METHODS: The antinociceptive potential of orally administered PECN (100, 250, 500 mg/kg) was studied using the abdominal constriction-, hot plate- and formalin-induced paw licking-test in mice (n = 6). The effect of PECN on locomotor activity was also evaluated using the rota rod assay. The role of opioid receptors was determined by pre-challenging 500 mg/kg PECN (p.o.) with antagonist of opioid receptor subtypes, namely β-funaltrexamine (β-FNA; 10 mg/kg; a μ-opioid antagonist), naltrindole (NALT; 1 mg/kg; a δ-opioid antagonist) or nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 1 mg/kg; a κ-opioid antagonist) followed by subjection to the abdominal constriction test. In addition, the role of L-arg/NO/cGMP pathway was determined by prechallenging 500 mg/kg PECN (p.o.) with L-arg (20 mg/kg; a NO precursor), 1H-[1, 2, 4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 2 mg/kg; a specific soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor), or the combinations thereof (L-arg + ODQ) for 5 mins before subjection to the abdominal constriction test. PECN was also subjected to phytoconstituents analyses.
RESULTS: PECN significantly (p 0.05) affect the locomotor activity of treated mice. The antinociceptive activity of PECN was significantly (p 0.05) affected by ODQ. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of at least cinnamic acid in PECN.
CONCLUSION: PECN exerted antinocicpetive activity at peripheral and central levels possibly via the activation of non-selective opioid receptors and modulation of the NO-mediated/cGMP-independent pathway partly via the synergistic action of phenolic compounds.
METHODS: Sodium nitrite (50mg/L) was given to angiotensin II-infused hypertensive C57BL/6J (eight to ten weeks old) mice for two weeks in the drinking water. Arterial systolic blood pressure was measured using the tail-cuff method. Vascular responsiveness of isolated aortae and renal arteries was studied in wire myographs. The level of nitrite in the plasma and the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) content in the arterial wall were determined using commercially available kits. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the presence of proteins (nitrotyrosine, NOx-2 and NOx-4) involved in ROS generation were evaluated with dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence and by Western blotting, respectively.
RESULTS: Chronic administration of sodium nitrite for two weeks to mice with angiotensin II-induced hypertension decreased systolic arterial blood pressure, reversed endothelial dysfunction, increased plasma nitrite level as well as vascular cGMP content. In addition, sodium nitrite treatment also decreased the elevated nitrotyrosine and NOx-4 protein level in angiotensin II-infused hypertensive mice.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that chronic treatment of hypertensive mice with sodium nitrite improves impaired endothelium function in conduit and resistance vessels in addition to its antihypertensive effect, partly through inhibition of ROS production.