Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 86 in total

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  1. Ghazali FB
    Malays J Med Sci, 2003 Jan;10(1):27-36.
    PMID: 23365497 MyJurnal
    This is an update on the present integrated knowledge regarding dentine permeability that assumed a role in dentine sensitivity and contribute clinically to the effective bonding properties of restorative dental materials. This paper will attempt to refer to in vivo and in vitro studies of dentine permeability and the various interrelated factors governing it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin; Dentin Permeability; Dentin Sensitivity; Dentin-Bonding Agents
  2. Berkathullah M, Farook MS, Mahmoud O
    Biomed Res Int, 2018;2018:4072815.
    PMID: 30276206 DOI: 10.1155/2018/4072815
    The effectiveness of remineralizing agents in reducing dentine permeability by tubule occlusion using fluid filtration device functioning at 100 cmH2O (1.4 psi) pressure and SEM/EDX analysis were evaluated and compared. Seventy (n = 70) dentine discs of 1±0.2 mm width were prepared from sound permanent human molars. Fifty (n = 50) dentine discs were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10): Group 1: GC Tooth Mousse Plus (Recaldent GC Corporation Tokyo, Japan), Group 2: Clinpro™ White Varnish (3M ESPE, USA), Group 3: Duraphat® Varnish (Pharbil Waltrop GmbH, Germany), Group 4: Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief™ dentifrice (Colgate Palmolive, Thailand), and Group 5: Biodentine™ (Septodont/UK). Dentine permeability was measured after treatment application at 10 minutes, artificial saliva immersion at 7 days, and citric acid challenge for 3 minutes. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Dentine specimens (n = 20) were used for SEM/EDX analyses to obtain qualitative results on dentine morphology and surface deposits. Each treatment agent significantly reduced dentine permeability immediately after treatment application and created precipitates on treated dentine surfaces. All agents increased permeability values after 7 days of artificial saliva immersion except Clinpro White Varnish and Biodentine. Clinpro White Varnish exhibited significant resistance to acid challenge compared to others. Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief dentifrice has a dual mechanism of action in reducing the dentine sensitivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin Permeability*; Dentin Desensitizing Agents/pharmacology*
  3. Farook MS, Mahmoud O, Ibrahim MA, Berkathullah M
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:6652250.
    PMID: 33628801 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6652250
    Objectives: To evaluate the in vitro effectiveness of desensitizing agents in reducing dentine permeability.

    Methods: The efficacy of desensitizing agents in reducing dentine permeability by occluding dentine tubules was evaluated using a fluid filtration device that conducts at 100 cmH2O (1.4 psi) pressure, and SEM/EDX analyses were evaluated and compared. Forty-two dentine discs (n = 42) of 1 ± 0.2 mm width were obtained from caries-free permanent human molars. Thirty dentine discs (n = 30) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 10): Group 1: 2.7% wt. monopotassium-monohydrogen oxalate (Mp-Mh oxalate), Group 2: RMGI XT VAR, and Group 3: LIQ SiO2. Dentine permeability was measured following treatment application after 10 minutes, storage in artificial saliva after 10 minutes and 7 days, and citric acid challenge for 3 minutes. Data were analysed with a repeated measures ANOVA test. Dentine discs (n = 12) were used for SEM/EDX analyses to acquire data on morphological changes on dentine surface and its mineral content after different stages of treatment.

    Results: Desensitizing agents' application on the demineralized dentine discs exhibited significant reduction of permeability compared to its maximum acid permeability values. Mp-Mh oxalate showed a significant reduction in dentine permeability (p < 0.05) when compared to RMGI XT VAR and LIQ SiO2. On SEM/EDX analysis, all the agents formed mineral precipitates that occluded the dentine tubules.

    Conclusions: 2.7% wt. monopotassium-monohydrogen oxalate was significantly effective in reducing dentine permeability compared to RMGI XT VAR and LIQ SiO2.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin/metabolism*; Dentin Permeability/drug effects*
  4. Daood U, Matinlinna JP, Fawzy AS
    Dent Mater, 2019 02;35(2):356-367.
    PMID: 30528297 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.11.031
    OBJECTIVE: Effect of d-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethyleneglycol)-1000-succinate (VE-TPGS) with riboflavin-5'-phosphate solution on crosslinking of dentine collagen was investigated to analyze collagen's structural integrity.

    METHODS: VE-TPGS was added to RF-solution, at RF/VE-TPGS (w/w) ratios of 0.125/0.250 and 0.125/0.500. Demineralized dentine beams were used (10wt.% phosphoric acid), rinsed using deionized-water and analysed using ELISA (Human MMP2 ELISA; Human CTSK/Cathepsin-K for MMP2 and Cathepsin K analysis). AFM of dentine collagen-fibrils structure was done before and after dentine specimens' placement in mineralization solution and tested after 14days in artificial saliva/collagenase (AS/Co) solution. The specimens were tested after 24h in mineralization solution for surface/bulk elastic modulus. Nano-indentation was carried out for each specimen on intertubular-dentine with lateral spacing of 400nm. Reduced elastic-modulus and nano-hardness were calculated and collagen content was determined using hydroxyproline-assay. Micro-Raman were performed. TEM was carried out to study structural variations of dentine-collagen in artificial-saliva (collagenase). Data were presented as mean±standard deviation and analyzed by SPSS v.15, by analysis of variance.

    RESULTS: Synergetic effect of VE-TPGS was observed with RF through higher structural integrity of dentine collagen-fibrils shown by TEM/AFM. Superior surface/bulk mechanical stability was shown by nano-indentation/mechanical testing. Improvement in collagenase degradation resistance for hydroxyproline release was observed and lower endogenous-protease release of MMP-2/Cathepsin-K. Raman-analysis analysed chemical interactions between RF and collagen confirming structural-integrity of collagen fibrils after crosslinking. After 24h mineralization, AFM showed mineral depositions in close association with dentine-collagen fibrils with RF/VE-TPGS formulations.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Potential synergetic effect of RF/VE-TPGS was observed by reflection of higher structural integrity and conformational-stability of dentine-collagen fibrils.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin*
  5. Daood U, Aati S, Akram Z, Yee J, Yong C, Parolia A, et al.
    Biomater Sci, 2021 Jul 27;9(15):5344-5358.
    PMID: 34190236 DOI: 10.1039/d1bm00555c
    The aim of this study was to characterize multiscale interactions between high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and dentin collagen and associated matrix-metalloproteinases, in addition to the analysis of the effect of HIFU on bacterial biofilms and biological properties. Dentin specimens were subjected to 5, 10 or 20 s HIFU. XPS spectra were acquired and TEM was performed on dentin slabs. Collagen orientation was performed using Raman spectroscopy. Calcium measurements in human dental pulpal cells (hDPCs) were carried out after 7 and 14 days. For macrophages, CD36+ and CD163+ were analysed. Biofilms were analyzed using CLSM. Tandem mass spectroscopy was performed for the detection of hydroxyproline sequences along with human MMP-2 quantification. Phosphorus, calcium, and nitrogen were detected in HIFU specimens. TEM images demonstrated the collagen network appearing to be fused together in the HIFU 10 and 20 s specimens. The band associated with 960 cm-1 corresponds to the stretching ν1 PO43-. The control specimens showed intensive calcium staining followed by HIFU 20 s > HIFU 10 s > HIFU 5 s specimens. Macrophages in the HIFU specimens co-expressed CD80+ and CD163+ cells. CLSM images showed the HIFU treatment inhibiting bacterial growth. SiteScore propensity determined the effect of HIFU on the binding site with a higher DScore representing better site exposure on MMPs. Multiscale mapping of dentin collagen after HIFU treatment showed no deleterious alterations on the organic structure of dentin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin*
  6. Bakri MM, Hossain MZ, Razak FA, Saqina ZH, Misroni AA, Ab-Murat N, et al.
    Aust Dent J, 2017 Jun;62(2):186-191.
    PMID: 27813093 DOI: 10.1111/adj.12484
    BACKGROUND: Dentine hypersensitivity is a common problem attributed by patent dentinal tubules. Ingredients incorporated in toothpastes aim to occlude patent dentinal tubules to minimize the dentine hypersensitivity. However, frequent consumption of acidic soft drinks may reverse the dentinal tubules' occlusion. In this in vitro study, the efficacy of dentinal tubules occluded by commercially available toothpastes to withstand different durations of an acidic soft drink challenge was investigated.

    METHODS: One hundred and twenty dentine discs were divided into three groups. The discs from each group were brushed with toothpaste containing bioactive glass, arginine and control toothpaste. Each group was then divided into four subgroups and exposed to acidic soft drink over four different time durations.

    RESULTS: The scoring and the percentage of occluded dentinal tubules by Novamin-containing toothpaste was significantly better compared with arginine or the control toothpaste. Acidic soft drink challenge reduced the extent of dentinal tubules occlusion along with time. Dentinal tubules occluded by Novamin-containing toothpaste withstand the acidic challenge comparatively for a longer period.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrated that occlusion of dentinal tubules is more efficient by the bioactive glass-containing toothpaste and thus may contribute to its better resistance to acidic soft drink challenge.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin; Dentin Permeability/drug effects; Dentin Sensitivity/drug therapy*; Dentin Desensitizing Agents/pharmacology*
  7. Fawzy AS, Daood U, Matinlinna JP
    Dent Mater, 2019 07;35(7):979-989.
    PMID: 31003759 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2019.04.001
    OBJECTIVE: This study introduced the potential and proof-of-concept of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) technology for dentin-surface treatment for resin-dentin bonding without acid-aided demineralization. This new strategy could provide a way to enhance interface-integrity and bond-durability by changing the nature of dentin-substrate; bonded-interface structure and properties; and minimizing denuded-collagen exposure.

    METHODS: The interaction between HIFU waves and dentin-surface in terms of structural, mechanical and chemical variations were investigated by SEM, TEM, AFM, nano-indentation and Raman-analysis. The bonding between HIFU-treated dentin and two-step, etch-and-rinse, adhesive was preliminary explored by characterizing dentin-bound proteases activities, resin-dentin interfacial morphology and bond-durability with HIFU exposure at different time-points of 60, 90 and 120 s compared to conventional acid-etching technique.

    RESULTS: With the increase in HIFU exposure-time from 60-to-120 s, HIFU waves were able to remove the smear-layer, expose dentinal-tubules and creating textured/rough dentin surface. In addition, dentin surfaces showed a pattern of interlocking ribbon-like minerals-coated collagen-fibrils protruding from the underlaying amorphous dentin-background with HIFU exposure for 90 s and 120 s. This characteristic pattern of dentin-surface showing inorganic-minerals associated/aligned with collagen-fibrils, with 90-to-120 s HIFU-treatment, was confirmed by the Raman-analysis. HIFU-treated specimens showed higher nano-indentation properties and lower concentrations of active MMP-2 and Cathepsin-K compared to the acid-etched specimens. The resin-dentin bonded interface revealed the partial/complete absence of the characteristic hybrid-layer formed with conventional etch-and-rinse bonding strategy. Additionally, resin-infiltration and resin-tags formation were enhanced with the increase in HIFU exposure-time to 120 s. Although, all groups showed significant decrease in bond-strength after 12 months compared to 24 h storage in artificial saliva, groups exposed to HIFU for 90 s and 120 s showed significantly higher μTBS compared to the control acid-etched group.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The implementation of HIFU-technology for dental hard-tissues treatment could be of potential significance in adhesive/restorative dentistry owing to its ability of controlled, selective and localised combined tissue alteration/ablation effects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin; Dentin-Bonding Agents*
  8. Fu C, Deng S, Koneski I, Awad MM, Akram Z, Matinlinna J, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2020 12;112:104082.
    PMID: 32979607 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.104082
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of blue light photoactivated riboflavin modified universal adhesives on dentin collagen biodegradation resistance, dentin apparent elastic modulus, and resin-dentin bond strength with interfacial morphology.

    METHODS: Dentin slabs were treated with 0.1% riboflavin-5-phosphate modified (powder added slowly while shaking and then sonicated to enhance the dispersion process) Universal Adhesive Scotch Bond and Zipbond™ along with control (non-modified) and experimental adhesives, photoactivated with blue light for 20s. Hydroxyproline (HYP) release was assessed after 1-week storage. Elastic-modulus testing was evaluated using universal testing machine at 24 h. Resin-dentin interfacial morphology was assessed with scanning electron-microscope, after 6-month storage. 0.1% rhodamine dye was added into each adhesive and analyzed using CLSM. Detection of free amino groups was carried out using ninhydrin and considered directly proportional to optical absorbance. Collagen molecular confirmation was determined using spectropolarimeter to evaluate and assess CD spectra. For molecular docking studies with riboflavin (PDB ID file), the binding pocket was selected with larger SiteScore and DScore using Schrodinger PB software. After curing, Raman shifts in Amide regions were obtained at 8 μm levels. Data were analyzed using Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05) and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post hoc tests.

    RESULTS: At baseline, bond strength reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in control specimens. However, at 6 months' storage, UVA Zipbond™ had significantly higher μTBS. Resin was able to diffuse through the porous demineralized dentin creating adequate hybrid layers in both 0.1%RF modified adhesives in CLSM images. In riboflavin groups, hybrid layer and resin tags were more pronounced. The circular dichroism spectrum showed negative peaks for riboflavin adhesive specimens. Best fitted poses adopted by riboflavin compound are docked with MMP-2 and -9 proteases. Amide bands and CH2 peaks followed the trend of being lowest for control UA Scotch bond adhesive specimens and increasing in Amides, proline, and CH2 intensities in 0.1%RF modified adhesive specimens. All 0.1%RF application groups showed statistically significant (p Dentin Eappr of riboflavin application was significantly (p dentin as well as the long-term resin-dentin interfacial integrity and bond strength of universal adhesive to dentin.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin; Dentin-Bonding Agents*
  9. Lin SL
    J Clin Dent, 2012;23(1):7-10.
    PMID: 22435318
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin/drug effects; Dentin Sensitivity/drug therapy*; Dentin Desensitizing Agents/therapeutic use*
  10. Nettem S, Nettemu SK, Basha K, Venkatachalapathi S
    Dent Res J (Isfahan), 2014 Jul;11(4):513-7.
    PMID: 25225567
    Dentin dysplasia is an exceptionally rare, autosomal-dominant, hereditary condition, primarily characterized by defective dentin formation affecting both the deciduous and permanent dentitions. The etiology remains imprecise to date, in spite of the numerous hypotheses put forward and the constant updates on this condition. This case report of type I dentin dysplasia exhibits radiographic findings that are unique and diverse from the classical findings of various subtypes of this disease reported to date. This article also depicts the implant-based oral rehabilitation of the young patient diagnosed with this variant model of dentin dysplasia type I. Early diagnosis and implementation of this preventive and curative therapy is vital for avoiding premature exfoliation of deciduous and permanent dentition and the associated residual ridge resorption, thereby overcoming functional and esthetic deficits and ensuring protection of the remaining dentition from further harm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin; Dentin Dysplasia
  11. Mohd. Bakri, M., Mohamed, N.H., Whittaker, D.A.
    Ann Dent, 2003;10(1):-.
    MyJurnal
    Phosphophoryn, a higWyphosphorylated protein, is the most abundant protein among the non-collagenous protein of dentine. The staining of phosphophoryn can be done by using the silver colloid staining. In this paper, the staining effect of the silver colloid stain on both non-sclerotic and sclerotic dentine was investigated. Eight teeth from donors aged 14, 17, 22, 34, 55, 57, 60 and 65 were used for this experiment. The younger teeth were used to demonstrate normal root dentine while the older age teeth were used to demonstrate sclerotic root dentine at the apical region of the root. There was no staining of the normal root dentine as compared to sclerotic dentine when the silver colloid staining was used.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin; Dentin, Secondary
  12. Daood U, Omar H, Qasim S, Nogueira LP, Pichika MR, Mak KK, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2020 10;110:103927.
    PMID: 32957222 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.103927
    OBJECTIVE: Here we describe a novel formulation, based on quaternary ammonium (QA) and riboflavin (RF), which combines antimicrobial activities and protease inhibitory properties with collagen crosslinking without interference to bonding capabilities, was investigated.

    METHODS: Experimental adhesives modified with different fractions of dioctadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide quaternary ammonium and riboflavin (QARF) were formulated. Dentine specimens were bonded to resincomposites with control or the experimental adhesives to be evaluated for bond strength, interfacial morphology, micro-Raman analysis, nano-CT and nano-leakage expression. In addition, the antibacterial and biocompatibilities of the experimental adhesives were investigated. The endogenous proteases activities and their molecular binding-sites were studied.

    RESULTS: Modifying the experimental adhesives with QARF did not adversely affect micro-tensile bond strength or the degree of conversion along with the demonstration of anti-proteases and antibacterial abilities with acceptable biocompatibilities. In general, all experimental adhesives demonstrated favourable bond strength with increased and improved values in 1% QARF adhesive at 24 h (39.2 ± 3.0 MPa) and following thermocycling (34.8 ± 4.3 MPa).

    SIGNIFICANCE: It is possible to conclude that the use of QARF with defined concentration can maintain bond strength values when an appropriate protocol is used and have contributed in ensuring a significant decrease in microbial growth of biofilms. Incorporation of 1% QARF in the experimental adhesive lead to simultaneous antimicrobial and anti-proteolytic effects with low cytotoxic effects, acceptable bond strength and interfacial morphology.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin; Dentin-Bonding Agents
  13. Reza F, Lim SP
    J Conserv Dent, 2012 Apr;15(2):123-6.
    PMID: 22557808 DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.94576
    To compare push-out bond strength between self-cured and dual-cured resin cement using a titanium post.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin-Bonding Agents
  14. Ab-Ghani Z, Jaafar W, Foo SF, Ariffin Z, Mohamad D
    J Conserv Dent, 2015 Sep-Oct;18(5):355-9.
    PMID: 26430296 DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.164028
    To evaluate the shear bond strength between the dentin substrate and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic ceramic and nano resin ceramics blocks cemented with resin cement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin
  15. Mohan RP, Pai AR
    J Conserv Dent, 2015 Jul-Aug;18(4):275-8.
    PMID: 26180409 DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.159717
    The aim was to assess the influence of two irrigation regimens having ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) as final irrigants, respectively, on the dentine wettability for AH Plus sealer by comparing its contact angle formed to the irrigated dentine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin
  16. Rusmah, M.
    Ann Dent, 1995;2(1):-.
    MyJurnal
    The root canal walls of twenty -five deciduous molar teeth with exposed and necrotic pulps were examined using thescanning electronmicroscope. Immediately after extraction, all teeth were fixed in Kamosky's solution. The coronal portion of the tooth was sectioned at about 2mm above the enamel cemental junction.The mesial and distal roots were separat~d and either split in the mesio-distal or bucco-lingual direction. All specimens were prepared for SEM. Obsevations showed that all roots were infected with organisms consisting of cocciand short rods. Some of the coccihad penetrated the dentine layer. However, the distribution of organisms is. not uniform throughout thecanals. Bacterialinvasion ismostinthecoronal region and reduces towards the apical region: Accompanying bacterial invasion is root canal walls deterioration. The odontoblastic processes are the first to deteriorate followed by the predentine layer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin
  17. Daood U, Fawzy AS
    Dent Mater, 2020 03;36(3):456-467.
    PMID: 32008748 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2020.01.005
    OBJECTIVE: The aim is to investigate the potential significance of combining minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods treatment for the remineralization of demineralized coronal dentine-matrix.

    METHODS: HA having nanorods structure were synthetized using ultrasonication with precipitation method. HA nanorods were characterized by TEM for average-size/shape. Following phosphoric acid demineralization, dentine specimens were treated with HA-nanorods with/without subsequent HIFU exposure for 5 s, 10 s and 20 s then stored in artificial saliva for 1-month. Dentine specimens were characterized using different SEM and Raman spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the biochemical stability and HA-nanorods were examined using ATR-FTIR to observe attachment of nanoparticles. Also, surface nanoindentation properties were evaluated using AFM in tapping-mode.

    RESULTS: HA-nanorods displayed well-defined, homogenous plate-like nanostructure. TEM revealed intact collagen-fibrils network structure with high density due to obliteration of interfibrillar spaces with clear evidence of remineralization in combined HA/HIFU treatment. With HA-nanorods treatment collagen-network structure was visible, consisting of fibrils interlaced into a compact pattern with evidence of minerals deposition. AFM investigation revealed clear mineral formation with the increase of HIFU exposure time. Bands associated with inorganic phase dominate well in HIFU exposed specimens with PO stretching within dentine mineral identified at 960 cm-1. Characteristic dentine structure for control and HIFU 20 s specimens is reflected as oscillatory mean Amide-I intensity with measurement giving a precise sinusoidal response of polarization angle β within dentinal tissue. Nanoindentation testing showed a gradual significant increase in elastic-modulus with the increase in HIFU exposure time after 1-month storage. FTIR spectrum of the HIFU exposed dentine displayed bands at 1650 cm-1, 1580 cm-1 and 1510 cm-1 that can be attributed to Amide-I, II and III.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The synergetic effect of HIFU exposure on remineralization potential of demineralized dentine-matrix following nano-hydroxyapatite treatment was revealed. This synergetic effect is dependent on HIFU exposure time.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin
  18. Chen CL, Parolia A, Pau A, Celerino de Moraes Porto IC
    Aust Dent J, 2015 Mar;60(1):65-72.
    PMID: 25721280 DOI: 10.1111/adj.12275
    Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) occurs on exposed dentine and is dependent on the patency of dentinal tubules. This study compared the effectiveness of red propolis extract (RPE), calcium sodium phosphosilicate (Novamin) and arginine-calcium carbonate (ACC) in occluding dentine tubules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin/drug effects*; Dentin/ultrastructure; Dentin Sensitivity/physiopathology; Dentin Desensitizing Agents/pharmacology*
  19. Siar CH
    Med J Malaysia, 1986 Jun;41(2):161-5.
    PMID: 3821613
    The light microscopic features of the dentine in three teeth from two cases of osteogenesis imperfecta (OJ) are presented. Results show that teeth in OJ distinctively have a more uniform and tubular mantle dentine, and a characteristic laminated circumpulpal dentine formed by distorted incremental bands alternating with parallel rows of interglobular dentine and interrupted by comet-shaped vascular canals. The study indicated that in the absence of overt OJ features, the changes in dentine alone are sufficiently characteristic to establish such a diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin/pathology*
  20. Masudi, S.M., Padtong, E.A.
    MyJurnal
    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of times elapsed on the application of a single-step adhesive system and activation of light cured subsequently placed composite to the bond strength between composites and adhesives. This was an experimental study using fifteen teeth extracted human premolars, which were caries and pathology free. Sample of teeth were embedded up to cemento-enamel junction on box of acrylic resin. All teeth were cut to obtain flat occlusal dentin surfaces. The specimens were randomly selected and divided into three groups with five teeth each. All the teeth were assigned to single-step bonding system AQ Bond (Sun Medical Co. Ltd., Shiga, Japan) according to manufacturer’s direction. Group 1 was left for 45 seconds, group 2 for 2 minutes, while group 3 was 5 minutes before putting subsequently restorative material. Composite resin was applied in 3 mm diameter and 6 mm height of cylinder mold and cured according to manufacturer’s direction on the dentin surface. Shear bond strength were measured using a testing system (Instron 8874, Instron Corp., Canton, MA, USA) at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min with cell load capacity of 25 KN. The bond-strengths between single step adhesive system (AQ Bond) and light cured composites were tested. Mann-Whitney test showed no significant differences in bond-strength between Group 1 and Group 2. However, there were significantly differences (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Dentin; Dentin-Bonding Agents
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