Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 51 in total

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  1. Goot-Heah K, Kwai-Lin T, Froemming GR, Abraham MT, Nik Mohd Rosdy NM, Zain RB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(12):6109-13.
    PMID: 23464414
    BACKGROUND: Oral cancer has become one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide and human Papillomavirus is one of the risk factors for developing oral cancer. For this study HPV18 was chosen as it is one of the high risk HPV types and may lead to carcinogenesis. However, prevalence of HPV18 infection in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Malaysia remains unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the viral load of HPV18 DNA in OSCC and potentially malignant lesions using saliva samples.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNAs of thirty saliva samples of normal subjects and thirty saliva samples compromised of 16 samples from potentially malignant lesions and 14 of OSCC patients were amplified for HPV18 DNA using a nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. All PCR products were then analyzed using the Bioanalyzer to confirm presence of HPV18 DNA.

    RESULT: From thirty patients examined, only one of 30 (3.3%) cases was found to be positive for HPV18 in this study.

    CONCLUSION: The finding of this study revealed that there is a low viral detection of HPV18 in Malaysian OSCC by using saliva samples, suggesting that prevalence of HPV18 may not be important in this group of Malaysian OSCC.

    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  2. Tan SC, Ismail MP, Duski DR, Othman NH, Ankathil R
    Biosci. Rep., 2018 04 27;38(2).
    PMID: 29487170 DOI: 10.1042/BSR20171268
    Information on the prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) among Malaysian women is currently limited. The present study therefore aimed to provide an updated estimate on the prevalence and type distribution of HPV among Malaysian women with and without cervical cancer. Total DNA was isolated from the cervical cell specimens of 185 histopathologically confirmed cervical cancer patients and 209 cancer-free healthy females who were tested negative in a recent Pap test. Viral-specific DNA was subsequently amplified with biotinylated primers and hybridized to HPV type-specific probes via a proprietary "flow-through hybridization" process for determination of HPV genotype. It was demonstrated that 83.2% of the cervical cancer patients and none (0.0%) of the cancer-free females were positive for HPV infection. Among HPV-positive subjects, 14 different viral genotypes were observed, namely HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 53, 58, 66/68, 73, 81, 82, and 84/26. A total of 91.6% of the HPV-positive subjects had single-type HPV infections and the remaining 8.4% were simultaneously infected by two HPV genotypes. The most common HPV infections found were HPV16 (35.7%), HPV18 (26.0%), HPV58 (9.1%), and HPV33 (7.1%) single-type infections, followed by HPV16 + HPV18 co-infections (5.2%). The study has successfully provided an updated estimate on the prevalence and type distribution of HPV among Malaysian women with and without cervical cancer. These findings could contribute valuable information for appraisal of the impact and cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV vaccines in the Malaysian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics*
  3. Tang KF, Lightner DV
    Dis. Aquat. Org., 2011 Feb 22;93(3):191-8.
    PMID: 21516971 DOI: 10.3354/dao02293
    We describe a duplex real-time PCR assay using TaqMan probes for the simultaneous detection of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV). Both MBV and HPV are shrimp enteric viruses that infect intestinal and hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. Both viruses can cause significant mortalities and depressed growth in infected larval, postlarval, and early juvenile stages of shrimp, and thus present a risk to commercial aquaculture. In this duplex assay, we combined 2 single real-time PCRs, amplifying MBV and HPV, in a one-tube PCR reaction. The 2 viruses were distinguished by specific fluorescent labels at the 5' end of TaqMan probes: the MBV probe was labeled with dichlorodimethoxyfluorescein (JOE), and the HPV probe was labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM). The duplex real-time PCR assay was performed in a multi-channel real-time PCR detection system, and MBV and HPV amplification signals were separately detected by the JOE and FAM channels. This duplex assay was validated to be specific to the target viruses and found to have a detection limit of single copies for each virus. The dynamic range was found to be from 1 to 1 x 10(8) copies per reaction. This assay was further applied to quantify MBV and HPV in samples of infected Penaeus monodon collected from Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The specificity and sensitivity of this duplex real-time PCR assay offer a valuable tool for routine diagnosis and quantification of MBV and HPV from both wild and farmed shrimp stocks.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  4. Yap SF, Wong PW, Chen YC, Rosmawati M
    PMID: 12118437
    A retrospective study was carried out to determine the frequency of the pre-core stop codon mutant virus in a group of chronic hepatitis B carriers: 81 cases were considered [33 hepatits B e antigen (HBe) positive and 48 HBe negative]. All of the HBe positive cases had detectable viral DNA by hybridization analysis; in the case of the HBe negative cases, one third had detectable viral DNA by hybridization analysis and two thirds had HBV DNA detectable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Pre-core stop codon mutant detection was carried out on all specimens using allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization following PCR amplification of the target sequence. The pre-core mutant was detected in 13/33 (39.4%) of HBe positive cases and in 32/48 (66.7%) of HBe negative cases. Sequence analysis was carried out on 8 of the 16 HBe negative specimens that did not carry the pre-core mutant virus to determine the molecular basis for the HBe minus phenotype in these cases: the 1762/1764 TA paired mutation in the second AT rich region of the core promoter was detected in five cases; a start codon mutation was detected in one case. The predominant mutation resulting in the HBe minus phenotype in our isolates was the 1896A pre-core ("pre-core stop codon") mutation; other mutations responsible for the phenotype included the core promoter paired mutation and pre-core start codon mutation. In view of the high frequency of the pre-core mutant virus, sequence analysis was performed to determine the virus genotype on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of codon 15. The sequences of 21 wild type virus (14 HBe positive and 7 HBe negative cases) were examined: 15 were found to be codon 15 CCT variants (71.4%); the frequency in the HBe positive group was 12/14 (85.7%), while that in the HBe negative group was 3/7 (42.9%). The high frequency of the codon 15 CCT variant in association with the frequent occurrence of the pre-core mutant in our isolates concurs with the results of other studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  5. Tan CW, Tee HK, Lee MH, Sam IC, Chan YF
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(9):e0162771.
    PMID: 27617744 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162771
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease, and is occasionally associated with neurological complications and death in children. Reverse genetics is widely used in the field of virology for functional study of viral genes. For EV-A71, such tools are limited to clones that are transcriptionally controlled by T7/SP6 bacteriophage promoter. This is often time-consuming and expensive. Here, we describe the development of infectious plasmid DNA-based EV-A71 clones, for which EV-A71 genome expression is under transcriptional control by the CMV-intermediate early promoter and SV40 transcriptional-termination signal. Transfection of this EV-A71 infectious DNA produces good virus yield similar to in vitro-transcribed EV-A71 infectious RNA, 6.4 and 5.8 log10PFU/ml, respectively. Infectious plasmid with enhanced green fluorescence protein and Nano luciferase reporter genes also produced good virus titers, with 4.3 and 5.0 log10 PFU/ml, respectively. Another infectious plasmid with both CMV and T7 promoters was also developed for easy manipulation of in vitro transcription or direct plasmid transfection. Transfection with either dual-promoter infectious plasmid DNA or infectious RNA derived from this dual-promoter clone produced infectious viral particles. Incorporation of hepatitis delta virus ribozyme, which yields precise 3' ends of the DNA-launched EV-A71 genomic transcripts, increased infectious viral production. In contrast, the incorporation of hammerhead ribozyme in the DNA-launched EV-A71 resulted in lower virus yield, but improved the virus titers for T7 promoter-derived infectious RNA. This study describes rapid and robust reverse genetic tools for EV-A71.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics*
  6. Balakrishnan KN, Abdullah AA, Bala J, Abba Y, Sarah SA, Jesse FFA, et al.
    Infect. Genet. Evol., 2017 10;54:81-90.
    PMID: 28642159 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2017.06.020
    BACKGROUND: Rat cytomegalovirus ALL-03 (Malaysian strain) which was isolated from a placenta and uterus of a house rat, Rattus rattus diardii has the ability to cross the placenta and infecting the fetus. To further elucidate the pathogenesis of the Malaysian strain of Rat Cytomegalovirus ALL-03 (RCMV ALL-03), detailed analysis on the viral genome sequence is crucial.

    METHODS: Genome sequencing of RCMV ALL-03 was carried out in order to identify the open reading frame (ORF), homology comparison of ORF with other strains of CMV, phylogenetic analysis, classifying ORF with its corresponding conserved genes, and determination of functional proteins and grouping of gene families in order to obtain fundamental knowledge of the genome.

    RESULTS: The present study revealed a total of 123 Coding DNA sequences (CDS) from RCMV ALL-03 with 37 conserved ORF domains as with all herpesvirus genomes. All the CDS possess similar function with RCMV-England followed by RCMV-Berlin, RCMV-Maastricht, and Human CMV. The phylogenetic analysis of RCMV ALL-03 based on conserving genes of herpes virus showed that the Malaysian RCMV isolate is closest to RCMV-English and RCMV-Berlin strains, with 99% and 97% homology, respectively. Similarly, it also demonstrated an evolutionary relationship between RCMV ALL-03 and other strains of herpesviruses from all the three subfamilies. Interestingly, betaherpesvirus subfamily, which has been shown to be more closely related with gammaherpesviruses as compared to alphaherpesviruses, shares some of the functional ORFs. In addition, the arrangement of gene blocks for RCMV ALL-03, which was conserved among herpesvirus family members was also observed in the RCMV ALL-03 genome.

    CONCLUSION: Genomic analysis of RCMV ALL-03 provided an overall picture of the whole genome organization and it served as a good platform for further understanding on the divergence in the family of Herpesviridae.

    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  7. Cowley JA, Rao M, Coman GJ
    Dis. Aquat. Org., 2018 Jul 04;129(2):145-158.
    PMID: 29972375 DOI: 10.3354/dao03243
    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) can cause mass mortalities in western blue shrimp Penaeus stylirostris, runt deformity syndrome in Pacific white shrimp P. vannamei and scalloped abdominal shell deformities in black tiger shrimp P. monodon. In P. monodon, however, PCR-based diagnosis of IHHNV can be complicated by the presence of a chromosome-integrated, non-replicating endogenous viral element (EVE). To facilitate high-throughput screening of P. monodon for IHHNV infection and/or EVE sequences, here we report real-time PCR tests designed to specifically detect IHHNV Lineage I, II and III but not EVE Type A sequences and vice versa. Using 108 dsDNA copies of plasmid (p)DNA controls containing either IHHNV or EVE-Type A sequences, both tests displayed absolute specificity. The IHHNV-q309 PCR reliably detected down to ≤10 copies of pDNA, at which levels a 309F/R PCR amplicon was just detectable, and the presence of an IHHNV-EVE sequence did not significantly impact its sensitivity. The IHHNV-qEVE PCR was similarly sensitive. Testing of batches of P. monodon clinical samples from Vietnam/Malaysia and Australia identified good diagnostic concordance between the IHHNV-q309 and 309F/R PCR tests. As expected for a sequence integrated into host chromosomal DNA, IHHNV-qEVE PCR Ct values were highly uniform among samples from shrimp in which an EVE was present. The highly specific and sensitive IHHNV-q309 and IHHNV-qEVE real-time PCR tests described here should prove useful for selecting broodstock free of IHHNV infection and in maintaining breeding populations of P. monodon specific pathogen free for IHHNV, and if desired, also free of IHHNV-EVE sequences.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics*
  8. Duff-Farrier CRA, Mbanzibwa DR, Nanyiti S, Bunawan H, Pablo-Rodriguez JL, Tomlinson KR, et al.
    Mol. Biotechnol., 2019 Feb;61(2):93-101.
    PMID: 30484144 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-018-0139-7
    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has major impacts on yield and quality of the tuberous roots of cassava in Eastern and Central Arica. At least two Potyviridae species cause the disease: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). Cloned viral genome sequences known as infectious clones (ICs) have been important in the study of other viruses, both as a means of standardising infectious material and characterising viral gene function. IC construction is often technically challenging for Potyviridae due to sequence instability in E. coli. Here, we evaluate three methods for the construction of infectious clones for CBSD. Whilst a simple IC for in vitro transcription was made for UCBSV isolate 'Kikombe', such an approach failed to deliver full-length clones for CBSV isolates 'Nampula' or 'Tanza', necessitating more complex approaches for their construction. The ICs successfully generated symptomatic infection in the model host N. benthamiana and in the natural host cassava. This shows that whilst generating ICs for CBSV is still a technical challenge, a structured approach, evaluating both in vitro and in planta transcription systems should successfully deliver ICs, allowing further study into the symptomology and virulence factors in this important disease complex.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  9. Gan HM, Sieo CC, Tang SG, Omar AR, Ho YW
    Virol. J., 2013;10:308.
    PMID: 24134834 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-10-308
    Bacteriophage EC1-UPM is an N4-like bacteriophage which specifically infects Escherichia coli O78:K80, an avian pathogenic strain that causes colibacillosis in poultry. The complete genome sequence of bacteriophage EC1-UPM was analysed and compared with other closely related N4-like phage groups to assess their genetic similarities and differences.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics*
  10. Louisirirotchanakul S, Olinger CM, Arunkaewchaemsri P, Poovorawan Y, Kanoksinsombat C, Thongme C, et al.
    J. Med. Virol., 2012 Oct;84(10):1541-7.
    PMID: 22930500 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.23363
    Phylogenetic analysis was performed on hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains obtained from 86 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive donors from Thailand originating throughout the country. Based on the S gene, 87.5% of strains were of genotype C while 10.5% were of genotype B, with all genotype B strains obtained from patients originating from the central or the south Thailand. No genotype B strains were found in the north of Thailand. Surprisingly, one patient was infected with a genotype H strain while another patient was infected with a genotype G strain. Complete genome sequencing and recombination analysis identified the latter as being a genotype G and C2 recombinant with the breakpoint around nucleotide position 700. The origin of the genotype G fragment was not identifiable while the genotype C2 fragment most likely came from strains circulating in Laos or Malaysia. The performance of different HBsAg diagnostic kits and HBV nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) was evaluated. The genotype H and G/C2 recombination did not interfere with HBV detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  11. Sahbandar IN, Takahashi K, Djoerban Z, Firmansyah I, Naganawa S, Motomura K, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2009 Jul;25(7):637-46.
    PMID: 19621986 DOI: 10.1089/aid.2008.0266
    HIV infection is a major problem in Indonesia. The number of people living with HIV has been increasing from year to year, especially among injecting drug users (IDUs). Since there were only limited data about molecular epidemiology profiles of HIV/AIDS in Indonesia, a cross-sectional study involving 208 HIV-1-seropositive individuals was conducted in 2007 in Jakarta. The majority of participants were 16-30 years of age (64.9%) and 74.5% were male. The most frequent risk factor was injecting drug use (IDU) (45.7%) followed by heterosexual transmission (34.1%). Phylogenetic analysis of gag (p17 and p6) and env C2V3 regions showed 200 (96.2%) of 208 DNA samples were CRF01_AE and only 3 (1.4%) were subtype B. Five samples (2.4%) indicated discordant subtypes between the three aforementioned regions: three of them showed unique CRF01_AE/B recombination patterns in 2.3-kbp nucleotide sequences (from p17 to part of RT), including one sample showing similarity to CRF33_01B, reported previously in Malaysia. This study shows the current predominant subtype is CRF01_AE in every risk group, with a decreasing number of pure subtype B, and the first identification of CRF01_AE/B recombinant forms among HIV-1-seropositive Indonesians.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  12. Sharifah NA, Seeni A, Nurismah MI, Clarence-Ko CH, Hatta AZ, Ho NP, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009 Apr-Jun;10(2):303-6.
    PMID: 19537900
    Cervical cancer is the second most common female malignancy in Malaysia. Despite advances in treatment, the overall survival for this disease has not changed in the last decade. Infection by certain types of HPV is recognized as a causal and necessary factor for its development. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of HPV infection in abnormal cervical smears in Malaysian patients using archival cervical smears retrieved from the Cytopathology Unit, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) between the years 1992-1995. DNA was extracted from 38 abnormal smears comprising 25 intraepithelial lesions and 13 cervical carcinomas and 10 normal smears. Amplification of HPV genes was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. HPV genotypes were determined using direct sequencing and the results were compared to the database from Genebank. DNA was successfully extracted from all 48 cervical smears. High-risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes were detected in 95% of the abnormal smears. Eight high-risk oncogenic types were identified: 16, 18, 31, 51, 52, 56, 58 and 66. All (100%) cervical cancer smears showed presence of HR-HPV compared to 92% of the cervical intraepithelial lesions. Among the eight HR-HPV genotypes identified, HPV 16 and 52 were the commonest (23.7% each) HPV genotypes encountered and among the CIN lesions, HPV 16 (28%) was the most frequent. We conclude that HPV 16 is the most prevalent HPV genotype present in abnormal cervical smears in Malaysian patients, and that the use of archival material to assess the presence of HPV is potentially worthwhile, and can be utilized for longitudinal studies of HPV presence and persistence.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  13. Tang KH, Yusoff K, Tan WS
    J. Virol. Methods, 2009 Aug;159(2):194-9.
    PMID: 19490973 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2009.03.015
    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem worldwide which may lead to chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. An interaction between hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope protein, particularly the PreS1 region, and a specific cell surface receptor is believed to be the initial step of HBV infection through attachment to hepatocytes. In order to develop a gene delivery system, bacteriophage T7 was modified genetically to display polypeptides of the PreS1 region. A recombinant T7 phage displaying amino acids 60-108 of the PreS1 region (PreS1(60-108)) was demonstrated to be most effective in transfecting HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependant manner. The phage genome was recovered from the cell lysate and confirmed by PCR whereas the infectious form of the internalized phage was measured by a plaque-forming assay. The internalized phage exhibited the appearance of green fluorescent dots when examined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Surface modification, particularly by displaying the PreS1(60-108) enhanced phage uptake, resulting in more efficient in vitro gene transfer. The ability of the recombinant phage to transfect HepG2 cells demonstrates the potential of the phage display system as a gene therapy for liver cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  14. Perera D, Yusof MA, Podin Y, Ooi MH, Thao NT, Wong KK, et al.
    Arch. Virol., 2007;152(6):1201-8.
    PMID: 17308978
    A phylogenetic analysis of VP1 and VP4 nucleotide sequences of 52 recent CVA16 strains demonstrated two distinct CVA16 genogroups, A and B, with the prototype strain being the only member of genogroup A. CVA16 G-10, the prototype strain, showed a nucleotide difference of 27.7-30.2% and 19.9-25.2% in VP1 and VP4, respectively, in relation to other CVA16 strains, which formed two separate lineages in genogroup B with nucleotide variation of less than 13.4% and less than 16.3% in VP1 and VP4, respectively. Lineage 1 strains circulating before 2000 were later displaced by lineage 2 strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  15. Jiang J, Ridley AW, Tang H, Croft BJ, Johnson KN
    Arch. Virol., 2008;153(5):839-48.
    PMID: 18299794 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-008-0058-1
    Fiji leaf gall is an important disease of sugarcane in Australia and other Asia-Pacific countries. The causative agent is the reovirus Fiji disease virus (FDV). Previous reports indicate that there is variation in pathology between virus isolates. To investigate the amount of genetic variation found in FDV, 25 field isolates from Australia, Papua New Guinea and Malaysia were analysed by partial sequencing of genome segments S3 and S9. There was up to 15% divergence in the nucleotide sequence among the 25 isolates. A similar amount of divergence and pattern of relationships was found for each of the two genomic segments for most of the field isolates, although reassortment of genome segments seems likely for at least one of the Papua New Guinean isolates. The finding of a high level of variation in FDV isolated in different regions has implications for quarantine and disease management.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  16. Sharman M, Thomas JE, Skabo S, Holton TA
    Arch. Virol., 2008;153(1):135-47.
    PMID: 17978886 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-007-1077-z
    Two isolates of a novel babuvirus causing "bunchy top" symptoms were characterised, one from abacá (Musa textilis) from the Philippines and one from banana (Musa sp.) from Sarawak (Malaysia). The name abacá bunchy top virus (ABTV) is proposed. Both isolates have a genome of six circular DNA components, each ca. 1.0-1.1 kb, analogous to those of isolates of Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). However, unlike BBTV, both ABTV isolates lack an internal ORF in DNA-R, and the ORF in DNA-U3 found in some BBTV isolates is also absent. In all phylogenetic analyses of nanovirid isolates, ABTV and BBTV fall in the same clade, but on separate branches. However, ABTV and BBTV isolates shared only 79-81% amino acid sequence identity for the putative coat protein and 54-76% overall nucleotide sequence identity across all components. Stem-loop and major common regions were present in ABTV, but there was less than 60% identity with the major common region of BBTV. ABTV and BBTV were also shown to be serologically distinct, with only two out of ten BBTV-specific monoclonal antibodies reacting with ABTV. The two ABTV isolates may represent distinct strains of the species as they are less closely related to each other than are isolates of the two geographic subgroups (Asian and South Pacific) of BBTV.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  17. AbuBakar S, Shafee N, Chee HY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Sep;53(3):293-5.
    PMID: 10968171
    Infectious agent(s) causing the fatal Sarawak acute childhood viral infection (SACVI) has not been identified. In the present study, results indicating that inocula prepared from the fatal cases of SACVI induced apoptosis in Vero cell cultures are presented. These findings suggest the possible involvement of apoptotic cellular responses in SACVI.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  18. Mellor J, Walsh EA, Prescott LE, Jarvis LM, Davidson F, Yap PL, et al.
    J. Clin. Microbiol., 1996 Feb;34(2):417-23.
    PMID: 8789027
    Previous surveys of the prevalences of genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in different populations have often used genotyping assays based upon analysis of amplified sequences from the 5' noncoding region (5'NCR), such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or hybridization with type-specific probes (e.g., InnoLipa). Although highly conserved, this region contains several type-specific nucleotide polymorphisms that allow major genotypes 1 to 6 to be reliably identified. Recently, however, novel HCV variants found in Vietnam and Thailand that are distantly related to the type 6a genotype (type 6 group) by phylogenetic analysis of coding regions of the genome often have sequences in the 5'NCR that are similar or identical to those of type 1 and could therefore not be identified by an assay of sequences in this region. We developed a new genotyping assay based upon RFLP of sequences amplified from the more variable core region to investigate their distribution elsewhere in southeast (SE) Asia. Among 108 samples from blood donors in seven areas that were identified as type 1 by RFLP in the 5'NCR, type 6 group variants were found in Thailand (7 from 28 samples originally identified as type 1) and Burma (Myanmar) (1 of 3) but were not found in Hong Kong (n = 43), Macau (n = 8), Taiwan (n = 6), Singapore (n = 2), or Malaysia (n = 18). Although this small survey suggests a relatively limited distribution for type 6 group variants in SE Asia, larger studies will be required to explore their distribution in other geographical regions and the extent to which their presence would limit the practical usefulness of 5'NCR-based genotyping assays for clinical or epidemiological purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  19. Tsuchie H, Oda K, Vythilingam I, Thayan R, Vijayamalar B, Sinniah M, et al.
    Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol., 1994 Apr;47(2):101-7.
    PMID: 7853748
    Two hundred and forty nucleotides from the pre-M gene region of 10 Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus strains isolated in Malaysia in 1992 were sequenced and compared with the other JE virus strains from different geographic areas in Asia. Our JE virus strains belong to the largest genotypic group that includes strains isolated in temperate regions such as Japan, China, and Taiwan. Our Malaysian JE virus strains differed in 32 nucleotides (13.3%) from WTP/70/22 strain isolated from Malaysia in 1970, which belonged to another distinct genotypic group.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
  20. Lal TM, Sano M, Ransangan J
    J. Basic Microbiol., 2016 Aug;56(8):872-88.
    PMID: 26960780 DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201500611
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus has long been known pathogenic to shrimp but only recently it is also reported pathogenic to tropical cultured marine finfish. Traditionally, bacterial diseases in aquaculture are often treated using synthetic antibiotics but concern due to side effects of these chemicals is elevating hence, new control strategies which are both environmental and consumer friendly, are urgently needed. One promising control strategy is the bacteriophage therapy. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of a novel vibriophage (VpKK5), belonging to the family Siphoviridae that was specific and capable of complete lysing the fish pathogenic strain of V. parahaemolyticus. The VpKK5 exhibited short eclipse and latent periods of 24 and 36 min, respectively, but with a large burst size of 180 pfu/cell. The genome analysis revealed that the VpKK5 is a novel bacteriophage with the estimated genome size of 56,637 bp and has 53.1% G + C content. The vibriophage has about 80 predicted open reading frames consisted of 37 complete coding sequences which did not match to any protein databases. The analysis also found no lysogeny and virulence genes in the genome of VpKK5. With such genome features, we suspected the vibriophage is novel and could be explored for phage therapy against fish pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus in the near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Viral/genetics
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