Methods: The efficacy of desensitizing agents in reducing dentine permeability by occluding dentine tubules was evaluated using a fluid filtration device that conducts at 100 cmH2O (1.4 psi) pressure, and SEM/EDX analyses were evaluated and compared. Forty-two dentine discs (n = 42) of 1 ± 0.2 mm width were obtained from caries-free permanent human molars. Thirty dentine discs (n = 30) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 10): Group 1: 2.7% wt. monopotassium-monohydrogen oxalate (Mp-Mh oxalate), Group 2: RMGI XT VAR, and Group 3: LIQ SiO2. Dentine permeability was measured following treatment application after 10 minutes, storage in artificial saliva after 10 minutes and 7 days, and citric acid challenge for 3 minutes. Data were analysed with a repeated measures ANOVA test. Dentine discs (n = 12) were used for SEM/EDX analyses to acquire data on morphological changes on dentine surface and its mineral content after different stages of treatment.
Results: Desensitizing agents' application on the demineralized dentine discs exhibited significant reduction of permeability compared to its maximum acid permeability values. Mp-Mh oxalate showed a significant reduction in dentine permeability (p < 0.05) when compared to RMGI XT VAR and LIQ SiO2. On SEM/EDX analysis, all the agents formed mineral precipitates that occluded the dentine tubules.
Conclusions: 2.7% wt. monopotassium-monohydrogen oxalate was significantly effective in reducing dentine permeability compared to RMGI XT VAR and LIQ SiO2.
METHODS: VE-TPGS was added to RF-solution, at RF/VE-TPGS (w/w) ratios of 0.125/0.250 and 0.125/0.500. Demineralized dentine beams were used (10wt.% phosphoric acid), rinsed using deionized-water and analysed using ELISA (Human MMP2 ELISA; Human CTSK/Cathepsin-K for MMP2 and Cathepsin K analysis). AFM of dentine collagen-fibrils structure was done before and after dentine specimens' placement in mineralization solution and tested after 14days in artificial saliva/collagenase (AS/Co) solution. The specimens were tested after 24h in mineralization solution for surface/bulk elastic modulus. Nano-indentation was carried out for each specimen on intertubular-dentine with lateral spacing of 400nm. Reduced elastic-modulus and nano-hardness were calculated and collagen content was determined using hydroxyproline-assay. Micro-Raman were performed. TEM was carried out to study structural variations of dentine-collagen in artificial-saliva (collagenase). Data were presented as mean±standard deviation and analyzed by SPSS v.15, by analysis of variance.
RESULTS: Synergetic effect of VE-TPGS was observed with RF through higher structural integrity of dentine collagen-fibrils shown by TEM/AFM. Superior surface/bulk mechanical stability was shown by nano-indentation/mechanical testing. Improvement in collagenase degradation resistance for hydroxyproline release was observed and lower endogenous-protease release of MMP-2/Cathepsin-K. Raman-analysis analysed chemical interactions between RF and collagen confirming structural-integrity of collagen fibrils after crosslinking. After 24h mineralization, AFM showed mineral depositions in close association with dentine-collagen fibrils with RF/VE-TPGS formulations.
SIGNIFICANCE: Potential synergetic effect of RF/VE-TPGS was observed by reflection of higher structural integrity and conformational-stability of dentine-collagen fibrils.
METHODS: One hundred and twenty dentine discs were divided into three groups. The discs from each group were brushed with toothpaste containing bioactive glass, arginine and control toothpaste. Each group was then divided into four subgroups and exposed to acidic soft drink over four different time durations.
RESULTS: The scoring and the percentage of occluded dentinal tubules by Novamin-containing toothpaste was significantly better compared with arginine or the control toothpaste. Acidic soft drink challenge reduced the extent of dentinal tubules occlusion along with time. Dentinal tubules occluded by Novamin-containing toothpaste withstand the acidic challenge comparatively for a longer period.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrated that occlusion of dentinal tubules is more efficient by the bioactive glass-containing toothpaste and thus may contribute to its better resistance to acidic soft drink challenge.
METHODS: The interaction between HIFU waves and dentin-surface in terms of structural, mechanical and chemical variations were investigated by SEM, TEM, AFM, nano-indentation and Raman-analysis. The bonding between HIFU-treated dentin and two-step, etch-and-rinse, adhesive was preliminary explored by characterizing dentin-bound proteases activities, resin-dentin interfacial morphology and bond-durability with HIFU exposure at different time-points of 60, 90 and 120 s compared to conventional acid-etching technique.
RESULTS: With the increase in HIFU exposure-time from 60-to-120 s, HIFU waves were able to remove the smear-layer, expose dentinal-tubules and creating textured/rough dentin surface. In addition, dentin surfaces showed a pattern of interlocking ribbon-like minerals-coated collagen-fibrils protruding from the underlaying amorphous dentin-background with HIFU exposure for 90 s and 120 s. This characteristic pattern of dentin-surface showing inorganic-minerals associated/aligned with collagen-fibrils, with 90-to-120 s HIFU-treatment, was confirmed by the Raman-analysis. HIFU-treated specimens showed higher nano-indentation properties and lower concentrations of active MMP-2 and Cathepsin-K compared to the acid-etched specimens. The resin-dentin bonded interface revealed the partial/complete absence of the characteristic hybrid-layer formed with conventional etch-and-rinse bonding strategy. Additionally, resin-infiltration and resin-tags formation were enhanced with the increase in HIFU exposure-time to 120 s. Although, all groups showed significant decrease in bond-strength after 12 months compared to 24 h storage in artificial saliva, groups exposed to HIFU for 90 s and 120 s showed significantly higher μTBS compared to the control acid-etched group.
SIGNIFICANCE: The implementation of HIFU-technology for dental hard-tissues treatment could be of potential significance in adhesive/restorative dentistry owing to its ability of controlled, selective and localised combined tissue alteration/ablation effects.
METHODS: Dentin slabs were treated with 0.1% riboflavin-5-phosphate modified (powder added slowly while shaking and then sonicated to enhance the dispersion process) Universal Adhesive Scotch Bond and Zipbond™ along with control (non-modified) and experimental adhesives, photoactivated with blue light for 20s. Hydroxyproline (HYP) release was assessed after 1-week storage. Elastic-modulus testing was evaluated using universal testing machine at 24 h. Resin-dentin interfacial morphology was assessed with scanning electron-microscope, after 6-month storage. 0.1% rhodamine dye was added into each adhesive and analyzed using CLSM. Detection of free amino groups was carried out using ninhydrin and considered directly proportional to optical absorbance. Collagen molecular confirmation was determined using spectropolarimeter to evaluate and assess CD spectra. For molecular docking studies with riboflavin (PDB ID file), the binding pocket was selected with larger SiteScore and DScore using Schrodinger PB software. After curing, Raman shifts in Amide regions were obtained at 8 μm levels. Data were analyzed using Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05) and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post hoc tests.
RESULTS: At baseline, bond strength reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in control specimens. However, at 6 months' storage, UVA Zipbond™ had significantly higher μTBS. Resin was able to diffuse through the porous demineralized dentin creating adequate hybrid layers in both 0.1%RF modified adhesives in CLSM images. In riboflavin groups, hybrid layer and resin tags were more pronounced. The circular dichroism spectrum showed negative peaks for riboflavin adhesive specimens. Best fitted poses adopted by riboflavin compound are docked with MMP-2 and -9 proteases. Amide bands and CH2 peaks followed the trend of being lowest for control UA Scotch bond adhesive specimens and increasing in Amides, proline, and CH2 intensities in 0.1%RF modified adhesive specimens. All 0.1%RF application groups showed statistically significant (p Dentin Eappr of riboflavin application was significantly (p dentin as well as the long-term resin-dentin interfacial integrity and bond strength of universal adhesive to dentin.
METHODS: Experimental adhesives modified with different fractions of dioctadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide quaternary ammonium and riboflavin (QARF) were formulated. Dentine specimens were bonded to resincomposites with control or the experimental adhesives to be evaluated for bond strength, interfacial morphology, micro-Raman analysis, nano-CT and nano-leakage expression. In addition, the antibacterial and biocompatibilities of the experimental adhesives were investigated. The endogenous proteases activities and their molecular binding-sites were studied.
RESULTS: Modifying the experimental adhesives with QARF did not adversely affect micro-tensile bond strength or the degree of conversion along with the demonstration of anti-proteases and antibacterial abilities with acceptable biocompatibilities. In general, all experimental adhesives demonstrated favourable bond strength with increased and improved values in 1% QARF adhesive at 24 h (39.2 ± 3.0 MPa) and following thermocycling (34.8 ± 4.3 MPa).
SIGNIFICANCE: It is possible to conclude that the use of QARF with defined concentration can maintain bond strength values when an appropriate protocol is used and have contributed in ensuring a significant decrease in microbial growth of biofilms. Incorporation of 1% QARF in the experimental adhesive lead to simultaneous antimicrobial and anti-proteolytic effects with low cytotoxic effects, acceptable bond strength and interfacial morphology.
METHODS: HA having nanorods structure were synthetized using ultrasonication with precipitation method. HA nanorods were characterized by TEM for average-size/shape. Following phosphoric acid demineralization, dentine specimens were treated with HA-nanorods with/without subsequent HIFU exposure for 5 s, 10 s and 20 s then stored in artificial saliva for 1-month. Dentine specimens were characterized using different SEM and Raman spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the biochemical stability and HA-nanorods were examined using ATR-FTIR to observe attachment of nanoparticles. Also, surface nanoindentation properties were evaluated using AFM in tapping-mode.
RESULTS: HA-nanorods displayed well-defined, homogenous plate-like nanostructure. TEM revealed intact collagen-fibrils network structure with high density due to obliteration of interfibrillar spaces with clear evidence of remineralization in combined HA/HIFU treatment. With HA-nanorods treatment collagen-network structure was visible, consisting of fibrils interlaced into a compact pattern with evidence of minerals deposition. AFM investigation revealed clear mineral formation with the increase of HIFU exposure time. Bands associated with inorganic phase dominate well in HIFU exposed specimens with PO stretching within dentine mineral identified at 960 cm-1. Characteristic dentine structure for control and HIFU 20 s specimens is reflected as oscillatory mean Amide-I intensity with measurement giving a precise sinusoidal response of polarization angle β within dentinal tissue. Nanoindentation testing showed a gradual significant increase in elastic-modulus with the increase in HIFU exposure time after 1-month storage. FTIR spectrum of the HIFU exposed dentine displayed bands at 1650 cm-1, 1580 cm-1 and 1510 cm-1 that can be attributed to Amide-I, II and III.
SIGNIFICANCE: The synergetic effect of HIFU exposure on remineralization potential of demineralized dentine-matrix following nano-hydroxyapatite treatment was revealed. This synergetic effect is dependent on HIFU exposure time.