Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 66 in total

  1. Pang T
    Immunol. Today, 1983 Dec;4(12):331-4.
    PMID: 25290926 DOI: 10.1016/0167-5699(83)90163-9
    It is now nearly 20 years since a strong correlation was noted in Thailand between secondary immune responses and severe dengue syndromes. It is currently thought that 'enhancing' antibodies, in an individual undergoing a second infection with a different serotype of dengue virus, promotes viral replication in monocytes which then become the targets of an immune elimination response (possibly T-cell mediated). The monocytes then release various chemical mediators which produce the symptoms of shock and haemorrhage seen in dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Much new knowledge has been gained in recent years especially from immunoepidemiological and immunological studies, and these were discussed at a recent meeting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology*
  2. Preeyaa SU, Murugesan A, Sopnajothi S, Yong YK, Tan HY, Larsson M, et al.
    Viral Immunol, 2020 11;33(9):610-615.
    PMID: 32996843 DOI: 10.1089/vim.2020.0149
    Peripheral follicular helper T (pTfh) cells represent specialized CD4+ T cells that help B cells to secrete antibodies. Dengue infection appears to cause immune activation in a wide array of immune cells. Herein, we investigated the signatures of immune activation of circulating Tfh cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in adult subjects with confirmed acute clinical dengue virus (DENV) infection by multiparametric flow cytometry. The acute DENV infection induced a significant expansion of highly activated pTfh cells and circulating MAIT cells during acute febrile infection. We found a higher frequency of activated PD-1+ Tfh cells and CD38+ pTfh cells in clinical DENV infection. We also found similar activated and expanding phenotypes of MAIT cells in the patients tested. The total counts of activated pTfh cells and circulating MAIT cells were higher in dengue patients relative to healthy controls. We concluded that pTfh cells and circulating MAIT cells represent activated phenotypes in acute DENV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology*
  3. Tan DS, Omar M, Chew V
    Med J Malaysia, 1979 Jun;33(4):355-6.
    PMID: 522749
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology*
  4. Soe HJ, Yong YK, Al-Obaidi MMJ, Raju CS, Gudimella R, Manikam R, et al.
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2018 Feb;97(5):e9713.
    PMID: 29384851 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009713
    Dengue virus is one of the most widespread flaviviruses that re-emerged throughout recent decades. The progression from mild dengue to severe dengue (SD) with the complications such as vascular leakage and hemorrhage increases the fatality rate of dengue. The pathophysiology of SD is not entirely clear. To investigate potential biomarkers that are suggestive of pathogenesis of SD, a small panel of serum samples selected from 1 healthy individual, 2 dengue patients without warning signs (DWS-), 2 dengue patients with warning signs (DWS+), and 5 patients with SD were subjected to a pilot analysis using Sengenics Immunome protein array. The overall fold changes of protein expressions and clustering heat map revealed that PFKFB4, TPM1, PDCL3, and PTPN20A were elevated among patients with SD. Differential expression analysis identified that 29 proteins were differentially elevated greater than 2-fold in SD groups than DWS- and DWS+. From the 29 candidate proteins, pathways enrichment analysis also identified insulin signaling and cytoskeleton pathways were involved in SD, suggesting that the insulin pathway may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of SD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology*
  5. Reginald K, Chan Y, Plebanski M, Poh CL
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(11):1157-1173.
    PMID: 28914200 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170913163904
    Dengue is one of the most important arboviral infections worldwide, infecting up to 390 million people and causing 25,000 deaths annually. Although a licensed dengue vaccine is available, it is not efficacious against dengue serotypes that infect people living in South East Asia, where dengue is an endemic disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient dengue vaccine for this region. Data from different clinical trials indicate that a successful dengue vaccine must elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cell mediated immunity. This can be achieved by designing a multi-epitope peptide vaccine comprising B, CD8+ and CD4+ T cell epitopes. As recognition of T cell epitopes are restricted by human leukocyte antigens (HLA), T cell epitopes which are able to recognize several major HLAs will be preferentially included in the vaccine design. While peptide vaccines are safe, biocompatible and cost-effective, it is poorly immunogenic. Strategies to improve its immunogenicity by the use of long peptides, adjuvants and nanoparticle delivery mechanisms are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology*
  6. Cardosa MJ
    Br. Med. Bull., 1998;54(2):395-405.
    PMID: 9830205 DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a011696
    Dengue virus infection is now a global problem affecting tens of millions of people. The spread of the four dengue virus serotypes had led to increased incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) reported and with 2.5 billion people at risk, efforts towards the development of safe and effective vaccines against dengue must be accelerated. This chapter reviews some of the important lessons of pathogenesis which may be learnt from classical studies in the field and place these in the context of current knowledge about the molecular biology of the virus. The issues which have to be addressed in designing a safe vaccine against dengue are raised and the problems of designing subunit as well as whole virus vaccines are pointed out, particularly with regard to the phenomenon of antibody dependent enhancement and, more generally, the problem of immune potentiation of disease. More efforts must be made to understand the basis of pathogenesis in DHF and in finding out what nature has to teach about protection against and recovery from dengue virus infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology; Severe Dengue/immunology
  7. Cardosa MJ, Tio PH
    Bull World Health Organ, 1991;69(6):741-5.
    PMID: 1786623
    A dot enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) for the detection of antibodies to dengue virus was tested for use as a tool in the presumptive diagnosis of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Paired sera from the following groups of patients were tested using the DEIA and the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test: those with primary dengue fever; those experiencing a second dengue infection; and febrile patients who did not have dengue. The data obtained show that the DEIA can be effectively used at a serum dilution of 1:1000 to confirm presumptive recent dengue in patients with a second dengue infection. However, demonstration of seroconversion proved necessary for patients with primary dengue. At a serum dilution of 1:1000 the DEIA has a specificity of 97.3%. The role of this simple and rapid test in improving the effectivity of programmes for the control of dengue virus infection is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology
  8. Cardosa MJ, Hooi TP, Shaari NS
    J Virol Methods, 1988 Oct;22(1):81-8.
    PMID: 3058737
    Partially purified DEN3 virus was used as antigen in a sensitive dot enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) for the detection of antibodies to flavivirus antigens. We describe here the method used to prepare and optimise the antigen-bearing nitrocellulose membranes and present the results obtained from screening 20 acute phase sera from patients shown to have had recent dengue infections by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Sixteen pairs of acute and convalescent sera from dengue-negative patients had no detectable antibody to dengue virus by HI. These were shown to have no antibody detectable by DEIA. Sera positive for dengue antibodies by HI had DEIA titers ranging from 10 to several thousand times greater than the titers detected by HI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology
  9. Wahid SF, Sanusi S, Zawawi MM, Ali RA
    PMID: 11127322
    The impact of dengue on liver function was studied on fifty serologically confirmed dengue cases admitted to Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM). Twenty-five of these patients had classic dengue fever (DF) and 25 had grade 1 or 2 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). There were more (60%) DHF patients with hepatomegaly compared to DF (40%) but the difference was not statistically significant. Analysis of the liver profile showed that liver dysfunction was commoner in DHF compared to DF, indicating that the degree of liver impairment may be related to the severity of DHF. Hyperbilirubinemia was noted in 3 (12%) DHF and 2 (8%) DF patients. The mean (range) serum bilirubin was higher in DHF [14.2(5-50) micromol/l] compared to DF [10.9(5-30) micromol/l)] (p > 0.05). Elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were observed more frequently in DHF (20 and 12 patients respectively) compared to DF (16 and 8 patients respectively). Nine (36%) DHF and 6 (24%) DF patients had concomitant elevation of ALT and ALP levels. The mean (range) serum ALT levels were 109.3(23-325) U/l in DHF and 90.8(13-352) U/l in DF (p > 0.05). The mean (range) serum ALP levels were 102.2(15-319) U/l in DHF and 93.3(34-258) U/l in DF (p > 0.05). The ALT and ALP levels were significantly higher in DHF patients with spontaneous bleeding than those without bleeding (p < 0.05) None of the patients developed fulminant hepatitis. The immunoregulatory cells, which include the T (CD3), B (CD 19), CD4, CD8, CD5 and natural killer (NK) cells were significantly lower in DHF compared to DF patients (p < 0.05). However, the reduction in these cell counts did not correlate with the liver dysfunction seen in DHF patients. In conclusion, hepatomegaly and liver dysfunction were commoner in DHF compared to DF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology; Severe Dengue/immunology
  10. Fadilah SA, Sahrir S, Raymond AA, Cheong SK, Aziz JA, Sivagengei K
    PMID: 10928365
    Activation of immunoregulatory T lymphocyte subsets has been observed in dengue viral infection, being more evident in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) than in classical dengue fever (DF). There are, however, as yet no well-defined host markers to determine which patients with dengue viral infection will develop severe complications during the acute febrile stage of the disease. A study was performed to compare the cellular immune status in DHF, DF and non-dengue viral infections (NDF) in order to determine the value of these parameters in distinguishing DHF from classic DF and other viral infections during the acute febrile stage of the disease. This study involved 109 febrile patients admitted because of suspected DHF. Fifty patients were serologically confirmed cases of dengue infection, of which 25 had grade 1 or 2 DHF. There was a reduction in total T (CD3), CD4 and CD8 cells in DHF and demonstrated that a low level of CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD5 cells discriminated DHF from DF patients during the febrile stage of the illness. In contrast, B (CD19) cells and natural killer (NK) cells did not appear to be discriminatory in this study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that a combination of CD3 cell of < or = 45% and CD5 cell of < or = 55% was the best marker to identify DHF patients (sensitivity = 84% and specificity = 52% for CD3 cell of < or = 45%; sensitivity = 92% and specificity = 71% for CD5 cell of < or = 55%). CD4 cell of < or = 25% and CD8 cell < or = 30% were equally good in discriminating DHF from DF patients. On the other hand, the ROC curves indicated no clear difference between the immunoregulatory cell counts in DF from NDF Lymphopenia, atypical lymphocytosis and thrombocytopenia were significantly more evident in dengue compared to non-dengue infection but did not appear to be discriminatory among DHF and DF patients. The reduction in CD3, CD4, CD8, CD5 cells correlated with the degree of thrombocytopenia in DHF (p < 0.05) which suggests that these cells probably participate in a common pathogenetic mechanism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology; Severe Dengue/immunology
  11. Appanna R, Huat TL, See LL, Tan PL, Vadivelu J, Devi S
    Clin. Vaccine Immunol., 2007 Aug;14(8):969-77.
    PMID: 17567768
    Dengue virus infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical areas in the world. Attempts to develop effective vaccines have been hampered by the lack of understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and the absence of suitable experimental models for dengue viral infection. The magnitude of T-cell responses has been reported to correlate with dengue disease severity. Sixty Malaysian adults with dengue viral infections were investigated for their dengue virus-specific T-cell responses to 32 peptides antigens from the structural and nonstructural regions from a dengue virus isolate. Seventeen different peptides from the C, E, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5 regions were found to evoke significant responses in a gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay of samples from 13 selected patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). NS3 and predominantly NS3(422-431) were found to be important T-cell targets. The highest peaks of T-cell responses observed were in responses to NS3(422-431) and NS5(563-571) in DHF patients. We also found almost a sevenfold increase in T-cell response in three DHF patients compared to three DF patient responses to peptide NS3(422-431). A large number of patients' T cells also responded to the NS2B(97-106) region. The ELISPOT analyses also revealed high frequencies of T cells that recognize both serotype-specific and cross-reactive dengue virus antigens in patients with DHF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology*; Severe Dengue/immunology*
  12. Yong YK, Tan HY, Jen SH, Shankar EM, Natkunam SK, Sathar J, et al.
    J Transl Med, 2017 05 31;15(1):121.
    PMID: 28569153 DOI: 10.1186/s12967-017-1226-4
    BACKGROUND: Currently, several assays can diagnose acute dengue infection. However, none of these assays can predict the severity of the disease. Biomarkers that predicts the likelihood that a dengue patient will develop a severe form of the disease could permit more efficient patient triage and allows better supportive care for the individual in need, especially during dengue outbreaks.

    METHODS: We measured 20 plasma markers i.e. IFN-γ, IL-10, granzyme-B, CX3CL1, IP-10, RANTES, CXCL8, CXCL6, VCAM, ICAM, VEGF, HGF, sCD25, IL-18, LBP, sCD14, sCD163, MIF, MCP-1 and MIP-1β in 141 dengue patients in over 230 specimens and correlate the levels of these plasma markers with the development of dengue without warning signs (DWS-), dengue with warning signs (DWS+) and severe dengue (SD).

    RESULTS: Our results show that the elevation of plasma levels of IL-18 at both febrile and defervescence phase was significantly associated with DWS+ and SD; whilst increase of sCD14 and LBP at febrile phase were associated with severity of dengue disease. By using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the IL-18, LBP and sCD14 were significantly predicted the development of more severe form of dengue disease (DWS+/SD) (AUC = 0.768, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology*; Severe Dengue/immunology*
  13. Ang LW, Cutter J, James L, Goh KT
    Epidemiol Infect, 2015 Jun;143(8):1585-93.
    PMID: 25245094 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268814002507
    To assess the impact of past dengue epidemics in Singapore, we undertook a national seroepidemiological study to determine the prevalence of past dengue virus (DENV) infection in the adult population in 2010 and make comparisons with the seroprevalence in 2004. The study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 years who participated in a national health survey in 2010. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56·8% (95% confidence interval 55·1-58·5) in 2010. The seroprevalence increased significantly with age. Males had significantly higher seroprevalence than females (61·5% vs. 53·2%). Among the three major ethnic groups, Malays had the lowest seroprevalence (50·2%) compared to Chinese (57·0%) and Indians (62·0%). The age-standardized seroprevalence in adults was significantly lower in 2010 (54·4%) compared to 2004 (63·1%). Older age, male gender, Indian ethnicity, permanent residency and being home-bound were independent risk factors significantly associated with seropositivity. About 43% of the Singapore adult resident population remain susceptible to DENV infection as a result of the successful implementation of a comprehensive nationwide Aedes surveillance and control programme since the 1970s. Vector suppression and concerted efforts of all stakeholders in the community remain the key strategy in the prevention and control of dengue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology
  14. Kumar N, Lewis DJ
    BMJ, 2012;344:e2400.
    PMID: 22496299 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.e2400
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology
  15. Hafner C, Koellner K, Vogt T, Landthaler M, Szeimies RM
    Hautarzt, 2006 Aug;57(8):705-7.
    PMID: 16283129
    A 39-year-old patient developed a disseminated rash with scattered petechiae, fever, malaise and arthralgia after a trip to Malaysia. The patient displayed increasing dengue IgG titers and borderline dengue IgM titers. Dengue fever with a hemorrhagic course is a rare condition in adult patients. Patients who have previously had dengue fever and retained non-neutralizing heterotypic antibodies are more likely to develop this complication via the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severe Dengue/immunology
  16. Ten Bosch QA, Singh BK, Hassan MR, Chadee DD, Michael E
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 05;10(5):e0004680.
    PMID: 27159023 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004680
    The epidemiology of dengue fever is characterized by highly seasonal, multi-annual fluctuations, and the irregular circulation of its four serotypes. It is believed that this behaviour arises from the interplay between environmental drivers and serotype interactions. The exact mechanism, however, is uncertain. Constraining mathematical models to patterns characteristic to dengue epidemiology offers a means for detecting such mechanisms. Here, we used a pattern-oriented modelling (POM) strategy to fit and assess a range of dengue models, driven by combinations of temporary cross protective-immunity, cross-enhancement, and seasonal forcing, on their ability to capture the main characteristics of dengue dynamics. We show that all proposed models reproduce the observed dengue patterns across some part of the parameter space. Which model best supports the dengue dynamics is determined by the level of seasonal forcing. Further, when tertiary and quaternary infections are allowed, the inclusion of temporary cross-immunity alone is strongly supported, but the addition of cross-enhancement markedly reduces the parameter range at which dengue dynamics are produced, irrespective of the strength of seasonal forcing. The implication of these structural uncertainties on predicted vulnerability to control is also discussed. With ever expanding spread of dengue, greater understanding of dengue dynamics and control efforts (e.g. a near-future vaccine introduction) has become critically important. This study highlights the capacity of multi-level pattern-matching modelling approaches to offer an analytic tool for deeper insights into dengue epidemiology and control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology
  17. Thiha A, Ibrahim F
    Sensors (Basel), 2015;15(5):11431-41.
    PMID: 25993517 DOI: 10.3390/s150511431
    The enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is the gold standard clinical diagnostic tool for the detection and quantification of protein biomarkers. However, conventional ELISA tests have drawbacks in their requirement of time, expensive equipment and expertise for operation. Hence, for the purpose of rapid, high throughput screening and point-of-care diagnosis, researchers are miniaturizing sandwich ELISA procedures on Lab-on-a-Chip and Lab-on-Compact Disc (LOCD) platforms. This paper presents a novel integrated device to detect and interpret the ELISA test results on a LOCD platform. The system applies absorption spectrophotometry to measure the absorbance (optical density) of the sample using a monochromatic light source and optical sensor. The device performs automated analysis of the results and presents absorbance values and diagnostic test results via a graphical display or via Bluetooth to a smartphone platform which also acts as controller of the device. The efficacy of the device was evaluated by performing dengue antibody IgG ELISA on 64 hospitalized patients suspected of dengue. The results demonstrate high accuracy of the device, with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity in detection when compared with gold standard commercial ELISA microplate readers. This sensor platform represents a significant step towards establishing ELISA as a rapid, inexpensive and automatic testing method for the purpose of point-of-care-testing (POCT) in resource-limited settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology
  18. Jahanshahi P, Sekaran SD, Adikan FR
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2015 Aug;53(8):679-87.
    PMID: 25791696 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-015-1262-2
    Evaluation of binding between analytes and its relevant ligands on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is of considerable importance for accurate determination and screening of an interference in immunosensors. Dengue virus serotype 2 was used as a case study in this investigation. This research work compares and interprets the results obtained from analytical analysis with the experimental ones. Both the theoretical calculations and experimental results are verified with one sample from each category of dengue serotypes 2 (low, mid, and high positive), which have been examined in the database of established laboratorial diagnosis. In order to perform this investigation, the SPR angle variations are calculated, analyzed, and then validated via experimental SPR angle variations. Accordingly, the error ratios of 5.35, 6.54, and 3.72% were obtained for the low-, mid-, and high-positive-specific immune globulins of patient serums, respectively. In addition, the magnetic fields of the biosensor are numerically simulated to show the effect of different binding mediums.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue/immunology
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