associated with their survey designs and state variable modeling; and, (iii) discuss their future directions. These methods have had an unprecedented influence on increasing statistical rigor within tiger surveys and, also, surveys of other carnivore species. Nevertheless, only 2 published camera trap studies have gone beyond single baseline assessments and actually monitored population trends. For low density tiger populations (e.g. <1 adult tiger/100 km(2)) obtaining sufficient precision for state variable estimates from camera trapping remains a challenge because of insufficient detection probabilities and/or sample sizes. Occupancy surveys have overcome this problem by redefining the sampling unit (e.g. grid cells and not individual tigers). Current research is focusing on developing spatially explicit capture-mark-recapture models and estimating abundance indices from landscape-scale occupancy surveys, as well as the use of genetic information for identifying and monitoring tigers. The widespread application of these monitoring methods in the field now enables complementary studies on the impact of the different threats to tiger populations and their response to varying management intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  9. Sloan S, Campbell MJ, Alamgir M, Lechner AM, Engert J, Laurance WF
    PLoS One, 2019;14(9):e0221947.
    PMID: 31532810 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221947
    The Heart of Borneo initiative has promoted the integration of protected areas and sustainably-managed forests across Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei. Recently, however, member states of the Heart of Borneo have begun pursuing ambitious unilateral infrastructure-development schemes to accelerate economic growth, jeopardizing the underlying goal of trans-boundary integrated conservation. Focusing on Sabah, Malaysia, we highlight conflicts between its Pan-Borneo Highway scheme and the regional integration of protected areas, unprotected intact forests, and conservation-priority forests. Road developments in southern Sabah in particular would drastically reduce protected-area integration across the northern Heart of Borneo region. Such developments would separate two major clusters of protected areas that account for one-quarter of all protected areas within the Heart of Borneo complex. Sabah has proposed forest corridors and highway underpasses as means of retaining ecological connectivity in this context. Connectivity modelling identified numerous overlooked areas for connectivity rehabilitation among intact forest patches following planned road development. While such 'linear-conservation planning' might theoretically retain up to 85% of intact-forest connectivity and integrate half of the conservation-priority forests across Sabah, in reality it is very unlikely to achieve meaningful ecological integration. Moreover, such measure would be exceedingly costly if properly implemented-apparently beyond the operating budget of relevant Malaysian authorities. Unless critical road segments are cancelled, planned infrastructure will fragment important conservation landscapes with little recourse for mitigation. This likelihood reinforces earlier calls for the legal recognition of the Heart of Borneo region for conservation planning as well as for enhanced tri-lateral coordination of both conservation and development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  10. Bashir S, Khwaja MG, Mahmood A
    PLoS One, 2021;16(2):e0246410.
    PMID: 33600458 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246410
    To date, there is no such scale that may precisely measure mores of the customer base for the ecotourism industry. Therefore, a thematic analysis of literature has been conducted by examining various good quality research works on intrinsic characteristics eliciting pro-environmental actions. Based upon the thematic analysis, a new scale of measure has been proposed with the help of 17 scholars and 15 practitioners hailing from different countries by mutually agreed intended meanings and breadth of the theoretical concepts. The new scale has 4 dimensions comprising a pool of 32 items, which has been empirically validated through the data collected from 268 Malaysian tourists. The dimensions are: sense of obligation to care for the natural environment, sense of obligation to practice eco-friendly activities, sense of obligation to purchase eco-friendly products, and sense of obligation to support eco-friendly inventions. The theoretical and managerial implications together with research limitations have been discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  11. Masoumik SM, Abdul-Rashid SH, Olugu EU
    PLoS One, 2015;10(11):e0143115.
    PMID: 26618353 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143115
    To maintain a competitive position, companies are increasingly required to integrate their proactive environmental strategies into their business strategies. The shift from reactive and compliance-based to proactive and strategic environmental management has driven companies to consider the strategic factors while identifying the areas in which they should focus their green initiatives. In previous studies little attention was given to providing the managers with a basis from which they could strategically prioritise these green initiatives across their companies' supply chains. Considering this lacuna in the literature, we present a decision-making method for prioritising green supply chain initiatives aligned with the preferred green strategies alternatives for the manufacturing companies. To develop this method, the study considered a position between determinism and the voluntarism orientation of environmental management involving both external pressures and internal competitive drivers and key resources as decision factors. This decision-making method was developed using the analytic network process (ANP) technique. The elements of the decision model were derived from the literature. The causal relationships among the multiple decision variables were validated based on the results of structural equation modelling (SEM) using a dataset collected from a survey of the ISO 14001-certified manufacturers in Malaysia. A portion of the relative weights required for computation in ANP was also calculated using the SEM results. A case study is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  12. Ghobadi Y, Pradhan B, Shafri HZ, bin Ahmad N, Kabiri K
    Environ Monit Assess, 2015 Jan;187(1):4156.
    PMID: 25421858 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-4156-0
    Wetlands are regarded as one of the most important ecosystems on Earth due to various ecosystem services provided by them such as habitats for biodiversity, water purification, sequestration, and flood attenuation. The Al Hawizeh wetland in the Iran-Iraq border was selected as a study area to evaluate the changes. Maximum likelihood classification was used on the remote sensing data acquired during the period of 1985 to 2013. In this paper, five types of land use/land cover (LULC) were identified and mapped and accuracy assessment was performed. The overall accuracy and kappa coefficient for years 1985, 1998, 2002, and 2013 were 93% and 0.9, 92% and 0.89, 91% and 0.9, and 92% and 0.9, respectively. The classified images were examined with post-classification comparison (PCC) algorithm, and the LULC alterations were assessed. The results of the PCC analysis revealed that there is a drastic change in the area and size of the studied region during the period of investigation. The wetland lost ~73% of its surface area from 1985 to 2002. Meanwhile, post-2002, the wetland underwent a restoration, as a result of which, the area increased slightly and experienced an ~29% growth. Moreover, a large change was noticed at the same period in the wetland that altered ~62% into bare soil in 2002. The areal coverage of wetland of 3386 km(2) in 1985 was reduced to 925 km(2) by 2002 and restored to 1906 km(2) by the year 2013. Human activities particularly engineering projects were identified as the main reason behind the wetland degradation and LULC alterations. And, lastly, in this study, some mitigation measures and recommendations regarding the reclamation of the wetland are discussed. Based on these mitigate measures, the discharge to the wetland must be kept according to the water requirement of the wetland. Moreover, some anthropogenic activities have to be stopped in and around the wetland to protect the ecology of the wetland.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods
  13. Rodrigues AS, Brooks TM, Butchart SH, Chanson J, Cox N, Hoffmann M, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(11):e113934.
    PMID: 25426636 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113934
    The world's governments have committed to preventing the extinction of threatened species and improving their conservation status by 2020. However, biodiversity is not evenly distributed across space, and neither are the drivers of its decline, and so different regions face very different challenges. Here, we quantify the contribution of regions and countries towards recent global trends in vertebrate conservation status (as measured by the Red List Index), to guide action towards the 2020 target. We found that>50% of the global deterioration in the conservation status of birds, mammals and amphibians is concentrated in <1% of the surface area, 39/1098 ecoregions (4%) and eight/195 countries (4%) - Australia, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, and the United States. These countries hold a third of global diversity in these vertebrate groups, partially explaining why they concentrate most of the losses. Yet, other megadiverse countries - most notably Brazil (responsible for 10% of species but just 1% of deterioration), plus India and Madagascar - performed better in conserving their share of global vertebrate diversity. Very few countries, mostly island nations (e.g. Cook Islands, Fiji, Mauritius, Seychelles, and Tonga), have achieved net improvements. Per capita wealth does not explain these patterns, with two of the richest countries - United States and Australia - fairing conspicuously poorly. Different countries were affected by different combinations of threats. Reducing global rates of biodiversity loss will require investment in the regions and countries with the highest responsibility for the world's biodiversity, focusing on conserving those species and areas most in peril and on reducing the drivers with the highest impacts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  14. Brodie JF, Giordano AJ, Dickson B, Hebblewhite M, Bernard H, Mohd-Azlan J, et al.
    Conserv Biol, 2015 Feb;29(1):122-32.
    PMID: 25065425 DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12337
    Habitat corridors are important tools for maintaining connectivity in increasingly fragmented landscapes, but generally they have been considered in single-species approaches. Corridors intended to facilitate the movement of multiple species could increase persistence of entire communities, but at the likely cost of being less efficient for any given species than a corridor intended specifically for that species. There have been few tests of the trade-offs between single- and multispecies corridor approaches. We assessed single-species and multispecies habitat corridors for 5 threatened mammal species in tropical forests of Borneo. We generated maps of the cost of movement across the landscape for each species based on the species' local abundance as estimated through hierarchical modeling of camera-trap data with biophysical and anthropogenic covariates. Elevation influenced local abundance of banded civets (Hemigalus derbyanus) and sun bears (Helarctos malayanus). Increased road density was associated with lower local abundance of Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) and higher local abundance of sambar deer (Rusa unicolor). Pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) local abundance was lower in recently logged areas. An all-species-combined connectivity scenario with least-cost paths and 1 km buffers generated total movement costs that were 27% and 23% higher for banded civets and clouded leopards, respectively, than the connectivity scenarios for those species individually. A carnivore multispecies connectivity scenario, however, increased movement cost by 2% for banded civets and clouded leopards. Likewise, an herbivore multispecies scenario provided more effective connectivity than the all-species-combined scenario for sambar and macaques. We suggest that multispecies habitat connectivity plans be tailored to groups of ecologically similar, disturbance-sensitive species to maximize their effectiveness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  15. Khoshnevisan B, Rajaeifar MA, Clark S, Shamahirband S, Anuar NB, Mohd Shuib NL, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2014 May 15;481:242-51.
    PMID: 24602908 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.02.052
    In this study the environmental impact of consolidated rice farms (CF) - farms which have been integrated to increase the mechanization index - and traditional farms (TF) - small farms with lower mechanization index - in Guilan Province, Iran, were evaluated and compared using Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Foreground data were collected from farmers using face-to-face questionnaires and background information about production process and inventory data was taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database. The system boundary was confined to within the farm gate (cradle to farm gate) and two functional units (land and mass based) were chosen. The study also included a comparison of the input-output energy flows of the farms. The results revealed that the average amount of energy consumed by the CFs was 57 GJ compared to 74.2 GJ for the TFs. The energy ratios for CFs and TFs were 1.6 and 0.9, respectively. The LCA results indicated that CFs produced fewer environmental burdens per ton of produced rice. When compared according to the land-based FU the same results were obtained. This indicates that the differences between the two types of farms were not caused by a difference in their production level, but rather by improved management on the CFs. The analysis also showed that electricity accounted for the greatest share of the impact for both types of farms, followed by P-based and N-based chemical fertilizers. These findings suggest that the CFs had superior overall environmental performance compared to the TFs in the study area. The performance metrics of the model based on ANFIS show that it can be used to predict the environmental burdens of rice production with high accuracy and minimal error.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  16. Koohpeyma HR, Vakili AH, Moayedi H, Panjsetooni A, Nazir R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:587462.
    PMID: 24459437 DOI: 10.1155/2013/587462
    Internal erosion is known as the most important cause of dam failure after overtopping. It is important to improve the erosion resistance of the erodible soil by selecting an effective technique along with the reasonable costs. To prevent internal erosion of embankment dams the use of chemical stabilizers that reduce the soil erodibility potential is highly recommended. In the present study, a lignin-based chemical, known as lignosulfonate, is used to improve the erodibility of clayey sand specimen. The clayey sand was tested in various hydraulic heads in terms of internal erosion in its natural state as well as when it is mixed with the different percentages of lignosulfonate. The results show that erodibility of collected clayey sand is very high and is dramatically reduced by adding lignosulfonate. Adding 3% of lignosulfonate to clayey sand can reduce the coefficient of soil erosion from 0.01020 to 0.000017. It is also found that the qualitative erodibility of stabilized soil with 3% lignosulfonate is altered from the group of extremely rapid to the group of moderately slow.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods
  17. Lind CE, Ponzoni RW, Nguyen NH, Khaw HL
    Reprod. Domest. Anim., 2012 Aug;47 Suppl 4:255-63.
    PMID: 22827379 DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2012.02084.x
    To satisfy increasing demands for fish as food, progress must occur towards greater aquaculture productivity whilst retaining the wild and farmed genetic resources that underpin global fish production. We review the main selection methods that have been developed for genetic improvement in aquaculture, and discuss their virtues and shortcomings. Examples of the application of mass, cohort, within family, and combined between-family and within-family selection are given. In addition, we review the manner in which fish genetic resources can be lost at the intra-specific, species and ecosystem levels and discuss options to best prevent this. We illustrate that fundamental principles of genetic management are common in the implementation of both selective breeding and conservation programmes, and should be emphasized in capacity development efforts. We highlight the value of applied genetics approaches for increasing aquaculture productivity and the conservation of fish genetic resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  18. Ewers RM, Didham RK, Fahrig L, Ferraz G, Hector A, Holt RD, et al.
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2011 Nov 27;366(1582):3292-302.
    PMID: 22006969 DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0049
    Opportunities to conduct large-scale field experiments are rare, but provide a unique opportunity to reveal the complex processes that operate within natural ecosystems. Here, we review the design of existing, large-scale forest fragmentation experiments. Based on this review, we develop a design for the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) Project, a new forest fragmentation experiment to be located in the lowland tropical forests of Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). The SAFE Project represents an advance on existing experiments in that it: (i) allows discrimination of the effects of landscape-level forest cover from patch-level processes; (ii) is designed to facilitate the unification of a wide range of data types on ecological patterns and processes that operate over a wide range of spatial scales; (iii) has greater replication than existing experiments; (iv) incorporates an experimental manipulation of riparian corridors; and (v) embeds the experimentally fragmented landscape within a wider gradient of land-use intensity than do existing projects. The SAFE Project represents an opportunity for ecologists across disciplines to participate in a large initiative designed to generate a broad understanding of the ecological impacts of tropical forest modification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  19. Evans L, Cherrett N, Pemsl D
    J Environ Manage, 2011 Aug;92(8):1938-49.
    PMID: 21531068 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.03.010
    Co-management is now established as a mainstream approach to small-scale fisheries management across the developing world. A comprehensive review of 204 potential cases reveals a lack of impact assessments of fisheries co-management. This study reports on a meta-analysis of the impact of fisheries co-management in developing countries in 90 sites across 29 case-studies. The top five most frequently measured process indicators are participation, influence, rule compliance, control over resources, and conflict. The top five most frequently measured outcome indicators are access to resources, resource well-being, fishery yield, household well-being, and household income. To deal with the diversity of the 52 indicators measured and the different ways these data are collected and analysed, we apply a coding system to capture change over time. The results of the meta-analysis suggest that, overall fisheries co-management delivers benefits to end-users through improvements in key process and outcome indicators. However, the dataset as a whole is constituted primarily of data from the Philippines. When we exclude this body of work, few generalisations can be made about the impact of fisheries co-management. The lack of comparative data suitable for impact assessment and the difficulties in comparing data and generalising across countries and regions reiterates calls in other fields for more systematic approaches to understanding and evaluating governance frameworks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
  20. Seng DM, Putuhena FJ, Said S, Ling LP
    J Water Health, 2009 Mar;7(1):169-84.
    PMID: 18957785 DOI: 10.2166/wh.2009.103
    A city consumes a large amount of water. Urban planning and development are becoming more compelling due to the fact of growing competition for water, which has lead to an increasing and conflicting demand. As such, investments in water supply, sanitation and water resources management is a strong potential for a solid return. A pilot project of greywater ecological treatment has been established in Kuching city since 2003. Such a treatment facility opens up an opportunity of wastewater reclamation for reuse as secondary sources of water for non-consumptive purposes. This paper aims to explore the potential of the intended purposes in the newly developed ecological treatment project. By utilizing the Wallingford Software model, InfoWorks WS (Water Supply) is employed to carry out a hydraulic modeling of a hypothetical greywater recycling system as an integrated part of the Kuching urban water supply, where the greywater is treated, recycled and reused in the domestic environment. The modeling efforts have shown water savings of about 40% from the investigated system reinstating that the system presents an alternative water source worth exploring in an urban environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*
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