Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

  1. Wong CY
    Br J Fam Plann, 2000 Apr;26(2):117.
    PMID: 10896464
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents, Female*
    Med J Malaysia, 1963 Jun;17:244-52.
    PMID: 14060501
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents*
  3. Hew Wai Sin, Peng JY, Dato Ariffin Marzuki
    Med J Malaysia, 1973 Jun;27(4):299-305.
    PMID: 4270790
    PIP: To determine the acceptability, practicability, and popularity of Depo-Provera as an additional contraceptive method to be offered by the National Family Planning Board NFPB of Malaysia, 550 patients of Sungai Besar, Malaysia, who accepted the Depo-Provera injection method from the start of the injection program, February 23, 1968, until the cutoff date of December 31, 1969, were studied. At the cutoff date, 318 (58%) were still receiving regular injections at 3-month intervals. The remaining 232 women discontinued use of the injection. Of those who discontinued use, 176 (32%) were interviewed, while the other 56 women were lost to follow-up, due mainly to migration. Assuming that 1 injection would protect a woman from getting pregnant for a 3-month period, the retention rates at the end of 12 and 24 months were 63% and 41%. These continuation rates were fairly high and were as good as those for the oral pill, which is the main contraceptive method provided since the beginning of the operational service program of the NFPB in May 1967. Except for a small number of Indian women with a high rate of discontinuation there was not much difference in continuing the method between the Malays (60%) and the Chinese (56%). The younger age group of women seemed to have a higher proportion of discontinuation. The findings showed that amenorrhea (35%)most bothered the women who discontinued the injection method. Irregular bleeding (20%) and other medical side effects (11%) were the other main complaints that caused women to discontinue using the injection as a contraceptive method. It was concluded that Depo-Provera (150 mg) injected once every 3 months appears to be simple, acceptable, popular, and effective as a contraceptive method among women in a rural town in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents/administration & dosage*
  4. Ang Eng Suan, Arshat H
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1986 Jun;4(1):6-11.
    PMID: 12268570
    PIP: The initial results of a study conducted to develop guidelines for the clinical management of family planning acceptors with regard to return of fertility following contraceptive use, are presented. 193 parous women attending an urban family planning clinic were interviewed regarding their last pregnancy conceived after stopping a method of contraception. The average interval to pregnancy was 3.9, 2.8 and 1.8 months for ex-users of oral pills, intrauterine devices and conventional methods of contraception, respectively, with median delays to conception of 1.9, 1 and within the 1st month for the 3 categories. In comparison, 149 women who had not used any method at all took 7.3 months before becoming pregnant. Selected variables including age and parity, duration of use and problems encountered, and outcome of pregnancy are further analysed. Follow-up investigations and treatment are recommended 12 months after stopping oral pills and 6 months after removal of intrauterine device for those who have not yet conceived.
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents; Contraceptive Agents, Female*
  5. Netw Res Triangle Park N C, 1981 Apr;2(3):1-2.
    PMID: 12281266
    The International Fertility Research Program is carrying out several studies focused on breastfeeding's contraceptive protection. A longitudinal study is investigating the relationship between breastfeeding and the return of ovulation and fertility after childbirth. The impact of factors such as the early introduction of supplementary foods, resumption of menses, and sexual practices on the return of ovulation will be analyzed. The study, which will be conducted at 4 geographic sites, will include a total of 100 women who are breastfeeding and a control group of 40 nonlactating mothers. Its ultimate goal will be to determine the optimum time for breastfeeding women with different cultural needs to start using contraceptives. A second study will seek to determine whether progestogen-only oral contraceptives (OCs) have advantages for lactating women. Trials in India, Malaysia, Argentina, and Egypt will compare 1000 lactating women who use progestogen-only OCs with an equal number of women who use nonhormonal contraception in terms of contraceptive acceptance and side effects and infant weight gain. The third study will survey breastfeeding patterns in relation to changing child spacing trends in a sample of 4000 women from Lagos, Nigeria. Analyzed will be the proportions of women who are using a modern method of fertility control, the proportions protected from unwanted pregnancy by the traditional practices of prolonged breastfeeding and sexual abstinence, and determinants of recent changes in the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents; Contraceptive Agents, Female*
  6. Ismail MT
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1991 Jun;9(1):9-17.
    PMID: 12317444
    Health workers in Malaysia randomly assigned either a low-dose triphasic or a low-dose monophasic oral contraceptive (Triquilar and Marvelon, respectively) to 198 women to examine discontinuation rates and reasons for discontinuation. 15.3% of Triquilar women and 9.1% of Marvelon women forgot to take 1 pill at some time during the study while 6.1% and 3% forgot to take at least 3 consecutive pills. There were more complaints and/or complications among Triquilar women than among Marvelon women. The most serious complication was severe headaches (only 1 woman from each group). 2 women in the Marvelon group complained of either generalized itchiness or digestion impairment. Complaints of women in the Triquilar group included localized and generalized itchiness, weight gain, digestion impairment, dryness of vagina, and numbness of extremities. Women in the Triquilar group were more likely to have menstrual complaints than those in the Marvelon group (14.3% vs. 9.1%). The leading menstrual complaint in both groups was spotting (6.1% vs. 4%). No Marvelon women reported menorrhagia, scanty menses, or intermenstrual pelvic pain or discomfort while at least 1 woman did from the Triquilar group. The percentage of women with changes in complaints since admission were the same for both groups. Total discontinuation rates which included lost to follow ups were 46.9% and 40%, respectively. The most common reason for discontinuation for both groups was desired method change (11.2% Triquilar and 14.1% Marvelon). Method unrelated reasons (unable to return to clinic, moving/travel, and not interested in the study) were the next most common reason for discontinuation. 3 women conceived while taking Triquilar. These pregnancies were attributed to method failure, perhaps due to incomplete pituitary suppression. There were no accidental pregnancies in the Marvelon group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents; Contraceptive Agents, Female
  7. Roshidah I, Khalid H, Baharum Y
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1990 Dec;8(2):97-100.
    PMID: 12343152
    A cross-sectional study looking at the coagulation system was carried out involving 175 women attending the National Population and Family Development Board's Clinic at the Maternity Clinic, General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Study subjects comprise of 50 combined low-dose estrogen/progestrogen oral contraceptive (DC) pill users and 75 non-DC users, acting as controls. The subjects were on the pill for a period of one year or more. There were significant shortening of the prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PIT) in the DC group as compared to the control group. However, the activities of factors II, Vand VIII assayed were not significantly different between the two groups, suggesting that the changes in the PT and PIT were not significant clinically. The effect of long term usage of combined 10w..cJose DC pills does not seem to indicate changes in the coagulation profile of the women in our study.
    PIP: The effect of low dose combined oral contraceptives containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and either 150 mcg levonorgestrel or 150 mcg desogestrel on coagulation indices in Malaysian women was examined. 50 women who had been using the pills for 1 year or more, were compared to 75 non-users. All were attending the Maternity Clinic of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Pill users registered shorter prothrombin time, 11.5 vs. 11.1 seconds (p=0.016), and partial thromboplastin time, 40.1 vs 35.1 seconds (p=0.000). Since there were no significant differences in Factors II, V, VII, or VIII, the overall effects of low-dose pills on coagulation is probably not clinically significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents; Contraceptive Agents, Female
  8. Hamid A, Jaffar A
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1983 Jan;1(1):75-82.
    PMID: 12279893
    The efficacy of a recently marketed posttesticular male oral contraceptive, Contrasperm, was assessed in a clinical trial involving 32 Malaysian volunteers ages 21-39 years. Contrasperm is claimed to be a pure botanical extract free of toxic chemicals, steroids, and hormones. The drug is believed to cause cells surrounding the sperm in the seminiferous tubules to secrete carbon dioxide, producing a weakly acidic environment that greatly increases the sperms' metabolism and reduces the pH of semen from its normal level of 7.5 to 1.5. The manufacturer claims that this drop in pH decreases motility from 95% to 0%. Semen samples were collected by masturbation from subjects to provide baseline data. 3 days after the initial sperm analysis, subjects were given 1 capsule of Contrasperm containing 10 mcg of the active ingredient. Additional semen analyses were conducted 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours after ingestion. Sperm count and sperm motility were greatly reduced in most subjects 30 minutes after ingestion. However, 6 subjects had increased sperm counts and 4 subjects demonstrated increased sperm motility, indicating an enhancing effect. At 6 hours after ingestion, 20 subjects had lowered sperm motility and 12 subjects showed normal sperm motility, contradicting the manufacturer's claim that motility is reduced to 0%. Although Contrasperm is claimed to be effective for 6-8 hours after ingestion, its effect wore off in less than 6 hours in 37% of subjects. Both sperm count and sperm motility returned to normal levels 24 hours after ingestion, confirming the reversibility of this drug. Most subjects reported mild side effects such as muscle weakness, blurred vision, dizziness, perspiration, urgency, abnormal muscle tension, and dry throat which persisted longer than 24 hours. Further studies, with proper controls, are needed to assess the reliability and toxicity of this preparation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents; Contraceptive Agents, Male*
  9. Ishak R, Hassan K, Arshat H
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1987 Dec;5(2):57-60.
    PMID: 12315184
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents; Contraceptive Agents, Female*
  10. Arshat H
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1984 Jun;2(1):25-31.
    PMID: 12267518
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents; Contraceptive Agents, Female*
  11. Ismail MT, Halim AJ, Arshat H
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1987 Jun;5(1):17-21.
    PMID: 12269177
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents
  12. Adlina S, Narimah AHH, Hakimi ZA, Mazlin MM
    The knowledge, attitude and practice of breastfeeding among young mothers during pre-Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative implementation was conducted at seven private hospitals in Malaysia. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire was given to all mothers (n=Z52) visiting the antenatal/postnatal clinic of the hospitals. The main respondents were Malays (57.5%) and Chinese (35%) . For most mothers, breastfeeding was combined with supplementary feeds of formula milk, with only 30% breastfed exclusively. The majority of mothers knew that breast-milk contained antibodies and can prevent illness, however many were unaware of breastfeeding's contraceptive effect if practised exclusively. Most mothers did not relate breastfeeding as being environmental friendly. Generally, there was no knowledge gained from the experience of having more children with reference to breastfeeding. Most mothers were influenced by their own beliefs regarding choice of feeding method. Therefore, a mother was empowered with the knowledge of all practical aspects of breastfeeding, it would encourage her to breastfeed her baby.
    Study site: seven private hospitals in Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents
  13. Patil SS, Abdul Rashid K, Narayan KA
    Background and Objectives: Unmet need for contraception is the gap between women's reproductive intentions and their contraceptive behavior. This community based interventional study was carried out to determine the unmet needs for contraception, the reasons for this and to assess the impact of interventional measures on acceptance of contraception.
    Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted in 52 villages in the state of Maharashtra, India, among 363 married women selected by cluster sampling. Data was collected using an interview guide. An intervention was done for the women who had an unmet need and an assessment of the change was done subsequently. Data was analyzed by using SPSS.
    Results The prevalence of contraceptive usage was 59.2% and the prevalence of unmet need for contraception was 44% (160). The unmet need for spacing births was 53.8%, 38.7% for limiting births and 7.5% women were dissatisfied with the current contraceptive method. The reasons ranged from side effects to contraceptives to source of obtaining contraceptives. Age of the respondents, education and number of living children showed statistically significant association with unmet needs. Post intervention, the contraceptive prevalence rate increased significantly 85.7% and there was a significant reduction in the unmet needs for spacing and limiting births, equally there was a significant reduction of dissatisfaction with using contraception.
    Conclusion: Improvement in the use of contraception and addressing the unmet need for contraception requires community involvement and ongoing, sustained efforts by health workers to ensure quality care to the beneficiaries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents
  14. Rosliza, A.M., Majdah, M.
    Family planning is one of the main pillars of safe motherhood initiatives. It is therefore a very crucial area that needs continuous strengthening and improvement in order to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality which will ultimately improve the general condition of women. Findings from the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Death (CEMD) Malaysia Report 2001 - 2005 revealed that up to 70% of the maternal deaths never practiced any form of family planning. The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in Malaysia for the year 2004 was 51.7% compared to Thailand, Vietnam and Singapore which was 79%, 74% and 74% respectively. One neglected area that has never been emphasized seriously in the family planning programme in Malaysia is male participation, gender awareness and sharing of responsibility by both partners. In realizing this, efforts have been made to include men as target groups in the national family planning programme. This paper will highlight the importance of optimum gender relations and sharing of responsibility with special emphasis towards the role of husbands and male medical personnel in the effort to improve family planning activities. It will also discuss the efforts put by the Ministry of Health in order to create gender awareness and encourage male participation in family planning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents
  15. Murad, A.Z., Mokhtar, A., Sudesan, R., Lee, S.F., Ghazali, I.
    Subdermal etonogestrel implant (Implanon®) is the newest, long term contraceptive implant which has recently been made available to Malaysian women. This prospective study was conducted to determine the effects on selected health indices among 42 women who had consented to Implanon® as their choice of contraception. Health indices were checked prior to Implanon® insertion and six months post insertion. Findings indicate a significant reduction in total cholesterol with a significant increase in total haemoglobin and BMI. However there was no significant change noted in the fasting blood sugar, glycosylated haemoglobin, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents
  16. Loganathan T, Chan ZX, de Smalen AW, Pocock NS
    PMID: 32722563 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17155376
    Providing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services to migrant workers is key to fulfilling sustainable developmental goals. This study aims to explore key informants' views on the provision of SRH services for migrant women in Malaysia, exploring the provision of SRH education, contraception, abortion, antenatal and delivery, as well as the management of gender-based violence. In-depth interviews of 44 stakeholders were conducted from July 2018 to July 2019. Data were thematically analysed. Migrant workers that fall pregnant are unable to work legally and are subject to deportation. Despite this, we found that insufficient SRH information and contraceptive access are provided, as these are seen to encourage promiscuity. Pregnancy, rather than sexually transmitted infection prevention, is a core concern among migrant women, the latter of which is not adequately addressed by private providers. Abortions are often seen as the only option for pregnant migrants. Unsafe abortions occur which are linked to financial constraints and cultural disapproval, despite surgical abortions being legal in Malaysia. Pregnant migrants often delay care-seeking, and this may explain poor obstetric outcomes. Although health facilities for gender-based violence are available, non-citizen women face additional barriers in terms of discrimination and scrutiny by authorities. Migrant women face extremely limited options for SRH services in Malaysia and these should be expanded.
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents
  17. Nurul Ain, K.B., Mahanem, M.N., Irfan, Y.
    Medicine & Health, 2018;13(2):20-35.
    Population explosion is one of the global issues of concern. The increasing number of individuals could result in negative impact on social and economy. To overcome this problem, convenient and safe modern contraception was introduced. However, recently many researchers have conducted studies on the effectiveness of medicinal plants as contraceptive agents on human and animal models. Therefore, the studies of herbal and modern contraceptives were summarized in this review article. A total of 66 relevant articles were documented having information regarding the modern and herbal contraceptives. All contraceptives are highly effective provided they are used consistently and in the proper way. Contraception is important as it could prevent diseases and infections caused by sexual intercourse and prevent unintended pregnancy. Therefore, this review is an attempt to summarize the potential of medicinal plants as contraceptive agents and the modern contraceptive methods used as birth control in males and females.
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents
  18. Syahnaz MH, Rasina Nilofer JK, Azmawati MW, Harlina Halizah S
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 10;73(5):301-306.
    PMID: 30350809 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: The practice of modern contraceptives still remains a sceptical issue in the society and dormant due to increasing objection of husbands who play a significant role in the family planning practice.
    OBJECTIVES: This study was done to determine the factors affecting the ever use of modern contraceptive methods among married men visiting a healthcare clinic in Malaysia.
    MATERIAL AND METHOD: A cross sectional study of 443 men aged over 18 years was conducted using convenient sampling from January 2016 till March 2016 at a primary care clinic. A self-administered questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristic, attitude towards family planning, spousal communication and ever used of modern contraceptive methods was used.
    RESULTS: The proportion of ever used modern contraception was 48% (n=192). Multiple logistic regression revealed that spousal communication on family planning (Adjusted OR 15.8; 95% CI 7.0 - 35.6) and attitude towards marital relationship (Adjusted OR 1.1; CI 1.0 - 1.1) were significant predictors for ever used of modern contraception among married men.
    CONCLUSION: The proportion of ever used modern contraception is still not high. Men who communicated with their spouse on modern contraception and perceived family planning as means to preserve their marital relationship were more likely to practice modern contraceptive method.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents
  19. Ibrahim H, Tengku Ismail TA, Hashim N
    PMID: 31435386 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2018.11.012
    Objectives: Weight gain remains an issue for contraceptive users due to the high prevalence of obesity. This retrospective study compares the weight gain between hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive users in government health clinics in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Methods: A total of 380 women who had used the same contraceptive method for at least twelve months were recruited in this study. Covariance analysis was done to compare the weight gain between hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive users, while studying the same confounders [age, household income, number of pregnancies, and baseline body mass index (BMI)].

    Results: Hormonal methods were more commonly used. The mean weight gain among hormonal users (adjusted mean 2.85, 95% CI 2.45, 3.24) was significantly higher than non-hormonal users (adjusted mean 0.46, 95% CI -0.73, 1.65; p-value <0.001), after controlling for age, household income, number of pregnancies, and baseline BMI.

    Conclusion: The possibility of weight gain following the use of hormonal methods should be investigated and non-hormonal methods should be considered to prevent weight gain.

    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents
  20. Jamsiah, M., Rahmah, M.A., Sh Ezat, W.P., Shamsul, A.S.
    Background : Family planning is a method to control family size and to increase the intervals between chidbirths using multiple methods of contraceptives.
    Objectives : This study aims to determine the pravelance of family planning practice among married women (wife less than 55 years old) and its related factors and also to determine the husbands knowledge on family planning and their support.
    Methodology : This is a cross sectional study done through direct interviews amongst 118 married couples in Kampung Sesapan Batu Mingkabau, Hulu Langat Selangor.
    Results : On family planning practise, 43.2% of couples is currently practising, 22.0% have practiced but stopped and 34.8% have never used any types of family planning methods. As high as 75% of wives received support from their husband to pratice family planning. There is a significant association between family planning practice and wife’s age, husband’s age, wife’s occupation, wife’s education, wife’s knowledge and husband’s support. Husband’s knowledge , number of live children and husband’s education have no significant assocation in influencing family planning practice.
    Conclusion : To achieve better knowledge and family planning practises, husband’s involvement and support must be encouraged to ensure the correct informations and support are delivered to both couples. Approach through husbands is regarded as one of the key factors to the success of rural women family planning practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Contraceptive Agents
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