2-Phenyl-N,N'-bis(pyridin-4-ylcarbonyl)butanediamide ligand with a series of transition metal complexes has been synthesized via two routes: microwave irradiation and conventional heating method. Microwave irritation method happened to be the efficient and versatile route for the synthesis of these metal complexes. These complexes were found to have the general composition M(L)Cl2/M(L)(CH3COO)2 (where M = Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and L = ligand). Different physical and spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the structural features of the synthesized compounds, which supported an octahedral geometry for these complexes. In vitro antifungal activity of the ligand and its metal complexes revealed that the metal complexes are highly active compared to the standard drug. Metal complexes showed enhanced activity compared to the ligand, which is an important step towards the designing of antifungal drug candidates.
Air and moisture stable coordination compounds of late first row transition metals, viz. Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II), with a newly designed ligand, 2-(2-benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)hydrazono)propan-1-ol (LH), were prepared and successfully characterized using various spectro-analytical techniques. The molecular structures of the ligand and nickel complex were unambiguously determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. The [Ni(LH)2]Cl2.3H2O complex is stabilized by intermolecular CH⋯π stacking interactions between the methyl hydrogen and the C18 atom of the phenyl ring (C11-H11B⋯C18) forming 1D zig-zag chain structure. Both, the ligand and its copper complex, were electrochemically active in the working potential range, showing quasi-reversible redox system. The interactions of all the compounds with calf thymus DNA have been comprehensively investigated using electronic absorption spectroscopy, viscosity, electrochemistry and thermal denaturation studies. The cleavage reaction on pBR322 DNA has been monitored by agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the ligand can bind to CT-DNA through partial intercalation, whereas the complexes bind electrostatically. Further, [Ni(LH)2]Cl2.3H2O and [CuLCl(H2O)2] complexes in the series have high binding and cleavage affinity towards pBR322 DNA. Additionally, all the compounds were screened for anti-tuberculosis activity. All the complexes revealed an MIC value of 0.8 μg/mL, which is almost 8 times active than standard used (Streptomycin, 6.25 μg/mL).
Copper compounds can be alternatives to platinum-based anticancer drugs. This study investigated the effects of a series of ternary copper(II) complexes, [Cu(phen)(aa)(H2O)]NO3·xH2O 1-4 (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; aa = gly (1), DL-ala (2), sar (3), C-dmg (4)), on metastatic and cisplatin-resistant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and MCF10A non-cancerous breast cells, and some aspects of the mechanisms. These complexes were distinctively more antiproliferative towards and induced greater apoptotic cell death in MDA-MB-231 than in MCF10A cells. 2 and 4 could induce cell cycle arrest only in cancer cells. Further evidence from DCFH-DA assay showed higher induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in treated cancer cells but minimal ROS increase in normal cells. DNA double-strand breaks, via a γ-H2AX assay, were only detected in cancer cells treated with 5 μM of the complexes. These complexes poorly inhibited chymotrypsin-like activity in the 20S rabbit proteasome while they did not inhibit the three proteolytic sites of MDA-MB-231 cells at 10 μM. However, the complexes could inhibit degradation of ubiquinated proteins of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, compound 4 was found to be effective against cervical (Hela), ovarian (SKOV3), lung (A549, PC9), NPC (Hone1, HK1, C666-1), breast (MCF7, T47D), lymphoma and leukemia (Nalmawa, HL60) and colorectal (SW480, SW48, HCT118) cancer cell lines with IC50 values (24 h) in the 1.7-19.0 μM range. Single dose NCI60 screening of 4 showed the complex to be highly cytotoxic to most cancer cell types and more effective than cisplatin.
A new thiosemicarbazone (LH2) derived from indole-7-carbaldehyde was synthesized and reacted with Zn(II), Cd(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) salts. The reactions with zinc and cadmium salts in 2 : 1 (ligand-metal) molar ratio afforded complexes of the type MX2(LH2)2, (X = Cl, Br or OAc), in which the thiosemicarbazone acts as a neutral S-monodentate ligand. In the presence of potassium hydroxide, the reaction of LH2 with ZnBr2 resulted in deprotonation of the thiosemicarbazone at the hydrazine and indole nitrogens to form Zn(L)(CH3OH). The reaction of LH2 with K2PdCl4 in the presence of triethylamine, afforded Pd(L)(LH2) which contains two thiosemicarbazone ligands: one being dianionic N,N,S-tridentate while the other one is neutral S-monodentate. When PdCl2(PPh3)2 was used as the Pd(II) ion source, Pd(L)(PPh3) was obtained. In a similar manner, the analogous platinum complex, Pt(L)(PPh3), was synthesized. The thiosemicarbazone in the latter two complexes behaves in a dianionic N,N,S-tridentate fashion. The platinum complex was found to have significant cytotoxicity toward four cancer cells lines, namely MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, HT-29, and HCT-116 but not toward the normal liver WRL-68 cell line. The apoptosis-inducing properties of the Pt complex was explored through fluorescence microscopy visualization, DNA fragmentation analysis and propidium iodide flow cytometry.
Chiral enantiomers [Cu(phen)(L-threo)(H2O)]NO3 1 and [Cu(phen)(D-threo)(H2O)]NO3 2 (threo = threoninate) underwent aldol-type condensation with formaldehyde, with retention of chirality, to yield their respective enantiomeric ternary copper(II) complexes, viz. L- and D-[Cu(phen)(5MeOCA)(H2O)]NO3·xH2O (3 and 4; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; 5MeOCA = 5-methyloxazolidine-4-carboxylate; x = 0-3) respectively. These chiral complexes were characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis, circular dichroism, UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy (FL), molar conductivity measurement, ESI-MS and X-ray crystallography. Analysis of restriction enzyme inhibition by these four complexes revealed modulation of DNA binding selectivity by the type of ligand, ligand modification and chirality. Their interaction with bovine serum albumin was investigated by FL and electronic spectroscopy. With the aid of the crystal structure of BSA, spectroscopic evidence suggested their binding at the cavity containing Trp134 with numerous Tyr residues in subdomain IA. The products were more antiproliferative than cisplatin against cancer cell lines HK-1, MCF-7, HCT116, HSC-2 and C666-1 except HL-60, and were selective towards nasopharyngeal cancer HK-1 cells over normal NP69 cells of the same organ type.
Copper (II) complexes synthesized from the products of condensation of S-methyl- and S-benzyldithiocarbazate with 2,5-hexanedione (SMHDH2 and SBHDH2 respectively) have been characterized using various physicochemical (elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility) and spectroscopic (infrared, electronic) methods. The structures of SMHDH2, its copper (II) complex, CuSMHD, and the related CuSBHD complex as well as a pyrrole byproduct, SBPY, have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In order to provide more insight into the behaviour of the complexes in solution, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electrochemical experiments were performed. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated. The compounds, dissolved in 0.5% and 5% DMSO, showed a wide range of antibacterial activity against 10 strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Investigations of the effects of efflux pumps and membrane penetration on antibacterial activity are reported herein. Antiproliferation activity was observed to be enhanced by complexation with copper. Preliminary screening showed Cu complexes are strongly active against human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7.
This paper reports the synthesis, characterization, anticancer screening and quantum chemical calculation of a tetradentate Schiff base 2,2'-((1E,1'E)-((2,2-dimethylpropane-1,3-diyl)bis- (azanylylidene))bis(methanylylidene))bis(4-fluorophenol) (L2F) and its Pd (II) complex (PdL2F). The compounds were characterized via UV-Visible, NMR, IR spectroscopy and single crystal x-ray diffraction. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations in gas and solvent phases were carried out using B3LYP, B3P86, CAM-B3LYP and PBE0 hybrid functionals combined with LanL2DZ basis set. Complexation of L2F to form PdL2F was observed to cause a bathochromic shift of the maximum absorption bands of n-π* from 327 to 410 nm; an upfield shift for δ (HC = N) from 8.30 to 7.96 ppm and a decreased wavenumber for ν(C = N) from 1637 to 1616 cm-1. Overall, the UV-Vis, NMR and IR spectral data are relatively well reproduced through DFT and TD-DFT methods. L2F and PdL2F showed IC50 of 90.00 and 4.10 μg/mL, respectively, against human colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) cell lines, signifying increased anticancer activity upon complexation with Pd (II).
Chiral enantiomers [Cu(phen)(l-ser)(H2O)]NO31 and [Cu(phen)(d-ser)(H2O)]NO32 (ser = serinato) underwent aldol-type condensation with formaldehyde, with retention of chirality, to yield their respective enantiomeric ternary copper(ii) complexes, viz. l- and d-[Cu(phen)(OCA)(H2O)]NO3·xH2O (3 and 4; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; OCA = oxazolidine-4-carboxylate; x = 1/2, 0-2) respectively. These chiral complexes were characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis, circular dichroism, UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy (FL), molar conductivity measurement, ESI-MS and X-ray crystallography. The crystal structures of 1 and 3 showed both the cationic complexes to have a square pyramidal geometry. These complexes were about nine fold more potent than cisplatin against metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, inducing apoptotic cell death via ROS generation and a massive drop in mitochondrial membrane potential. The results of monitoring EZH1, EZH2 and H3K27me3 revealed that the mode of action of 1-4 also involved the downregulation of EZH2 and it seemed to be independent of the H3K27me3 status.
Zinc L-carnosine (ZnC) is a chelated compound of zinc and L-carnosine. The present study aims to determine the protective effects of ZnC against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and genomic damage in CCD-18co human normal colon fibroblast cells. Generally, cells were pretreated with ZnC (0-100 µM) for 24 h before challenged with 20 µM of H2O2 for 1 h to induce oxidative damage. Results showed that pretreatment with ZnC was able to reduce the intracellular ROS level in CCD-18co cells after being challenged with H2O2. Moreover, pretreatment with ZnC demonstrated protection from H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks and micronucleus formation. Our current findings revealed that pretreatment with ZnC could induce the activation of MTF-1 signaling pathway and expression of metallothionein (MT) in a dose-dependent manner. However, ZnC did not have any effects on Nrf2 signaling pathway and the expression of glutathione, superoxide dismutase 1, and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). Furthermore, pretreatment with ZnC did not induce the expression of OGG1 and PARP-1 in CCD-18co cells, suggesting that these two DNA repairing enzymes are not related to the genoprotective effects of ZnC. Since the expression of MT has been demonstrated to protect cells from oxidative DNA damage induced by various genotoxic agents, the genoprotective effects of ZnC might be due to the ability of ZnC to induce the expression of MT. In conclusion, ZnC pretreatment was able to protect CCD-18co cells from H2O2-induced genomic damage via the activation of the MTF-1 signalling pathway and the induction of MT expression.
The novel antifungal agent ASP2397 (Vical's compound ID VL-2397) is produced by the fungal strain MF-347833 that was isolated from Malaysian leaf litter and is identified here as an Acremonium species based on its morphology, physiological properties and 28S ribosomal DNA sequence. Because of its potential importance for producing novel antifungal agents, we determined the taxonomic and biologic properties of MF-347833. We show here that ASP2397 is a cyclic hexapeptide that chelates aluminum ion and is therefore similar to ferrichrome, a hydroxamate siderophore. However, ASP2397 differs structurally from licensed antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, triazoles and echinocandins. To understand the relationship between chemical structure and biological function, we isolated certain ASP2397 derivatives from the culture broth, and we further chemically converted the metal-free form to other derivatives.
The current mechanistic study was conducted to explore the effects of increased lipophilicity of binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes on cytotoxicity. Two new silver(I)-N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) complexes (3 and 4), having lypophilic terminal alkyl chains (Octyl and Decyl), were derived from meta-xylyl linked bis-benzimidazolium salts (1 and 2). Each of the synthesized compounds was characterized by microanalysis and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were tested for their cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer c as well normal cell lines using MTT assay. Based on MTT assay results, complex 4 was found to be selectively toxic towards human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT 116). Complex 4 was further studied in detail to explore the mechanism of cell death and findings of the study revealed that complex 4 has promising pro-apoptotic and anti-metastatic activities against HCT 116 cells. Furthermore, it showed pronounced cytostatic effects in HCT 116 multicellular spheroid model. Hence, binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes with longer terminal aliphatic chains have worth to be further studied against human colon cancer for the purpose of drug development.
Copper complexes have been widely studied for the anti-tumour application as cancer cells are reported to take up greater amounts of copper than normal cells. Preliminary study revealed that the newly synthesised copper complex [Cu(SBCM)2] displayed marked anti-proliferative towards triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Therefore, Cu(SBCM)2 has great potential to be developed as an agent for the management of breast cancer. The present study was carried out to investigate the mode of cell death induced by Cu(SBCM)2 towards MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The inhibitory and morphological changes of MDA-MB-231 cells treated with Cu(SBCM)2 was determined by using MTT assay and inverted light microscope, respectively. The safety profile of Cu(SBCM)2 was also evaluated towards human dermal fibroblast (HDF) normal cells. Confirmation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were determined by flow cytometry analysis. The expression of p53, Bax, Bcl-2 and MMP2 protein were detected with western blot analysis. Cu(SBCM)2 significantly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner with GI50 18.7 ± 3.06 µM. Indeed, Cu(SBCM)2 was less toxic towards HDF normal cells with GI50 31.8 ± 4.0 µM. Morphological study revealed that Cu(SBCM)2-treated MDA-MB-231 cells experienced cellular shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies, suggesting that Cu(SBCM)2 induced apoptosis in the cells, which was confirmed by Annexin-V/PI flow cytometry analysis. It was also found that Cu(SBCM)2 induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest towards MDA-MB-231 cells. The induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the present study is possibly due to the down-regulation of the mutant p53 and MMP2 protein. In conclusion, Cu(SBCM)2 can be developed as a targeted therapy for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.
Two ternary Zn(II) complexes, with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) as the main ligand and a carboxylate-containing ligand [dipicolinate (dipico) or L-threoninate (L-Thr)] as the subsidiary ligand, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform IR, UV, and fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, molar conductivity, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. X-ray structure analysis shows that both [Zn(phen)(dipico)(H(2)O)]·H(2)O (1) and [Zn(phen)(L-Thr)(H(2)O)Cl]·2H(2)O (2) have octahedral geometry about the Zn(II) atom. Both complexes can inhibit topoisomerase I, and have better anticancer activity than cisplatin against nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines, HK1 and HONE-1, with concentrations causing 50 % inhibition of cell proliferation (IC(50)) in the low micromolar range. Complex 2 has the highest therapeutic index for HK1. Both Zn(II) complexes can induce cell death by apoptosis. Changing the subsidiary ligand in the Zn(II) complexes affects the UV-fluorescence spectral properties of the coordinated phen ligand, the binding affinity for some DNA sequences, nucleobase sequence-selective binding, the phase at which cell cycle progression was arrested for treated cancer cells, and their therapeutic index.
Hydroxamic acids [R(CO)N(OH)R'] are flexible compounds for organic and inorganic analyses due to their frailer structures compared to the carboxylic acid. The syntheses and characterization of benzohydroxamic acid (BHA), its CH3-, OCH3-, Cl- para-substituted derivatives and their Cr(III) complexes are reported herein. The metal complexes were synthesized by reacting the hydroxamic acids with chromium(III) chloride hexahydrate in 2:1 molar ratio. The compounds were characterized via melting point, elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, TGA, mass spectrometry, molar conductance and UV-Visible. Data analysis suggests that each complex has the Cr(III) center coordinated to the carbonyl and hydroxy oxygen atoms of the hydroxamic acids in bidentate O,O manner and two water molecules to form octahedral geometry. Non-electrolytic behavior of the complexes was shown through their low molar conductivity. Cytotoxicity study against HCT116 and alpha-glucosidase inhibition test revealed that all complexes have higher activity than their parent ligands. Molecular docking study shows that the docking of active complexes is thermodynamically favorable and the inhibition efficiency may depend on the types and the numbers of molecular interactions established in the corresponding stable conformers.
The syntheses of two platinum(ii) dithiocarbamate complexes (1 and 2) that show quinoplatin- and phenanthriplatin-type axial protection of the Pt-plane are described. The Pt-plane of complex 2 is axially more protected than that of complex 1. Furthermore, both complexes adopt two different stereochemical conformations in the solid state (based on single-crystal X-ray structures) owing to the structurally flexible piperazine backbone; i.e., C-e,e-Anti (1) and C-e,a-Syn (2), where "C" stands for the chair configuration, "e" and "a" stand for the equatorial and axial positions and "Anti" (opposite side) and "Syn" (same side) represent the relative orientations in space of the terminal substituents on the piperazine ring. In complex 2, the C-e,a-Syn conformation may provide additional steric hindrance to the Pt-plane. Despite the lower lipophilicity of 2 as compared to that of 1, the in vitro anticancer action against selected cancer cell lines is better for the former revealing the superior role of the axial protection over lipophilicity in modulating anticancer activity. The activity against the cancer promoting protein NF-κB signifies that the mode of cancer cell death may be the result of hindering the activity of NF-κB in the initiation of apoptosis. The apoptotic mode of cell death has been established earlier in a study using Annexin V-FITC. Finally, DNA binding studies revealed that the complex-DNA adduct formation is spontaneous and the mode of interaction is non-intercalative (electrostatic/covalent).
Platinum drugs are heavily used first-line chemotherapeutic agents for many solid tumours and have stimulated substantial interest in the biological activity of DNA-binding metal complexes. These complexes generate DNA lesions which trigger the activation of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways that are essential to maintain genomic integrity. Cancer cells exploit this intrinsic DNA repair network to counteract many types of chemotherapies. Now, advances in the molecular biology of cancer has paved the way for the combination of DDR inhibitors such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) and agents that induce high levels of DNA replication stress or single-strand break damage for synergistic cancer cell killing. In this review, we summarise early-stage, preclinical and clinical findings exploring platinum and emerging ruthenium anti-cancer complexes alongside PARPi in combination therapy for cancer and also describe emerging work on the ability of ruthenium and gold complexes to directly inhibit PARP activity.
3-Aminocoumarin (L) has been synthesized and used as a ligand for the formation of Cr(III), Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes. The chemical structures were characterized using different spectroscopic methods. The elemental analyses revealed that the complexes where M=Ni(II) and Cu(II) have the general formulae [ML(2)Cl(2)], while the Cr(III) complex has the formula [CrL(2)Cl(2)]Cl. The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal chelates, except the Cr(III) one, are non-electrolytes. From the magnetic and UV-Visible spectra, it is found that these complexes have octahedral structures. The stability for the prepared complexes was studied theoretically using Density Function Theory. The total energy for the complexes was calculated and it was shown that the copper complex is the most stable one. Complexes were tested against selected types of microbial organisms and showed significant activities. The free radical scavenging activity of metal complexes have been determined by measuring their interaction with the stable free radical DPPH and all the compounds have shown encouraging antioxidant activities.
The biological properties of thiosemicarbazone have been widely reported. The incorporation of some transition metals such as Fe, Ni and Cu to thiosemicarbazone complexes is known to enhance its biological effects. In this study, we incorporated nickel(II) ions into thiosemicarbazone with N4-substitution groups H3L (H; H3L1, CH3; H3L2, C6H5; H3L3 and C2H5; H3L4) and examined its potential anti-inflammatory activity.
Cardamonin is a polyphenolic natural product that has been shown to possess cytotoxic activity against a variety of cancer cell lines. We previously reported the semi-synthesis of a novel Cu (II)-cardamonin complex (19) that demonstrated potent antitumour activity. In this study, we further investigated the bioactivity of 19 against MDA-MB-468 and PANC-1 cancer cells in an attempt to discover an effective treatment for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and pancreatic cancer, respectively. Results revealed that 19 abolished the formation of MDA-MB-468 and PANC-1 colonies, exerted growth-inhibitory activity, and inhibited cancer cell migration. Further mechanistic studies showed that 19 induced DNA damage resulting in gap 2 (G2)/mitosis (M) phase arrest and microtubule network disruption. Moreover, 19 generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may contribute to induction of apoptosis, corroborated by activation of caspase-3/7, PARP cleavage, and downregulation of Mcl-1. Complex 19 also decreased the expression levels of p-Akt and p-4EBP1, which indicates that the compound exerts its activity, at least in part, via inhibition of Akt signalling. Furthermore, 19 decreased the expression of c-Myc in PANC-1 cells only, which suggests that it may exert its bioactivity via multiple mechanisms of action. These results demonstrate the potential of 19 as a therapeutic agent for TNBC and pancreatic cancer.