OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the viral load of HPV18 DNA in OSCC and potentially malignant lesions using saliva samples.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNAs of thirty saliva samples of normal subjects and thirty saliva samples compromised of 16 samples from potentially malignant lesions and 14 of OSCC patients were amplified for HPV18 DNA using a nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. All PCR products were then analyzed using the Bioanalyzer to confirm presence of HPV18 DNA.
RESULT: From thirty patients examined, only one of 30 (3.3%) cases was found to be positive for HPV18 in this study.
CONCLUSION: The finding of this study revealed that there is a low viral detection of HPV18 in Malaysian OSCC by using saliva samples, suggesting that prevalence of HPV18 may not be important in this group of Malaysian OSCC.
METHODS: Genome sequencing of RCMV ALL-03 was carried out in order to identify the open reading frame (ORF), homology comparison of ORF with other strains of CMV, phylogenetic analysis, classifying ORF with its corresponding conserved genes, and determination of functional proteins and grouping of gene families in order to obtain fundamental knowledge of the genome.
RESULTS: The present study revealed a total of 123 Coding DNA sequences (CDS) from RCMV ALL-03 with 37 conserved ORF domains as with all herpesvirus genomes. All the CDS possess similar function with RCMV-England followed by RCMV-Berlin, RCMV-Maastricht, and Human CMV. The phylogenetic analysis of RCMV ALL-03 based on conserving genes of herpes virus showed that the Malaysian RCMV isolate is closest to RCMV-English and RCMV-Berlin strains, with 99% and 97% homology, respectively. Similarly, it also demonstrated an evolutionary relationship between RCMV ALL-03 and other strains of herpesviruses from all the three subfamilies. Interestingly, betaherpesvirus subfamily, which has been shown to be more closely related with gammaherpesviruses as compared to alphaherpesviruses, shares some of the functional ORFs. In addition, the arrangement of gene blocks for RCMV ALL-03, which was conserved among herpesvirus family members was also observed in the RCMV ALL-03 genome.
CONCLUSION: Genomic analysis of RCMV ALL-03 provided an overall picture of the whole genome organization and it served as a good platform for further understanding on the divergence in the family of Herpesviridae.