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  1. Sim TS, Loke P, Lee MA, Singh M, Flotow H
    Parasitol Res, 2001 Sep;87(9):683-6.
    PMID: 11570549
    In this study, the genome of the Plasmodium falciparum Gombak A strain was examined for the presence of a gene encoding falcipain-2, a cysteine protease, using homology-based polymerase chain reaction cloning. The nucleotide sequence obtained from the gene cloned (designated pFG1) is approximately 99% homologous to other falcipain-2 genes from different strains. Comparatively, it is 69% homologous to falcipain-3 genes. Direct cloning of the falcipain-2 gene and its resemblance to the reported corresponding mRNA transcript suggests the absence of introns in this gene. Sequence alignment and comparison revealed four amino acid differences at positions 15, 51, 59 and 414 in the falcipain-2 from P. falciparum Gombak A as compared to other falcipain-2 proteins from different strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics*; Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism; Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry
  2. Ahmad T, Ismail A, Ahmad SA, Khalil KA, Leo TK, Awad EA, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Mar 22;23(4).
    PMID: 29565325 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23040730
    Actinidin was used to pretreat the bovine hide and ultrasonic wave (53 kHz and 500 W) was used for the time durations of 2, 4 and 6 h at 60 °C to extract gelatin samples (UA2, UA4 and UA6, respectively). Control (UAC) gelatin was extracted using ultrasound for 6 h at 60 °C without enzyme pretreatment. There was significant (p < 0.05) increase in gelatin yield as the time duration of ultrasound treatment increased with UA6 giving the highest yield of 19.65%. Gel strength and viscosity of UAC and UA6 extracted gelatin samples were 627.53 and 502.16 g and 16.33 and 15.60 mPa.s, respectively. Longer duration of ultrasound treatment increased amino acids content of the extracted gelatin and UAC exhibited the highest content of amino acids. Progressive degradation of polypeptide chains was observed in the protein pattern of the extracted gelatin as the time duration of ultrasound extraction increased. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy depicted loss of molecular order and degradation in UA6. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed protein aggregation and network formation in the gelatin samples with increasing time of ultrasound treatment. The study indicated that ultrasound assisted gelatin extraction using actinidin exhibited high yield with good quality gelatin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry*
  3. Lim FL, Hashim Z, Md Said S, Than LT, Hashim JH, Norbäck D
    Sci Total Environ, 2015 Dec 1;536:353-61.
    PMID: 26225741 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.137
    There are few studies on sick building syndrome (SBS) including clinical measurements for atopy and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Our aim was to study associations between SBS symptoms, selected personal factors, office characteristics and indoor office exposures among office workers from a university in Malaysia. Health data were collected by a questionnaire (n=695), skin prick test (SPT) (n=463) and FeNO test (n=460). Office settled dust was vacuumed and analyzed for endotoxin, (1,3)-β-glucan and house dust mites (HDM) allergens group 1 namely Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1). Office indoor temperature, relative air humidity (RH), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured by a direct reading instrument. Associations were studied by two-levels multiple logistic regression with mutual adjustment and stratified analysis. The prevalence of weekly dermal, mucosal and general symptoms was 11.9%, 16.0% and 23.0% respectively. A combination of SPT positivity (allergy to HDM or cat) and high FeNO level (≥25 ppb) was associated with dermal (p=0.002), mucosal (p<0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.05). Der f1 level in dust was associated with dermal (p<0.001), mucosal (p<0.001) and general (p=0.02) symptoms. Among those with allergy to D. farinae, associations were found between Der f 1 levels in dust and dermal (p=0.003), mucosal (p=0.001) and general symptoms (p=0.007). Office-related symptoms were associated with Der f 1 levels in dust (p=0.02), low relative air humidity (p=0.04) and high office temperature (p=0.05). In conclusion, a combination of allergy to cat or HDM and high FeNO is a risk factor for SBS symptoms. Der f 1 allergen in dust can be a risk factor for SBS in the office environment, particularly among those sensitized to Der f 1 allergen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cysteine Endopeptidases/analysis
  4. Mai CW, Chung FF, Leong CO
    Curr Drug Targets, 2017;18(11):1259-1268.
    PMID: 27993111 DOI: 10.2174/1389450117666161216125344
    BACKGROUND: Recent reports indicate that the tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role in cancer development and progression, leading to a paradigm shift in the way cancer is studied and targeted. In contrast to traditional approaches, where only tumor cells are targeted for the treatment, an emerging approach is to develop therapeutics which target the tumor microenvironment while complementing or enhancing current treatments. Legumain (LGMN) is a newly identified target which is highly expressed in the tumor microenvironment and in tumor cells, and holds potential both as a biomarker and as a therapeutic target.

    CONCLUSION: This review will be the first to summarize the expression of LGMN in common cancers, as well as its roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis. This review also discusses the current developments and future prospects of targeting LGMN through the development of DNA vaccines, azopeptides, small molecule inhibitors and LGMN activated prodrugs, highlighting the potential of LGMN as a target for cancer therapeutics.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism*
  5. Yeoh SM, Kuo IC, Wang DY, Liam CK, Sam CK, De Bruyne JA, et al.
    Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 2003 Nov;132(3):215-20.
    PMID: 14646382 DOI: 10.1159/000074302
    BACKGROUND: The house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) and Blomia tropicalis (Blo t) are the most common house dust mite species in Southeast Asia. To date, there have only been a few studies on the sensitization profile of the general populations in Southeast Asia to house dust mites. The aim of this study was to determine the profiles of Der p and Blo t sensitization among Singaporean and Malaysian subjects.

    METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect specific IgE to Der p and Blo t mite crude extracts as well as purified Der p 1, Der p 2 and Blo t 5 allergens. Sera used were from 229 Singaporean subjects (124 with rhinitis, 105 without rhinitis) and 143 Malaysian subjects (94 adults and 49 children with asthma).

    RESULTS: The sensitization profile of rhinitis subjects to the dust mite allergens used in this study was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 91/124 (73%); Blo t 5 positive: 62/124 (50%); Der p extract positive: 61/124 (49%); Der p 1 positive: 53/124 (43%); Der p 2 positive: 45/124 (36%). The nonrhinitis subjects' sensitization profile was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 60/105 (57%); Blo t 5 positive: 24/105 (23%); Der p extract positive: 38/105 (36%); Der p 1 positive: 14/105 (13%); Der p 2 positive: 17/105 (16%). The study of Malaysian asthmatic adults showed that 39% of them were sensitized to Der p 1, 32% to Der p 2 and 37% to Blo t 5. Among the asthmatic children, sensitization to Blo t 5, Der p 1 and Der p 2 was 90, 57 and 39%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study clearly revealed that dual sensitization to B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus is common in the general populations of Singapore and Malaysia. Sensitization to Blo t 5 is more prevalent than to Der p 1 and Der p 2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cysteine Endopeptidases
  6. Lim FL, Hashim Z, Than LT, Md Said S, Hisham Hashim J, Norbäck D
    PLoS One, 2015;10(4):e0124905.
    PMID: 25923543 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124905
    A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695). The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM) and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH) were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus) and Der f 1 (from D. farinae) allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035), any airway symptoms (p= 0.032), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005), current asthma (p= 0.007), current rhinitis (p= 0.021) and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001). Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021), wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033), any airway symptoms (p= 0.034), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010), current asthma (p= 0.020) and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042). Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033) especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001) and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001). In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cysteine Endopeptidases/immunology
  7. Law WY, Asaruddin MR, Bhawani SA, Mohamad S
    BMC Res Notes, 2020 Nov 11;13(1):527.
    PMID: 33176880 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-020-05379-6
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to use Ligand-based pharmacophore modelling approach for four established antiviral drugs, namely remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 inhibitors as training sets. In this study Twenty vanillin derivatives together with monolaurin and tetrodotoxin were used as test sets to evaluate as potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors. The Structure-based pharmacophore modelling approach was also performed using 5RE6, 5REX and 5RFZ in order to analyse the binding site and ligand-protein complex interactions.

    RESULTS: The pharmacophore modelling mode of 5RE6 displayed two Hydrogen Bond Acceptors (HBA) and one Hydrophobic (HY) interaction. Besides, the pharmacophore model of 5REX showed two HBA and two HY interactions. Finally, the pharmacophore model of 5RFZ showed three HBA and one HY interaction. Based on ligand-based approach, 20 Schiff-based vanillin derivatives, showed strong MPro inhibition activity. This was due to their good alignment and common features to PDB-5RE6. Similarly, monolaurin and tetrodotoxin displayed some significant activity against SARS-CoV-2. From structure-based approach, vanillin derivatives (1) to (12) displayed some potent MPro inhibition against SARS-CoV-2. Favipiravir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine also showed some significant MPro inhibition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cysteine Endopeptidases
  8. Daood U, Matinlinna JP, Pichika MR, Mak KK, Nagendrababu V, Fawzy AS
    Sci Rep, 2020 07 03;10(1):10970.
    PMID: 32620785 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-67616-z
    To study the antimicrobial effects of quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) exposure on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus bacterial biofilms at different concentrations. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus biofilms were cultured on dentine disks, and incubated for bacterial adhesion for 3-days. Disks were treated with disinfectant (experimental QAS or control) and returned to culture for four days. Small-molecule drug discovery-suite was used to analyze QAS/Sortase-A active site. Cleavage of a synthetic fluorescent peptide substrate, was used to analyze inhibition of Sortase-A. Raman spectroscopy was performed and biofilms stained for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Dentine disks that contained treated dual-species biofilms were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis of DAPI within biofilms was performed using CLSM. Fatty acids in bacterial membranes were assessed with succinic-dehydrogenase assay along with time-kill assay. Sortase-A protein underwent conformational change due to QAS molecule during simulation, showing fluctuating alpha and beta strands. Spectroscopy revealed low carbohydrate intensities in 1% and 2% QAS. SEM images demonstrated absence of bacterial colonies after treatment. DAPI staining decreased with 1% QAS (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Cysteine Endopeptidases
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