Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

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  1. Kato TA, Hashimoto R, Hayakawa K, Kubo H, Watabe M, Teo AR, et al.
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2016 Jan;70(1):7-23.
    PMID: 26350304 DOI: 10.1111/pcn.12360
    Japan's prototype of depression was traditionally a melancholic depression based on the premorbid personality known as shūchaku-kishitsu proposed by Mitsuzo Shimoda in the 1930s. However, since around 2000, a novel form of depression has emerged among Japanese youth. Called 'modern type depression (MTD)' by the mass media, the term has quickly gained popularity among the general public, though it has not been regarded as an official medical term. Likewise, lack of consensus guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment, and a dearth of scientific literature on MTD has led to confusion when dealing with it in clinical practice in Japan. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the present situation and issues regarding MTD by focusing on historical, diagnostic, psychosocial, and cultural perspectives. We also draw on international perspectives that begin to suggest that MTD is a phenomenon that may exist not only in Japan but also in many other countries with different sociocultural and historical backgrounds. It is therefore of interest to establish whether MTD is a culture-specific phenomenon in Japan or a syndrome that can be classified using international diagnostic criteria as contained in the ICD or the DSM. We propose a novel diagnostic approach for depression that addresses MTD in order to combat the current confusion about depression under the present diagnostic systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  2. Lee PF, Kan DPX, Croarkin P, Phang CK, Doruk D
    J Clin Neurosci, 2018 Jan;47:315-322.
    PMID: 29066239 DOI: 10.1016/j.jocn.2017.09.030
    BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need for practical and reliable biomarkers for mood disorders in young adults. Identifying the brain activity associated with the early signs of depressive disorders could have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. In this study we sought to investigate the EEG characteristics in young adults with newly identified depressive symptoms.

    METHODS: Based on the initial screening, a total of 100 participants (n = 50 euthymic, n = 50 depressive) underwent 32-channel EEG acquisition. Simple logistic regression and C-statistic were used to explore if EEG power could be used to discriminate between the groups. The strongest EEG predictors of mood using multivariate logistic regression models.

    RESULTS: Simple logistic regression analysis with subsequent C-statistics revealed that only high-alpha and beta power originating from the left central cortex (C3) have a reliable discriminative value (ROC curve >0.7 (70%)) for differentiating the depressive group from the euthymic group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the single most significant predictor of group (depressive vs. euthymic) is the high-alpha power over C3 (p = 0.03).

    CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that EEG is a useful tool in the identification of neurophysiological correlates of depressive symptoms in young adults with no previous psychiatric history.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Our results could guide future studies investigating the early neurophysiological changes and surrogate outcomes in depression.

    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  3. Ay B, Yildirim O, Talo M, Baloglu UB, Aydin G, Puthankattil SD, et al.
    J Med Syst, 2019 May 28;43(7):205.
    PMID: 31139932 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-019-1345-y
    Depression affects large number of people across the world today and it is considered as the global problem. It is a mood disorder which can be detected using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The manual detection of depression by analyzing the EEG signals requires lot of experience, tedious and time consuming. Hence, a fully automated depression diagnosis system developed using EEG signals will help the clinicians. Therefore, we propose a deep hybrid model developed using convolutional neural network (CNN) and long-short term memory (LSTM) architectures to detect depression using EEG signals. In the deep model, temporal properties of the signals are learned with CNN layers and the sequence learning process is provided through the LSTM layers. In this work, we have used EEG signals obtained from left and right hemispheres of the brain. Our work has provided 99.12% and 97.66% classification accuracies for the right and left hemisphere EEG signals respectively. Hence, we can conclude that the developed CNN-LSTM model is accurate and fast in detecting the depression using EEG signals. It can be employed in psychiatry wards of the hospitals to detect the depression using EEG signals accurately and thus aid the psychiatrists.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  4. Loh HH, Lim LL, Yee A, Loh HS
    BMC Psychiatry, 2019 01 08;19(1):12.
    PMID: 30621645 DOI: 10.1186/s12888-018-2006-2
    BACKGROUND: Although depression is associated with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, its relationship with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is controversial. To date, there is a lack of data on the improvement of depressive symptoms with levothyroxine therapy among individuals with coexistent SCH.

    METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between SCH and depression including 1) the prevalence of depression in SCH (with a sub-analysis of the geriatric cohort), 2) thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level among patients with depression and 3) the effect of levothyroxine therapy among patients with SCH and coexistent depression.

    RESULTS: In a pooled analysis of 12,315 individuals, those with SCH had higher risk of depression than euthyroid controls (relative risk 2.35, 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.84 to 3.02; p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis
  5. Kaur S, Zainal NZ, Low WY, Ramasamy R, Sidhu JS
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 May;27(4):450-60.
    PMID: 24807887 DOI: 10.1177/1010539514533719
    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a common screening instrument used to determine the levels of anxiety and depression experienced by a patient and has been extensively used in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to establish the factor structure of HADS in a Malaysian sample of 189 patients with CAD. Factor analysis of HADS using principal component analysis with varimax rotation yielded 3 factors. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the use of HADS in assessing 3 distinct dimensions of psychological distress--namely, anxiety, anhedonia, and psychomotor retardation. The HADS showed good internal consistency and was found to be a valid measure of psychological distress among Malaysian patients with CAD. However, low mean scores on the original 2 factors--that is, anxiety and depression--and also on the 2 depression subscales--anhedonia and psychomotor retardation--suggests that the recommended cutoff score to screen for psychological distress among CAD patients be reevaluated. Further research to determine the generalizability and consistency for the tridimensional structure of the HADS in Malaysia is recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  6. Osman ZJ, Mukhtar F, Hashim HA, Abdul Latiff L, Mohd Sidik S, Awang H, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Oct;55(7):1720-5.
    PMID: 24952938 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.04.011
    OBJECTIVE: The 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) is frequently used in non-clinical research to measure mental health factors among adults. However, previous studies have concluded that the 21 items are not stable for utilization among the adolescent population. Thus, the aims of this study are to examine the structure of the factors and to report on the reliability of the refined version of the DASS that consists of 12 items.
    METHOD: A total of 2850 students (aged 13 to 17 years old) from three major ethnic in Malaysia completed the DASS-21. The study was conducted at 10 randomly selected secondary schools in the northern state of Peninsular Malaysia. The study population comprised secondary school students (Forms 1, 2 and 4) from the selected schools.
    RESULTS: Based on the results of the EFA stage, 12 items were included in a final CFA to test the fit of the model. Using maximum likelihood procedures to estimate the model, the selected fit indices indicated a close model fit (χ(2)=132.94, df=57, p=.000; CFI=.96; RMR=.02; RMSEA=.04). Moreover, significant loadings of all the unstandardized regression weights implied an acceptable convergent validity. Besides the convergent validity of the item, a discriminant validity of the subscales was also evident from the moderate latent factor inter-correlations, which ranged from .62 to .75. The subscale reliability was further estimated using Cronbach's alpha and the adequate reliability of the subscales was obtained (Total=76; Depression=.68; Anxiety=.53; Stress=.52).
    CONCLUSION: The new version of the 12-item DASS for adolescents in Malaysia (DASS-12) is reliable and has a stable factor structure, and thus it is a useful instrument for distinguishing between depression, anxiety and stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  7. Charkhandeh M, Talib MA, Hunt CJ
    Psychiatry Res, 2016 05 30;239:325-30.
    PMID: 27058159 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.03.044
    The main aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a complementary medicine method Reiki, in reducing depression scores in adolescents. We recruited 188 adolescent patients who were 12-17 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT, Reiki or wait-list. Depression scores were assessed before and after the 12 week interventions or wait-list. CBT showed a significantly greater decrease in Child Depression Inventory (CDI) scores across treatment than both Reiki (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis
  8. Yee A, Yassim AR, Loh HS, Ng CG, Tan KA
    BMC Psychiatry, 2015;15:200.
    PMID: 26286597 DOI: 10.1186/s12888-015-0587-6
    BACKGROUND: This study examines the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Montgomery-Ǻsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-BM).
    METHODS: A total of 150 participants with (n = 50) and without depression (n = 100) completed the self-rated version of the Montgomery-Ǻsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S), the Malay versions of the MADRS-BM, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II-M), the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS-M).
    RESULTS: With respect to dimensionality of the MADRS-BM, we obtained one factor solution. With respect to reliability, we found that internal consistency was satisfactory. The scale demonstrated excellent parallel form reliability. The one-week test-retest reliability was good. With respect to validity, positive correlations between the MADRS-BM, BDI-II-M, and the GHQ and negative correlation between the MADRS-BM and SHAPS-M provide initial evidence of MADRS-BM's concurrent validity. After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, educational level, and marital status, individuals with depression significantly reported higher MADRS-BM scores than did individuals without depression. Hence, there is additional evidence for concurrent validity of the MADRS-BM. Cut-off score of 4 distinguished individuals with depression from individuals without depression with a sensitivity of 78 % and a specificity of 86 %.
    CONCLUSIONS: The MADRS-BM demonstrated promising psychometric properties in terms of dimensionality, reliability, and validity that generally justifies its use in routine clinical practice in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  9. Khoo SP, Yap AU, Chan YH, Bulgiba AM
    J Orofac Pain, 2008;22(2):131-8.
    PMID: 18548842
    To develop a Malay-language version of the Axis II Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) through a formal translation/back-translation process and to summarize available data about the psychometric properties of the translated scales.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis
  10. Quek KF, Atiya AS, Heng NGC, Beng CC
    Int. J. Impot. Res., 2007 May-Jun;19(3):321-5.
    PMID: 17136103
    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction among the general population. PE has often been associated with a psychological state of mind. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) can be used as an instrument to assess the emotional and psychological state. The present study was designed to assess the reliability and validity of the HADS in a Malaysian population. The validity and reliability were studied in subjects with and without PE. Test-retest methodology was used to assess the reliability whereas Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal consistency. In the control and the PE groups, the internal consistency was good and a high degree of internal consistency was observed for all 14 items. In the control group, the Cronbach's alpha values at baseline were from 0.811 to 0.834, whereas for retest, the Cronbach's alpha values were from 0.821-0.838 items. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was high for the control (0.797-0.868: baseline and 0.805-0.872: retest) and PE group (0.822-0.906: baseline and 0.785-0.887: retest). The high value of ICC and the internal consistency was due to high reliability and consistency of the items at 2-week interval. A degree of significance between the baseline and week-2 scores was observed across all items in the PE group but not in the control group. The HADS is a suitable, reliable, valid and sensitive instrument to measure the clinical change for anxiety and depression in the Malaysian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  11. Halbreich U, Karkun S
    J Affect Disord, 2006 Apr;91(2-3):97-111.
    PMID: 16466664 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2005.12.051
    BACKGROUND:
    The prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) is currently considered to be 10-15%. Most studies were performed with a brief unidimensional instruments (mostly the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-EPDS) with focus on depression and not on other symptoms and disorders. Most cited studies were conducted in Western economically developed countries.

    METHODS:
    We reviewed the literature on prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms in a wide range of countries.

    RESULTS:
    143 studies were identified reporting prevalence in 40 countries. It is demonstrated that there is a wide range of reported prevalence of PPD ranging from almost 0% to almost 60%. In some countries like Singapore, Malta, Malaysia, Austria and Denmark there are very few reports of PPD or postpartum depressive symptoms, whereas in other countries (e.g. Brazil, Guyana, Costa Rica, Italy, Chile, South Africa, Taiwan and Korea) reported postpartum depressive symptoms are very prevalent.

    CONCLUSIONS:
    We believe that the widely cited mean prevalence of PPD-10-15% is not representative of the actual global prevalence and magnitude of the problem, due to the wide range of reports. The variability in reported PPD might be due to cross-cultural variables, reporting style, differences in perception of mental health and its stigma, differences in socio-economic environments (e.g. poverty, levels of social support or its perception, nutrition, stress), and biological vulnerability factors. The elucidation of the underlying processes of this variability as well as the diversity of postpartum normal versus abnormal expressions of symptoms may contribute to better understanding of the diversified ante, peri- and postpartum phenomena.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis
  12. Levis B, Benedetti A, Riehm KE, Saadat N, Levis AW, Azar M, et al.
    Br J Psychiatry, 2018 06;212(6):377-385.
    PMID: 29717691 DOI: 10.1192/bjp.2018.54
    BACKGROUND: Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.AimsTo evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.

    METHOD: Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.

    RESULTS: A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15-3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98-10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7-15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56-1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26-0.97).

    CONCLUSIONS: The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.Declaration of interestDrs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  13. Mumtaz W, Malik AS
    Brain Topogr, 2018 09;31(5):875-885.
    PMID: 29860588 DOI: 10.1007/s10548-018-0651-x
    The choice of an electroencephalogram (EEG) reference has fundamental importance and could be critical during clinical decision-making because an impure EEG reference could falsify the clinical measurements and subsequent inferences. In this research, the suitability of three EEG references was compared while classifying depressed and healthy brains using a machine-learning (ML)-based validation method. In this research, the EEG data of 30 unipolar depressed subjects and 30 age-matched healthy controls were recorded. The EEG data were analyzed in three different EEG references, the link-ear reference (LE), average reference (AR), and reference electrode standardization technique (REST). The EEG-based functional connectivity (FC) was computed. Also, the graph-based measures, such as the distances between nodes, minimum spanning tree, and maximum flow between the nodes for each channel pair, were calculated. An ML scheme provided a mechanism to compare the performances of the extracted features that involved a general framework such as the feature extraction (graph-based theoretic measures), feature selection, classification, and validation. For comparison purposes, the performance metrics such as the classification accuracies, sensitivities, specificities, and F scores were computed. When comparing the three references, the diagnostic accuracy showed better performances during the REST, while the LE and AR showed less discrimination between the two groups. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the choice of appropriate reference is critical during the clinical scenario. The REST reference is recommended for future applications of EEG-based diagnosis of mental illnesses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  14. Masiran R, Pang NT
    BMJ Case Rep, 2017 Feb 08;2017.
    PMID: 28179386 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2016-218267
    We report a case of a man aged 67 years presenting with recent depressive symptoms and paranoid ideations in addition to 1-year cognitive impairment. He has vascular risk factors and family history of memory loss. An episode of depression 2 decades ago resolved spontaneously but was followed by occupational decline. On mental state examination, he denied having depressed mood, hallucinations or delusions, but there were prominent word-finding difficulties and impaired attention and concentration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  15. Ng CW, How CH, Ng YP
    Singapore Med J, 2017 Feb;58(2):72-77.
    PMID: 28210741 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2017006
    Major depression is a common condition seen in the primary care setting. This article describes the suicide risk assessment of a depressed patient, including practical aspects of history-taking, consideration of factors in deciding if a patient requires immediate transfer for inpatient care and measures to be taken if the patient is not hospitalised. It follows on our earlier article about the approach to management of depression in primary care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  16. Chin YW, Lai PS, Chia YC
    BMC Fam Pract, 2017 02 20;18(1):25.
    PMID: 28219325 DOI: 10.1186/s12875-017-0601-9
    BACKGROUND: Several disease specific instruments have been developed to identify and assess diabetes distress. In Malaysia, the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale has been validated in Malay, but it does not have specific domains to assess the different areas of diabetes-related distress. Hence, we decided to use the Diabetes Distress Scale instead. To date, only the Malay version of the Diabetes Distress Scale has been validated in Malaysia. However, English is widely spoken by Malaysians, and is an important second language in Malaysia. Therefore, our aim was to determine the validity and reliability of the English version of the Diabetes Distress Scale among patients with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia.

    METHODS: The Diabetes Distress Scale was administered to 114 patients with type 2 diabetes, who could understand English, at baseline and 4 weeks later, at a primary care clinic in Malaysia. To assess for convergent validity, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale was administered at baseline. Discriminative validity was assessed by analysing the total diabetes distress scores of participants with poor (HbA1c > 7.0%) and good glycaemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7.0%).

    RESULTS: The majority of our participants were male 65(57.0%), with a median duration of diabetes of 9.5 years. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the Diabetes Distress Scale had 4 subscales, as per the original Diabetes Distress Scale. The overall Cronbach's α was 0.920 (range = 0.784-0.859 for each subscale). The intraclass correlation ranged from 0.436 to 0.643 for test-retest. The Diabetes Distress Scale subscales were significantly correlated with the different subscales of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (spearman's rho range = 0.427-0.509, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  17. Sulaiman AH, Bautista D, Liu CY, Udomratn P, Bae JN, Fang Y, et al.
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2014 Apr;68(4):245-54.
    PMID: 24829935
    The aim of this study was to compare the symptomatic and clinical features of depression among five groups of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) living in China, Korea, Malaysia/Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  18. Isa MR, Moy FM, Abdul Razack AH, Zainuddin ZM, Zainal NZ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2237-42.
    PMID: 23725119
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of applied progressive muscle relaxation training on the levels of depression, anxiety and stress among prostate cancer patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) over six months. Prostate cancer patients from UMMC received the intervention and patients from UKMMC were taken as controls. The level of depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression, Anxiety Stress Scales - 21 (DASS-21).

    RESULTS: A total of 77 patients from the UMMC and 78 patients from the UKMMC participated. At the end of the study, 90.9% and 87.2% of patients from the UMMC and UKMMC groups completed the study respectively. There were significant improvements in anxiety (p<0.001, partial ?2=0.198) and stress (p<0.001, partial ?2=0.103) at the end of the study in those receiving muscle training. However, there was no improvement in depression (p=0.956).

    CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in anxiety and stress showed the potential of APMRT in the management of prostate cancer patients. Future studies should be carried out over a longer duration to provide stronger evidence for the introduction of relaxation therapy among prostate cancer patients as a coping strategy to improve their anxiety and stress.

    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis
  19. Abdul Kadir NB, Bifulco A
    Psychiatry Res, 2013 Dec 30;210(3):919-24.
    PMID: 24075307 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.08.034
    The role of marital breakdown in women's mental health is of key concern in Malaysia and internationally. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of married and separated/divorced and widowed women examined insecure attachment style as an associated risk factor for depression among 1002 mothers in an urban community in Malaysia. A previous report replicated a UK-based vulnerability-provoking agent model of depression involving negative evaluation of self (NES) and negative elements in close relationships (NECRs) interacting with severe life events to model depression. This article reports on the additional contribution of insecure attachment style to the model using the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ). The results showed that VASQ scores were highly correlated with NES, NECR and depression. A multiple regression analysis of depression with backward elimination found that VASQ scores had a significant additional effect. Group comparisons showed different risk patterns for single and married mothers. NES was the strongest risk factor for both groups, with the 'anxious style' subset of the VASQ being the best additional predictor for married mothers and the total VASQ score (general attachment insecurity) for single mothers. The findings indicate that attachment insecurity adds to a psychosocial vulnerability model of depression among mothers cross-culturally and is important in understanding and identifying risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis
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