A sensitive and accurate high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet/visible light detection (HPLC-UV/VIS) method for the quantification of 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-cyclohexanone (BHMC) in rat plasma was developed and validated. BHMC and the internal standard, harmaline, were extracted from plasma samples by a simple liquid-liquid extraction using 95% ethyl acetate and 5% methanol. Plasma concentration of BHMC and internal standard were analyzed by reversed phase chromatography using a C₁₈ column (150 × 4.6 mm I.D., particle size 5 µm) and elution with a gradient mobile phase of water and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection of BHMC and internal standard was done at a wavelength of 380 nm. The limit of quantification was 0.02 µg/mL. The calibration curves was linear (R² > 0.999) over the concentration range of 0.02-2.5 µg/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision were less than 2% coefficient of variation. The validated method was then applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats by intravenous administration of BHMC at a single dose of 10 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as half-life, maximum plasma concentration, volume of distribution, clearance and elimination rate constant for BHMC were calculated.
The synergistic anticancer effect of docetaxel (DTX) and curcumin (CCM) has emerged as an attractive therapeutic candidate for lung cancer treatment. However, the lack of optimal bioavailability because of high toxicity, low stability, and poor solubility has limited their clinical success. Given this, an aerosolized nanoemulsion system for pulmonary delivery is recommended to mitigate these drawbacks. In this study, DTX- and CCM-loaded nanoemulsions were optimized using the D-optimal mixture experimental design (MED). The effect of nanoemulsion compositions towards two response variables, namely, particle size and aerosol size, was studied. The optimized formulations for both DTX- and CCM-loaded nanoemulsions were determined, and their physicochemical and aerodynamic properties were evaluated as well. The MED models achieved the optimum formulation for DTX- and CCM-loaded nanoemulsions containing a 6.0 wt% mixture of palm kernel oil ester (PKOE) and safflower seed oils (1:1), 2.5 wt% of lecithin, 2.0 wt% mixture of Tween 85 and Span 85 (9:1), and 2.5 wt% of glycerol in the aqueous phase. The actual values of the optimized formulations were in line with the predicted values obtained from the MED, and they exhibited desirable attributes of physicochemical and aerodynamic properties for inhalation therapy. Thus, the optimized formulations have potential use as a drug delivery system for a pulmonary application.
Curcumin, the active ingredient of the rhizome curcuma longa has been extensively studied as an anticancer agent for various types of tumours. However, its efficacy as an anticancer agent is restricted due to poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, rapid metabolism and degradation in acidic medium. In the present study, we encapsulated curcumin in chitosan-pectinate nanoparticulate system (CUR-CS-PEC-NPs) for deployment of curcumin to the colon, whereby curcumin is protected against degradative effects in the upper digestive tract, and hence, maintaining its anticancer properties until colon arrival. The CUR-CS-PEC-NPs was taken up by HT-29 colorectal cancer cells which ultimately resulted in a significant reduction in cancer cell propagation. The anti-proliferative effect of the encapsulated curcumin was similar to that of free curcumin at equivalent doses which confirms that the encapsulation process did not impede the anticancer activity of curcumin. The oral bioavailability (Cmax, and AUC) of curcumin in CUR-CS-PEC-NPs was enhanced significantly by 4-folds after 6 hours of treatment compared to free curcumin. Furthermore, the clearance of curcumin from the CUR-CS-PEC-NPs was lower compared to free curcumin. These findings point to the potential application of the CUR-CS-PEC-NPs in the oral delivery of curcumin in the treatment of colon cancer.
There is a crucial need to develop new effective drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the currently available AD treatments provide only momentary and incomplete symptomatic relief. Amongst natural products, curcumin, a major constituent of turmeric, has been intensively investigated for its neuroprotective effect against β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced toxicity in cultured neuronal cells. The ability of curcumin to attach to Aβ peptide and prevent its accumulation is attributed to its three structural characteristics such as the presence of two aromatic end groups and their co-planarity, the length and rigidity of the linker region and the substitution conformation of these aromatics. However, curcumin failed to reach adequate brain levels after oral absorption in AD clinical trials due to its low water solubility and poor oral bioavailability. A number of new curcumin analogs that mimic the active site of the compound along with analogs that mimic the curcumin anti-amyloid effect combined with anticholinesterase effect have been developed to enhance the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, water solubility, stability at physiological conditions and delivery of curcumin. In this article, we have summarized all reported synthetic analogs of curcumin showing effects on β-amyloid and discussed their potential as therapeutic and diagnostic agents for AD.
Curcumin is more soluble in ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide, methanol and acetone than in water. In this study, nanocurcumin combined with 8 mT AC static magnetic field was used to enhance cellular uptake, bioavailability, and ultimate efficiency of curcumin against prostate cancer cell line (PC3), four bacteria strains (two Gram positive: Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and two Gram negative: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), mammalian cell line (HEK) and human erythrocytes (RBC). The efficiency (E%) between IC50 of nanocurcumin combined with magnetic field (NANOCUR-MF) and control against PC3 was 35.93%, which is three times higher compared to curcumin combined with magnetic field (CUR-MF); i.e., 10.77%. However, their E% against HEK was not significant; 1.4% for NANOCUR-MF and 1.95% for CUR-MF. Moreover, depending in minimum bacterial concentration (MBC), the use of MF leads to a reduction of MBCs for all tested bacteria compared with control. The obtained results established the applicability of (MF) in enhancing cellular uptake for PC3 and tested bacteria strains by increasing the penetration of drug (nanocurcumin and parent curcumin) into cell with fixing mild cytotoxic profile for HEK and RBC.
Present study prepared curcumin liposomes with high encapsulation efficiency (>70%) using bovine milk and krill phospholipids; and investigated the effects of phospholipids composition on storage stability, in-vitro bioavailability, antioxidative and anti-hyperglycemic properties of the curcumin liposomes. Curcumin liposomes prepared from bovine milk phospholipids have smaller particle sizes (163.1 ± 6.42 nm) and greater negative zeta potentials (-26.7 mv) as compared to that prepared from krill phospholipids (particle size: 212.2 ± 4.1 nm, zeta potential: -15.23 mv). In addition, curcumin liposomes from bovine milk phospholipids demonstrated better stability under harsh storage conditions (alkaline conditions, oxygen, high temperature and relative humidity). Nevertheless, curcumin-loaded liposomes prepared from bovine milk phospholipids have inferior bioavailability compared to that prepared from krill phospholipids. No significant differences can be observed in terms of anti-oxidative and anti-hyperglycemic properties of liposomes prepared from both bovine milk and krill phospholipids. Findings from present study will open up new opportunities for development of stable curcumin liposomes with good functional properties (high digestibility, bioavailability and pharmacological effects).
Lung cancer is among the most common cancers with a high mortality rate worldwide. Despite the significant advances in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, lung cancer prognoses and survival rates remain poor due to late diagnosis, drug resistance, and adverse effects. Therefore, new intervention therapies, such as the use of natural compounds with decreased toxicities, have been considered in lung cancer therapy. Curcumin, a natural occurring polyphenol derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa) has been studied extensively in recent years for its therapeutic effects. It has been shown that curcumin demonstrates anti-cancer effects in lung cancer through various mechanisms, including inhibition of cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, induction of apoptosis, epigenetic alterations, and regulation of microRNA expression. Several invitro and invivo studies have shown that these mechanisms are modulated by multiple molecular targets such as STAT3, EGFR, FOXO3a, TGF-β, eIF2α, COX-2, Bcl-2, PI3KAkt/mTOR, ROS, Fas/FasL, Cdc42, E-cadherin, MMPs, and adiponectin. In addition, limitations, strategies to overcome curcumin bioavailability, and potential side effects as well as clinical trials were also reviewed.
In this study, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) nanoparticles were synthesised following nanoprecipitation method having different solvents and surfactant (Tween 80) concentrations. In this study, PHB nanoparticles were encapsulated with curcumin and subjected for sustained curcumin delivery. Both the curcumin loaded and unloaded PHB nanoparticles were characterised using FTIR, SEM, and AFM. Sizes of the particles were found to be between 60 and 300 nm. The drug encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release of the nanoparticles were analysed. Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity were also evaluated. The LC50 values of most of the nanoparticles were found to be between 10 and 20 µg/100 µl, anticancer activity of curcumin loaded PHB nanoparticles were further confirmed by AO/PI staining and mitochondrial depolarisation assay.
Purpose: The present study evaluated biochemical as well as biophysical mechanisms behind the synergistic effects of curcumin and resveratrol during prostate carcinogenesis.Methods: The rats were segregated into five groups that included normal control, 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMAB)treated, DMAB + curcumin treated, DMAB + resveratrol-treated and DMAB + curcumin + resveratrol-treated.Results: The DMAB treatment resulted in a significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in DMAB treated rats. Also, significant changes were recorded in the enzyme activities of both drug metabolising enzyme and antioxidant enzymes after DMAB treatment. Further, radiorespirometric studies showed a significant increase in the 14C-glucose turnover as well as 14C-glucose uptake in the prostate slices of DMAB treated rats. Moreover, a significant rise in cell proliferation was confirmed indirectly by enhanced uptake of 3H-thymidine in the prostate slices of DMAB treated rats. Interestingly, combined treatment of curcumin and resveratrol to DMAB treated animals resulted in a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, 14C glucose uptakes/turnover and 3H-thymidine uptake in the DMAB treated rats. Besides this, curcumin and resveratrol in combination significantly modulated biochemical indices including drug-metabolising enzymes; antioxidant enzymes in DMBA treated rats.Conclusion: The study, therefore, concludes that the combination of curcumin and resveratrol holds strong modulatory potential against prostate carcinogenesis.
Curcumin, which is derived from turmeric has gained much attention in recent years for its anticancer activities against various cancers. However, due to its poor absorption, rapid metabolism and elimination, curcumin has a very low oral bioavailability. Therefore, we have formulated mucoadhesive nanoparticles to deliver curcumin to the colon, such that prolonged contact between the nanoparticles and the colon leads to a sustained level of curcumin in the colon, improving the anticancer effect of curcumin on colorectal cancer. The current work entails the ex vivo mucoadhesion study of the formulated nanoparticles and the in vitro effect of mucoadhesive interaction between the nanoparticles and colorectal cancer cells. The ex vivo study showed that curcumin-containing chitosan nanoparticles (CUR-CS-NP) have improved mucoadhesion compared to unloaded chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NP), suggesting that curcumin partly contributes to the mucoadhesion process. This may lead to an enhanced anticancer effect of curcumin when formulated in CUR-CS-NP. Our results show that CUR-CS-NP are taken up to a greater extent by colorectal cancer cells, compared to free curcumin. The prolonged contact offered by the mucoadhesion of CUR-CS-NP onto the cells resulted in a greater reduction in percentage cell viability as well as a lower IC50, indicating a potential improved treatment outcome. The formulation and free curcumin appeared to induce cell apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells, by arresting the cell cycle at G2/M phase. The superior anticancer effects exerted by CUR-CS-NP indicated that this could be a potential treatment for colorectal cancer.