The performance of 11 oil palm AVROS (Algemene Vereniging van Rubberplanters ter Oostkust van Sumatra) pisiferas was evaluated based on their 40 dura x pisifera (DxP) progenies tested on inland soils, predominantly of Serdang Series. Fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield of each pisiferas ranged from 121.93 to 143.9 kg palm⁻¹ yr⁻¹ with trial mean of 131.62 kg palm⁻¹ yr⁻¹. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed low genetic variability among pisifera parents for most of the characters indicating uniformity of the pisifera population. This was anticipated as the AVROS pisiferas were derived from small population and were inbred materials. However, some of the pisiferas have shown good general combining ability (GCA) for certain important economic traits. Three pisiferas (P1 (0.174/247), P3 (0.174/498), P11 (0.182/308)) were identified of having good GCA for FFB yield while pisiferas P1 (0.174/247), P10 (0.182/348), and P11 (0.182/308) were good combiners for oil-to-bunch ratio (O/B). The narrow genetic base of these materials was the main obstacle in breeding and population improvement. However, efforts have been made to introgress this material with the vast oil palm germplasm collections of MPOB for rectifying the problem.
A preliminary screening was conducted on BC3F1 and BC4F1 backcross families developed from crossing Oryza sativa (MR219) and O. rufipogon (IRGC105491). Despite earlier results showing that O. rufipogon alleles (wild introgression) contributed to both number of panicles (qPPL-2) and tillers (qTPL-2) at loci RM250, RM208, and RM48 in line A20 of the BC2F2 population, we observed that wild introgression was lost at loci RM250 and RM208 but retained at locus RM48 in BC3F1 and BC4F1. Progeny tests conducted utilizing genotype and phenotype data on both BC4F1 and a reference population, BC2F7 (A20 line), did not show significant differences between groups having the MR219 allele and wild introgression at locus RM48. This suggests that there is no additive and transgressive effect of wild introgression in the BC3F1 and BC4F1 generated. The presence of wild introgression was largely due to gene contamination by cross-pollination during field breeding practices.
Chromosome analysis on different breed types of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) was undertaken to identify their karyotypes and to determine the pattern of chromosome segregation in crossbred water buffaloes. Altogether, 75 purebred and 198 crossbred buffaloes including 118 from Malaysia and 80 from the Philippines, were analyzed in this study. The diploid chromosome number of the swamp buffalo from both countries was 48 and that of the river buffalo was 50, while all F1 hybrids exhibited 49 chromosomes. The F2 hybrids consisted of three different karyotype categories (2n = 48, 2n = 49, and 2n = 50), whereas the backcrosses included two different karyotype categories each, with 2n = 48 and 2n = 49 in the three quarters swamp types and 2n = 49 and 2n = 50 in the three quarters river types. Chi-square tests on pooled data from Malaysia and the Philippines indicated that the distribution of different karyotype categories of F2 animals did not deviate significantly from the 1:2:1 ratio expected if only balanced gametes with 24 and 25 chromosomes were produced by the F1 hybrids. In the three quarters swamp and three quarters river types, the respective karyotypic categories were in ratios approximating 1:1. The distribution of chromosome categories among the F2 hybrids and backcrosses suggests that only genetically balanced gametes of the F1 hybrids are capable of producing viable F2 and backcross generations.
A study was performed using 6 × 6 F1 diallel population without reciprocals to assess the mode of inheritance of pod yield and related traits in groundnut with imposed salinity stress. Heterosis was found for pod number and yield. Data on general and specific combining ability (gca and sca) indicated additive and nonadditive gene actions. The gca: sca ratios were much less than unity suggesting predominant role of nonadditive gene effects. Cultivars "Binachinabadam-2" and "Dacca-1" and mutant M6/25/64-82 had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod number, as well as gca values, respectively. These two cultivars and another mutant M6/15/70-19 also had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod yield, as well as gca values, respectively. Therefore, "Dacca-1", "Binachinabadam-2", M6/25/64-82, and M6/15/70-19 could be used as source of salinity tolerance. Cross combinations showing high sca effects arising from parents with high and low gca values for any trait indicate the influence of nonadditive genes on their expression. Parents of these crosses can be used for biparental mating or reciprocal recurrent selection for developing high yielding varieties. Crosses with high sca effects having both parents with good gca effects could be exploited by pedigree breeding to get transgressive segregants.
A limited backcross procedure was utilized to introgress genes associated with grain quality traits from Oryza rufipogon (Accession No. IRGC 105491), a wild rice from Malaysia, to the cultivated rice O. sativa cv. MR219, a popular high yielding Malaysian rice cultivar. A set of 10 BC(2)F(7) progenies were selected based on the field performance and phenotypic appearance in BC(2)F(5) and BC(2)F(6) generations, which initially started with 266 progenies in the BC(2)F(2) generation. These 10 advanced breeding lines are similar to each other but differ in several important grain quality traits, which can be traced to O. rufipogon introgressions. Phenotyping and genotyping of BC(2)F(7) variants were considered for QTL analysis. The introgressed lines did not show any significant changes compared to the recurrent parent MR219 for the traits grain density and milled rice percentage. All 10 progenies showed significantly higher head rice percentages (70-88%) than the recurrent parent MR219. Variants G13 and G15 had higher amylose contents than MR219. All variants were analyzed using polymorphic SSR markers. Of the 34 SSR markers, only 18 showed introgression from O. rufipogon for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 11. Graphical genotypes were prepared for each variant, and association between the introgression regions and the traits that increased grain quality was visualized. Based on marker trait association, some of the QTLs are stable across environments and genetic backgrounds and could be used universally.
Although the crab-eating frog Fejervarya cancrivora is one of the most widely distributed species in Asian region, taxonomic relationships among different populations remain unclarified. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the taxonomic status of F. cancrivora from Indonesian and other Asian populations. Five populations of F. cancrivora from Selangor (Malaysia), Cianjur (Java, Indonesia), Trat (Thailand), Khulna (Bangladesh), and Makassar (Sulawesi, Indonesia) were morphologically observed and subjected to crossing experiments. Principal component and clustering analyses revealed that these five populations could be organized into three groups corresponding to three observed morphological types: a Selangor and Cianjur group (large-type), a Trat and Khulna group (mangrove-type), and a Makassar group (Sulawesi-type). The limited crossing experiments revealed that hybrids between Selangor females and Cianjur and Trat males developed normally, whereas hybrids between Selangor females and Khulna males showed incomplete gametic isolation. Histological observations of the testes of mature males revealed the presence of pycnotic nuclei in the hybrids between Selangor females and Khulna males in addition to normal bundles of spermatozoa. In contrast, no pycnotic nuclei were observed in the Selangor controls. Although meiotic metaphases in the controls were normal, those in hybrids showed several abnormalities, such as the appearance of univalents and an increase in rod-shaped bivalents. Based on our findings from the morphological observations and crossing experiments, we conclude that each of three identified types represents a distinct species. We propose that the large-type is F. cancrivora, the mangrove-type is F. moodiei, and the Sulawesi-type represents an undescribed species.
The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis) were studied using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, respectively. Multi-locus outcrossing rate estimations indicated that the hybrid was predominantly outcrossed (mean+/- s.e. t(m) = 0.86+/-0.01). Seed variation was investigated using 35 polymorphic RAPD fragments. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest genetic variation among seeds within a pod (66%-70%), followed by among pods within inflorescence (29%-37%), and the least variation among inflorescences within tree (1%). In addition, two to four RAPD profiles could be detected among seeds within pod. Therefore, the results suggest that a maximum of four seeds per pod could be sampled for the establishment of a mapping population for further studies.
Bioassays (at generation G2) with a newly collected field population (designated CH4) of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from farms in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia, indicated resistance to acetamiprid, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and esfenvalerate. At G3, the field-derived population was divided into two subpopulations, one subpopuplation was selected (G3 to Go10) with acetamiprid (aceta-SEL), whereas the second subpopulation was left unselected (UNSEL). A significant reduction in the resistance ratio for each compound was observed in UNSEL at G,1, indicating that the observed resistance to each insecticide was unstable. For aceta-SEL, bioassays at G,, found that selection with acetamiprid gave a resistance ratio of 409 compared with UNSEL. The LC50 values for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and esfenvalerate to aceta-SEL were similar at both G11 and G2. This suggests that acetamiprid selection maintained the otherwise unstable resistance to these compounds in the aceta-SEL population. Logit regression analysis of F1 reciprocal crosses between aceta-SEL and the susceptible Lab-UK indicated that resistance to acetamiprid was inherited as an autosomal, incompletely recessive (DLC = 0.26) trait. Tests of monogenic inheritance and weight distribution suggested that resistance to acetamiprid was controlled by a single locus.
The mating system of Dryobalanops aromatica in three different forest types and a seed orchard was quantified by allozyme analysis of progeny arrays using a mixed-mating model. The primary forest (Bukit Sai) had the highest multilocus outcrossing rate (tm=0.923 +/- 0.035), followed by logged forest (Lesong; tm=0.766 +/- 0.056) and artificial forest (FRIM; tm=0.661 +/- 0.066) with seed orchard showing the lowest (Tampin; tm=0.551 +/- 0.095). Deviations from the mixed mating model were evident from differences in pollen and ovule allele frequencies, and heterogeneity of pollen pools in all three different forest types and the seed orchard. A high rate of outcrossing in primary forest (tm=0.92) may indicate that the species is self-incompatible, but a lower value in the seed orchard (tm=0.55) might suggest further that the self-incompatibility system is weak. The outcrossing rate was greater in the primary forest (tm=0.92) than in logged forest (tm=0.77). It is argued that this might be a consequence of the lower density of flowering trees and alteration of pollinator foraging behaviour in logged forest. Higher values of correlated mating (rp) and biparental mating (tm - ts) in primary forest (0.08 and 0.39, respectively) in comparison with logged forest (0.03 and 0.11, respectively) demonstrate that logging activities might reduce the seeds produced through consanguineous mating. Compared with primary forest, it is argued that lower rates of outcrossing in artificial forest (tm=0.67) and seed orchard (tm=0. 55) might be attributed to lack of flowering synchrony and insufficient number of pollinators. The high level of correlated mating (rp=0.43) and biparental mating (tm - ts=0.12) in the seed orchard may further suggest that the seed orchard was established using related seed sources.
The experiments were carried out in two research stations (MARDI Bukit Tangga, Kedah, and MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang) in Malaysia. The crossings were performed using the four inbred lines in complete diallel cross including selfs and reciprocals. We evaluated the yield components and fruit characters such as fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to fruit maturity, fruit weight, total soluble solid content, and rind thickness over a period of two planting seasons. General combining ability and its interaction with locations were statistically significant for all characteristics except number of fruits per plant across the environments. Results indicated that the additive genetic effects were important to the inheritance of these traits and the expression of additive genes was influenced greatly by environments. In addition, specific combining ability effect was statistically evident for fruit yield per plant, vine length, days to first female flower, and fruit weight. Most of the characters are simultaneously controlled by additive and nonadditive gene effects. This study demonstrated that the highest potential and promising among the crosses was cross P2 (BL-14) × P3 (6372-4), which possessed prolific plants, with early maturity, medium fruit weight and high soluble solid contents. Therefore this hybrid might be utilized for developing high yielding watermelon cultivars and may be recommended for commercial cultivation.
Grain weight is a major component of rice grain yield and is controlled by quantitative trait loci. Previously, a rice grain weight quantitative trait locus (qGW6) was detected near marker RM587 on chromosome 6 in a backcross population (BC2F2) derived from a cross between Oryza rufipogon IRGC105491 and O. sativa cv. MR219. Using a BC2F5 population, qGW6 was validated and mapped to a region of 4.8 cM (1.2 Mb) in the interval between RM508 and RM588. Fine mapping using a series of BC4F3 near isogenic lines further narrowed the interval containing qGW6 to 88 kb between markers RM19268 and RM19271.1. According to the Duncan multiple range test, 8 BC4F4 near isogenic lines had significantly higher 100-grain weight (4.8 to 7.5% over MR219) than their recurrent parent, MR219 (P < 0.05). According to the rice genome automated annotation database, there are 20 predicted genes in the 88-kb target region, and 9 of them have known functions. Among the genes with known functions in the target region, in silico gene expression analysis showed that 9 were differentially expressed during the seed development stage(s) from gene expression series GSE6893; however, only 3 of them have known functions. These candidates provide targets for further characterization of qGW6, which will assist in understanding the genetic control of grain weight in rice.
In order to elucidate the taxonomic status of the Fejervarya limnocharis complex relative to Malaysia and Japan populations, morphological observations and molecular phylogenetic analysis were carried out using three populations from Indonesia (type locality), Malaysia, and Japan. In addition, we conducted histological and spermatogenic observations using hybrids among these populations. Principal component and cluster analyses demonstrated that these populations could be clearly separated from one another. Abnormal testes were found in the hybrids between the Japan and Indonesia populations and between the Japan and Malaysia populations, but testes of the controls and hybrids between the Malaysia and Indonesia populations were quite normal. The mean number of univalents per cell was 5.42, 4.58, and 0.20 in hybrids between the Indonesia and Japan populations, Malaysia and Japan populations, and Indonesia and Malaysia populations, respectively. Sequence divergences in 16S rRNA and Cyt b genes were 0-0.4% (xbar=0.2%) and 0.3-1.5% (xbar=1.0%), respectively, between the Malaysia and Indonesia populations, and 2.4-2.6% (xbar=2.5%) and 11.0-12.0% (xbar=11.5%) between the Japan population and F. limnocharis complex, including the Malaysia and Indonesia populations and F. multistriata from China. This study indicated that the Malaysia population and F. multistriata from China should be designated as a subspecies of topotypic F. limnocharis, and that the Japan population should be regarded as a distinct species.
We evaluated 38 dura x pisifera (DP) oil palm progenies in four locations in Malaysia for genotype by environment interaction and genotypic stability studies. The DP progenies derived from crosses between pisifera palms of AVROS, Serdang S27B, Serdang 29/36, and Lever Cameroon were chosen to be the males' parent and Deli dura palms designated as females' parent. All the locations differed in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, and the soil types ranged from coastal clay to inland soils. The genotype by environment interaction and stability of the individual genotypes were analyzed for oil yield trait using several stability techniques. A genotype by environment interaction was detected for oil yield and it had a larger variance component than genotypic variance (σ(2)(gl)/σ(2)(g) = 139.7%). Genotype by environment interaction of oil yield was largely explained by a non-linear relationship between genotypic and environmental values. Overall assessment of individual genotypic stability showed that seven genotypes were highly stable and had consistent performance over the environments for the oil yield trait [total individual genotype stability scored more than 10 and mean oil yielded above the average of the environment (genotype means are more than 34.37 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1))]. These genotypes will be useful for oil palm breeding and tissue culture programs for developing high oil yielding planting materials with stable performance.
Drosophila bipectinata from Iriomote-jima (IR) is susceptible to the endoparasitoid Leptopilina victoriae from Kota Kinabalu (L. victoriae KK), but D. bipectinata from Kota Kinabalu (KK) and Bogor (BG) is resistant. The cross experiments between the resistant (KK) and susceptible (IR) populations of D. bipectinata suggested that the resistance to this parasitoid is a dominant trait and controlled by a single locus or few linked loci on an autosome. In the AFLP analysis using the IR, KK and BG populations of D. bipectinata and the resistant and susceptible populations derived from a mixed population of these three geographic populations, a DNA fragment almost specific to susceptible flies was detected. It also revealed that genes from the IR population were more frequently maintained in the mixed population compared with those from the KK and BG populations, suggesting that at least a number of genes from the IR population are more advantageous under the laboratory conditions. This explains our previous results that the resistance was lowered in the mixed population although the resistance itself is suggested to incur only low costs; i.e., the resistance gene(s) from the KK and BG populations would have been linked with some genes that are disadvantageous under the laboratory conditions.
The direction that a snail (Mollusca: Gastropoda) coils, whether dextral (right-handed) or sinistral (left-handed), originates in early development but is most easily observed in the shell form of the adult. Here, we review recent progress in understanding snail chirality from genetic, developmental and ecological perspectives. In the few species that have been characterized, chirality is determined by a single genetic locus with delayed inheritance, which means that the genotype is expressed in the mother's offspring. Although research lags behind the studies of asymmetry in the mouse and nematode, attempts to isolate the loci involved in snail chirality have begun, with the final aim of understanding how the axis of left-right asymmetry is established. In nature, most snail taxa (>90%) are dextral, but sinistrality is known from mutant individuals, populations within dextral species, entirely sinistral species, genera and even families. Ordinarily, it is expected that strong frequency-dependent selection should act against the establishment of new chiral types because the chiral minority have difficulty finding a suitable mating partner (their genitalia are on the 'wrong' side). Mixed populations should therefore not persist. Intriguingly, however, a very few land snail species, notably the subgenus Amphidromus sensu stricto, not only appear to mate randomly between different chiral types, but also have a stable, within-population chiral dimorphism, which suggests the involvement of a balancing factor. At the other end of the spectrum, in many species, different chiral types are unable to mate and so could be reproductively isolated from one another. However, while empirical data, models and simulations have indicated that chiral reversal must sometimes occur, it is rarely likely to lead to so-called 'single-gene' speciation. Nevertheless, chiral reversal could still be a contributing factor to speciation (or to divergence after speciation) when reproductive character displacement is involved. Understanding the establishment of chirality, the preponderance of dextral species and the rare instances of stable dimorphism is an important target for future research. Since the genetics of chirality have been studied in only a few pulmonate species, we also urge that more taxa, especially those from the sea, should be investigated.
Two new loci found in one strain of Neurospora crassa (P2604) collected in Malaya are related to the meiotic drive system Spore killer Sk-2. Sk-2 was found in Neurospora intermedia and introgressed into N. crassa. P2604 showed high resistance to killing when crossed to Sk-2. This resistance was found to be linked to, but not allelic to, resistance locus r(Sk-2) on LGIIIL. Analysis showed that the high resistance phenotype of P2604 requires resistance alleles at two different loci on LGIIIR. Strains carrying a resistance allele at only the proximal or the distal locus, respectively, were obtained and intercrossed. Highly resistant strains were obtained by rejoining the two genes. The proximal locus alone confers a low level of resistance. This locus was named pr(Sk-2) for partial resistance to Sk-2. The distal locus was named mod(pr) because its only known phenotype is to modify pr(Sk-2).
Anopheles (Cellia) litoralis King and Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus Rodenwaldt, vectors of malaria, were collected from the same brackis and sea-water habitats in six localities in Sabah. They share the same breeding habitats with predominance of one species over the other. The two species although distinct have small morphological differences and are taxonomically separated by certain wing characters. Hybridization between the two species was successful. Reciprocal crosses produced viable progeny which appeared to develop normally to adults. Hybridized females laid fewer viable eggs in comparison with the parents. The F1 hybrids resembled the litoralis parent in most characters. Backcrosses of both litoralis and sundaicus parents with the F1 hybrids yielded no eggs. F1 male hybrids were thus assumed to be sterile. The results obtained from cross matings between the two species suggested something more than subspecific status.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) blast disease is one of the most destructive rice diseases in the world. The fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae, is the causal agent of rice blast disease. Development of resistant cultivars is the most preferred method to achieve sustainable rice production. However, the effectiveness of resistant cultivars is hindered by the genetic plasticity of the pathogen genome. Therefore, information on genetic resistance and virulence stability are vital to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of blast disease resistance. The present study set out to elucidate the resistance pattern and identify potential simple sequence repeat markers linked with rice blast disease. A backcross population (BC2F1), derived from crossing MR264 and Pongsu Seribu 2 (PS2), was developed using marker-assisted backcross breeding. Twelve microsatellite markers carrying the blast resistance gene clearly demonstrated a polymorphic pattern between both parental lines. Among these, two markers, RM206 and RM5961, located on chromosome 11 exhibited the expected 1:1 testcross ratio in the BC2F1 population. The 195 BC2F1 plants inoculated against M. oryzae pathotype P7.2 showed a significantly different distribution in the backcrossed generation and followed Mendelian segregation based on a single-gene model. This indicates that blast resistance in PS2 is governed by a single dominant gene, which is linked to RM206 and RM5961 on chromosome 11. The findings presented in this study could be useful for future blast resistance studies in rice breeding programs.
Studies on hybridization, inheritance, and population genetics of brown planthoppers that infest rice and weeds were undertaken using starch gel electrophoresis to determine whether the weed-infesting population represents a biological race or a species. F(1) and F(2) generations were produced by crosses between parental insects from the two populations with little indication of hybrid sterility. Gpi, Mdh, and Idh loci were inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion in families of two sympatric populations. Sixteen populations of Nilaparvata spp. from eight locations were collected. The Mdh, Idh, Pgm, Gpi, 6Pgd, and Acp loci were polymorphic. The N. lugens of rice with high esterase activity were clustered into a group and characterized by the presence of alleles Gpi (110) and Gpi (120), whereas N. lugens from weeds with low esterase activity were clustered into another group and characterized by Gpi (100) and Gpi (90) . There was a lack of heterozygotes between the common alleles of the two populations. This means that the two groups of individuals belong to different gene pools.