Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

  1. Amid BT, Mirhosseini H
    Carbohydr Polym, 2012 Sep 1;90(1):452-61.
    PMID: 24751065 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.05.065
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification and drying methods on the viscoelastic behaviour and rheological properties of durian seed gum. The results indicated that the purified gum A (using isopropanol and ethanol) and D (using hydrochloric acid and ethanol) showed the highest and lowest viscosity, respectively. Four drying techniques included oven drying (105 °C), freeze drying, spray drying and vacuum oven drying. In the present work, all purified gums exhibited more elastic (gel-like) behaviour than the viscous (liquid-like) behaviour (G″
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  2. Al Zoubi OM, Normah MN
    Cryo Letters, 2012 May-Jun;33(3):241-51.
    PMID: 22825791
    Excised embryonic axes from seeds of three taxa, namely, Citrus suhuiensis cv. limau madu, Citrumelo (Citrus paradisi x Poncirus trifoliate) and Fortunella polyandra, were desiccated in a laminar airflow, over silica gel, and ultra-rapidly. Desiccation sensitivity (WC50) was estimated for each taxon using the quantal response model. High desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.11 g water per g dry mass. g/gdw) was observed for limau madu embryonic axes desiccated in a laminar airflow and ultra-rapidly (WC50 =0.10 g/gdw). Desiccation tolerance was substantially lower (WC50 = 0.19 g/gdw) for silica gel dehydration. Similarly, high desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.15 g/gdw) was associated with F. polyandra embryonic axes when desiccated in a laminar airflow, while a lower desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.17 g/gdw) was observed with silica gel dehydration. Ultra-rapid desiccation led to the highest desiccation tolerance (WC50 = 0.14 g/gdw). The dehydration rate, however, had no influence on desiccation tolerance (WC50 ~ 0.14 g/gdw) for Citrumelo embryonic axes. After each desiccation period, embryonic axes were directly immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN) followed by rapid rewarming. Normal seedling recovery of 80 to 83% for excised embryonic axes of limau madu was observed for laminar airflow and ultra-rapid dehydration, but for silica gel dehydration, 57% recovery was obtained. Similarly, for Citrumelo, high recoveries of 100% and 97% were obtained from axes desiccated in a laminar airflow and using ultra-rapid dehydration, respectively, whereas a lower value was associated with silica gel dehydration (80%). For F. polyandra, 50% recovery was obtained both for laminar airflow and ultra-rapid dehydration, while much lower recovery (43%) was associated with silica gel dehydration. Regardless of the drying method employed, axis survival percentages following exposure to LN were commensurate with the desiccation sensitivity pattern.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  3. Yap JY, Hii CL, Ong SP, Lim KH, Abas F, Pin KY
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 May;100(7):2932-2937.
    PMID: 32031257 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10320
    BACKGROUND: Papaya is widely grown in Malaysia and normally only the fruits are consumed. Other parts of the plant such as leaves, roots, bark, peel, seeds and pulp are also known to have medicinal properties and have been used to treat various diseases. Papaya leaves also contain flavonoids, alkaloids phenolic compounds and cynogenetic compounds, and are also reported to be able to treat dengue fever.

    RESULTS: Studies were carried out on drying of papaya leaves using hot air (60, 70 and 80 °C), shade and freeze drying. Effective diffusivities were estimated ranging from 2.09 × 10-12 to 2.18 × 10-12 m2 s-1 from hot air drying, which are within the order of magnitudes reported for most agricultural and food products. The activation energy to initiate drying showed a relatively low value (2.11 kJ mol-1 ) as a result of the thin leave layer that eased moisture diffusion. In terms of total polyphenols content and antioxidant activities, freeze-dried sample showed a significantly higher (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  4. Chong CH, Law CL, Figiel A, Wojdyło A, Oziembłowski M
    Food Chem, 2013 Dec 15;141(4):3889-96.
    PMID: 23993562 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.042
    The objective of this study was to improve product quality of dehydrated fruits (apple, pear, papaya, mango) using combined drying techniques. This involved investigation of bioactivity, colour, and sensory assessment on colour of the dried products as well as the retention of the bio-active ingredients. The attributes of quality were compared in regard to the quality of dehydrated samples obtained from continuous heat pump (HP) drying technique. It was found that for apple, pear and mango the total colour change (ΔE) of samples dried using continuous heat pump (HP) or heat pump vacuum-microwave (HP/VM) methods was lower than of samples dried by other combined methods. However, for papaya, the lowest colour change exhibited by samples dried using hot air-cold air (HHC) method and the highest colour change was found for heat pump (HP) dehydrated samples. Sensory evaluation revealed that dehydrated pear with higher total colour change (ΔE) is more desirable because of its golden yellow appearance. In most cases the highest phenol content was found from fruits dried by HP/VM method. Judging from the quality findings on two important areas namely colour and bioactivity, it was found that combined drying method consisted of HP pre-drying followed by VM finish drying gave the best results for most dehydrated fruits studied in this work as the fruits contain first group of polyphenol compounds, which preferably requires low temperature followed by rapid drying strategy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  5. Hii CL, Law CL, Cloke M, Sharif S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2011 Jan 30;91(2):239-46.
    PMID: 20872824 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4176
    Various studies have been conducted in the past to improve the quality of Malaysian cocoa beans. However, the processing methods still remain crude and lack technological advancement. In terms of drying, no previous study has attempted to apply advanced drying technology to improve bean quality. This paper presents the first attempt to improve the quality of cocoa beans through heat pump drying using constant air (28.6 and 40.4 °C) and stepwise (step-up 30.7-43.6-56.9 °C and step-down 54.9-43.9 °C) drying profiles. Comparison was made against hot air drying at 55.9 °C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  6. Chow MC, Ma AN
    PMID: 17645207
    Microwave heating was determined in this study to be suitable for the detachment and drying of palm fruits from whole bunches, cut bunches and spikelets. Microwave treatment of the palm fruits was able to attain the objectives of conventional fresh palm fruits sterilization processeses such as fruit softening, nut conditioning and halting of enzymatic lipolysis. Palm oil and kernel oil solvent extracted respectively from the microwave treated whole fruits and kernel were found to have a good quality of low free fatty acid content. This technology, together with the solvent extraction of the dehydrated fruits, may have the potential to be a continuous, dry and clean technology for palm oil milling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods
  7. Hassan H, Bakar SA, Halim KN, Idris J, Saad FF, Nordin AJ
    Curr Radiopharm, 2016;9(2):121-7.
    PMID: 26239237
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: 18F-Fluorocholine has been suggested as one of the reputable imaging tracers for diagnosis of prostate tumour in Positron Emission Tomography / Computed Tomography (PET/CT) modality. Nevertheless, it has never been synthesised in Malaysia. We acknowledged that the major problem with 18F-Fluorocholine is due to its relatively low radiochemical yield at the end of synthesis (EOS). Therefore, this article presents improved 18FFluorocholine radiochemical yields after carrying out optimisation on azeotropic drying of 18F-Fluorine.

    METHODS: In the previous study, the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (n.c.a) 18F-Fluorine in the reactor was conducted at atmospheric pressure (0 atm) and shorter duration time. In this study, however, the azeotropic drying of non-carried-added (n.c.a) 18FFluorine was made at a high vacuum pressure (- 0.65 to - 0.85 bar) with an additional time of 30 seconds. At the end of the synthesis, the mean radiochemical yield was statistically compared between the two azeotropic drying conditions so as to observe whether the improvement made was significant to the radiochemical yield.

    RESULTS: From the paired sample t-test analysis, the improvement done to the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (n.c.a) 18F-Fluorine was statistically significant (p < 0.05). With the improvement made, the 18F-Fluorcholine radiochemical yield was found to have increase by one fold.

    CONCLUSION: Improved 18F-Fluorocholine radiochemical yields were obtained after the improvement had been done to the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (n.c.a) 18F-Fluorine. It was also observed that improvement made to the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (n.c.a) 18F-Fluorine did not affect the 18F-Fluorocholine quality control analysis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods
  8. Cho EG, Hor YL, Kim HH, Rao VR, Engelmann F
    Cryo Letters, 2002 Sep-Oct;23(5):325-32.
    PMID: 12447492
    In this paper, we demonstrate that C. madurensis embryonic axes can withstand cryopreservation using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. Up to 57.5 % survival was achieved using a standard encapsulation-dehydration protocol, which included pregrowth of encapsulated axes for 16 h in medium containing 0.8 M sucrose + 1 M glycerol, desiccation of beads to around 30 % moisture content (fresh weight basis) followed by rapid freezing. A slightly higher survival percentage (65 %) was obtained using a modified encapsulation-dehydration protocol, which included pretreatment of axes with 2 M glycerol + 0.6 M sucrose for 1 h, concomitantly with their encapsulation in 3 % calcium alginate beads, followed by desiccation of the beads to around 30 % moisture content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  9. Oh HKF, Siow LF, Lim YY
    J Food Biochem, 2019 07;43(7):e12856.
    PMID: 31353691 DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12856
    Different drying methods and blanching were investigated as to their effects on antioxidant and oxidase activities of Thunbergia laurifolia leaves. Results showed that oven-drying had the highest degradation of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity at >85%, while freeze-drying had the lowest at <20%. However, inactivation of oxidase enzymes by blanching at 100°C resulted in a lesser decrease in TPC for oven-drying at 50 and 100°C (51% and 65%, respectively), indicating the importance of inactivating the oxidase enzymes for lower degradation of phenolics on drying. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that its major antioxidant, rosmarinic acid, degraded tremendously in the presence of oxidase enzymes, but only degraded slightly upon inactivation of oxidase enzymes. Hence, this work showed that by controlling the enzymatic activity, the preservation of phenolics with specific bioactivity in herbal tea leaves can be achieved. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Thunbergia laurifolia leaves have been frequently consumed in the form of a tea or pill due to its medicinal properties. Processing of fresh herbal plant leaves by drying is required to preserve antioxidant phenolic compounds and quality of the plant leaves. Although the drying effects on the antioxidant properties have been studied, the factors that cause the change in properties have not been investigated in-depth. Controlling the factors that affect the phenolic content can help to preserve the beneficial antioxidants when processing the leaves by drying. The result of this study will be of relevance and beneficial to the herbal tea industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  10. Onwude DI, Hashim N, Chen G, Putranto A, Udoenoh NR
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Jan 30;101(2):398-413.
    PMID: 32627847 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10649
    BACKGROUND: Combined infrared (CIR) and convective drying is a promising technology in dehydrating heat-sensitive foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This novel thermal drying method, which involves the application of infrared energy and hot air during a drying process, can drastically enhance energy efficiency and improve overall product quality at the end of the process. Understanding the dynamics of what goes on inside the product during drying is important for further development, optimization, and upscaling of the drying method. In this study, a multiphase porous media model considering liquid water, gases, and solid matrix was developed for the CIR and hot-air drying (HAD) of sweet potato slices in order to capture the relevant physics and obtain an in-depth insight on the drying process. The model was simulated using Matlab with user-friendly graphical user interface for easy coupling and faster computational time.

    RESULTS: The gas pressure for CIR-HAD was higher centrally and decreased gradually towards the surface of the product. This implies that drying force is stronger at the product core than at the product surface. A phase change from liquid water to vapour occurs almost immediately after the start of the drying process for CIR-HAD. The evaporation rate, as expected, was observed to increase with increased drying time. Evaporation during CIR-HAD increased with increasing distance from the centreline of the sample surface. The simulation results of water and vapour flux revealed that moisture transport around the surfaces and sides of the sample is as a result of capillary diffusion, binary diffusion, and gas pressure in both the vertical and horizontal directions. The nonuniform dominant infrared heating caused the heterogeneous distribution of product temperature. These results suggest that CIR-HAD of food occurs in a non-uniform manner with high vapour and water concentration gradient between the product core and the surface.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides in-depth insight into the physics and phase changes of food during CIR-HAD. The multiphase model has the advantage that phase change and impact of CIR-HAD operating parameters can be swiftly quantified. Such a modelling approach is thereby significant for further development and process optimization of CIR-HAD towards industrial upscaling. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  11. Yeoh SY, Lubowa M, Tan TC, Murad M, Mat Easa A
    Food Chem, 2020 Dec 15;333:127425.
    PMID: 32683254 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127425
    Zero-salted yellow alkaline noodles (YAN) were immersed in solutions of resistant starch HYLON™ VII (HC) or fruit coating Semperfresh™ (SC) containing a range of salt (NaCl) between 10 and 30% (w/v). The objective was to evaluate the effect of salt-coatings on the textural, handling, cooking, and sensory properties of YAN. Increasing salt in the coatings caused a reduction in optimum cooking time, cooking loss and increase in cooking yield. The mechanical and textural parameters, sensory hardness, springiness and overall sensory acceptability of the salt-coated noodles however decreased with increasing salt application. HC-Na10 and SC-Na10 showed the highest textural and mechanical parameters, sensory hardness and springiness. The differences in the parameters were attributed mainly to the water absorption properties of starch that was affected by salt application. Thus, the quality of salt-coated noodles was dependent mainly on the amounts of salt applied in the coatings rather than on the types of coatings used.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  12. Ng ZX, Than MJY, Yong PH
    Food Chem, 2021 May 15;344:128738.
    PMID: 33280962 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128738
    This study aimed to compare the effect of fermentation and drying on the organoleptic characteristic, total phenolic content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth tea with commercial Camellia sinensis tea. The phenolic content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in P. pellucida were significantly (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  13. Tao Y, Li D, Siong Chai W, Show PL, Yang X, Manickam S, et al.
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2021 Apr;72:105410.
    PMID: 33341708 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.105410
    This study aimed at investigating the performances of air drying of blackberries assisted by airborne ultrasound and contact ultrasound. The drying experiments were conducted in a self-designed dryer coupled with a 20-kHz ultrasound probe. A numerical model for unsteady heat and mass transfer considering temperature dependent diffusivity, shrinkage pattern and input ultrasonic energies were applied to explore the drying mechanism, while the energy consumption and quality were analyzed experimentally. Generally, both airborne ultrasound and contact ultrasound accelerated the drying process, reduced the energy consumption and enhanced the retentions of blackberry anthocyanins and organic acids in comparison to air drying alone. At the same input ultrasound intensity level, blackberries received more ultrasound energies under contact sonication (0.299 W) than airborne sonication (0.245 W), thus avoiding the attenuation of ultrasonic energies by air. The modeling results revealed that contact ultrasound was more capable than airborne ultrasound to intensify the inner moisture diffusion and heat conduction, as well as surface exchange of heat and moisture with air. During air drying, contact ultrasound treatment eliminated the gradients of temperature and moisture inside blackberry easier than airborne ultrasound, leading to more homogenous distributions. Moreover, the total energy consumption under air drying with contact ultrasound assistance was 27.0% lower than that with airborne ultrasound assistance. Besides, blackberries dehydrated by contact ultrasound contained more anthocyanins and organic acids than those dried by airborne ultrasound, implying a higher quality. Overall, direct contact sonication can well benefit blackberry drying in both energy and quality aspects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  14. Onwude DI, Hashim N, Abdan K, Janius R, Chen G
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Mar;98(4):1310-1324.
    PMID: 28758207 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8595
    BACKGROUND: Drying is a method used to preserve agricultural crops. During the drying of products with high moisture content, structural changes in shape, volume, area, density and porosity occur. These changes could affect the final quality of dried product and also the effective design of drying equipment. Therefore, this study investigated a novel approach in monitoring and predicting the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying. Drying experiments were conducted at temperatures of 50-70 °C and samples thicknesses of 2-6 mm. The volume and surface area obtained from camera vision, and the perimeter and illuminated area from backscattered optical images were analysed and used to evaluate the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying.

    RESULTS: The relationship between dimensionless moisture content and shrinkage of sweet potato in terms of volume, surface area, perimeter and illuminated area was found to be linearly correlated. The results also demonstrated that the shrinkage of sweet potato based on computer vision and backscattered optical parameters is affected by the product thickness, drying temperature and drying time. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network with input layer containing three cells, two hidden layers (18 neurons), and five cells for output layer, was used to develop a model that can monitor, control and predict the shrinkage parameters and moisture content of sweet potato slices under different drying conditions. The developed ANN model satisfactorily predicted the shrinkage and dimensionless moisture content of sweet potato with correlation coefficient greater than 0.95.

    CONCLUSION: Combined computer vision, laser light backscattering imaging and artificial neural network can be used as a non-destructive, rapid and easily adaptable technique for in-line monitoring, predicting and controlling the shrinkage and moisture changes of food and agricultural crops during drying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  15. Leung SSY, Parumasivam T, Nguyen A, Gengenbach T, Carter EA, Carrigy NB, et al.
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 2018 Jun;127:213-222.
    PMID: 29486303 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2018.02.033
    This study aimed to assess the robustness of using a spray drying approach and formulation design in producing inhalable phage powders. Two types of Pseudomonas phages, PEV2 (Podovirus) and PEV40 (Myovirus) in two formulations containing different amounts of trehalose (70% and 60%) and leucine (30% and 40%) were studied. Most of the surface of the produced powders was found to be covered in crystalline leucine. The powders were stored at 4 °C and 20 °C under vacuum. The phage stability and in vitro aerosol performance of the phage powders were examined on the day of production and after 1, 3 and 12 months of storage. A minor titer loss during production was observed for both phages (0.2-0.8 log10 pfu/ml). The storage stability of the produced phage powders was found to be phage and formulation dependent. No further reduction in titer occurred for PEV2 powders stored at 4 °C across the study. The formulation containing 30% leucine maintained the viability of PEV2 at 20 °C, while the formulation containing 40% leucine gradually lost titer over time with a storage reduction of ∼0.9 log10 pfu/ml measured after 12 months. In comparison, the PEV40 phage powders generally had a ∼ 0.5 log10 pfu/ml loss upon storage regardless of temperature. When aerosolized, the total in vitro lung doses of PEV2 were of the order of 107 pfu, except the formulation containing 40% leucine stored at 20 °C which had a lower lung dose. The PEV40 powders also had lung doses of 106-107 pfu. The results demonstrate that spray dried Myoviridae and Podoviridae phage in a simple formulation of leucine and trehalose can be successfully stored for one year at 4 °C and 20 °C with vacuum packaging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods
  16. Noor Aziah AA, Komathi CA
    J Food Sci, 2009 Sep;74(7):S328-33.
    PMID: 19895499 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01298.x
    This study was intended to investigate the potential of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp as a raw material for the production of flour that could be used in composite blend with wheat flour or as a functional ingredient in food products. The peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp were soaked in sodium metabisulphite solution, sliced and dried overnight in a hot air oven, followed by milling into peeled pumpkin pulp flour (PPPF) and unpeeled pumpkin pulp flour (UPPF), respectively. The flours were then evaluated for physicochemical attributes (color, proximate compositions, and water activity) and functional properties (water holding capacity and oil holding capacity), in comparison to the commercial wheat flour. PPPF and UPPF were observed to be more attractive in terms of color than wheat flour, as indicated by the significantly higher results (P or= 0.05) was shown in water holding capacity of PPPF and wheat flour. However, the oil holding capacity of PPPF and UPPF was shown to be significantly higher (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods
  17. Cho EG, Noor NM, Kim HH, Rao VR, Engelmann F
    Cryo Letters, 2002 Sep-Oct;23(5):309-16.
    PMID: 12447490
    The desiccation and freezing tolerance of seeds, with and without testas, and embryonic axes of Citrus aurantifolia were investigated. Seeds were desiccated with silica gel, under the laminar air flow cabinet or by placing them on a laboratory bench. Whatever the desiccation method employed, survival before and after cryopreservation was higher for seeds without testas. When freezing intact seeds, the highest survival percentage (41.3 %) was achieved after desiccation to 7.3 % moisture content (fresh weight basis) on the laboratory bench. Survival of seeds cryopreserved without testas could reach up to 85 % after desiccation under the laminar air flow cabinet or on the laboratory bench, corresponding to moisture contents of 7.1 and 4.5 %, respectively. After desiccation with silica gel, survival reached a maximum of 60.0 %, for a seed moisture content of 3.3 %. Survival of control embryonic axes was high (80-100 %) whatever the sucrose concentration in the preculture medium and the duration of the desiccation period. After cryopreservation, no survival was noted with embryonic axes, which had not been precultured nor desiccated. Survival of non-desiccated embryonic axes after cryopreservation increased progressively in line with increasing sucrose concentrations in the preculture medium, from 7.5 % with 0.1 M sucrose to 77.5 % with 0.7 M sucrose. Survival of desiccated and cryopreserved embryos was always high, whatever the preculture treatment and desiccation period, ranging from 55.8 % to 92.5 %.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  18. Dianawati D, Mishra V, Shah NP
    J Food Sci, 2016 Jun;81(6):M1472-9.
    PMID: 27145163 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13313
    Production of probiotic food supplements that are shelf-stable at room temperature has been developed for consumer's convenience, but information on the stability in acid and bile environment is still scarce. Viability and acid and bile tolerance of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplements were evaluated. Bifidobacterium and L. acidophilus were encapsulated with casein-based emulsion using spray drying. Water activity (aw ) of the microspheres containing Bifidobacterium or L. acidophilus (SD GM product) was adjusted to 0.07 followed by storage at 25 °C for 10 wk. Encapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplement products (AL, GH, RE, and BM) were tested. Since commercial probiotic products contained mixed bacteria, selective media MRS-LP (containing L-cysteine and Na-propionate) and MRS-clindamycin agar were used to grow Bifidobacterium spp. or L. acidophilus, respectively, and to inhibit the growth of other strains. The results showed that aw had a strong negative correlation with the viability of dehydrated probiotics of the 6 products. Viable counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and L. acidophilus of SD GM, AL, and GH were between 8.3 and 9.2 log CFU/g, whereas that of BM and RE were between 6.7 and 7.3 log CFU/g. Bifidobacterium in SD GM, in AL, and in GH products and L. acidophilus in SD GM, in AL, and in BM products demonstrated high tolerance to acid. Most of dehydrated probiotic bacteria were able to survive in bile environment except L. acidophilus in RE product. Exposure to gastric juice influenced bacterial survivability in subsequent bile environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods*
  19. Juhari NH, Martens HJ, Petersen MA
    Molecules, 2021 Oct 16;26(20).
    PMID: 34684840 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26206260
    Fresh roselle are high in moisture and deteriorate easily, which makes drying important for extending shelf-life and increasing availability. This study investigated the influence of different drying methods (oven-drying, freeze-drying, vacuum-drying, and sun-drying) on the quality of roselle calyx expressed as physicochemical properties (moisture content, water activity, soluble solids, color), volatile compounds, and microstructure. Oven-drying and freeze-drying reduced moisture content most while vacuum-drying and sun-drying were not as efficient. All drying methods except sun-drying resulted in water activities low enough to ensure safety and quality. Vacuum-drying had no impact on color of the dry calyx and only small impact on color of water extract of calyx. Drying reduced terpenes, aldehydes, and esters but increased furans. This is expected to reduce fruity, floral, spicy, and green odors and increase caramel-like aroma. Sun-drying produced more ketones, alcohols, and esters. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that freeze-drying preserved the cell structure better, and freeze-dried samples resembled fresh samples most compared to other drying techniques. The study concludes that freeze-drying should be considered as a suitable drying method, especially with respect to preservation of structure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods
  20. Mediani A, Abas F, Khatib A, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2013 Aug 29;18(9):10452-64.
    PMID: 23994970 DOI: 10.3390/molecules180910452
    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of oven thermal processing of Cosmos caudatus on the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH) of two different solvent extracts (80% methanol, and 80% ethanol). Sonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from this herb. The results showed that the optimised conditions for the oven drying method for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 44.5 °C for 4 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.045 mg/mL and 43.12 °C for 4.05 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.055 mg/mL, respectively. The predicted values for TPC under the optimised conditions for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 16.5 and 15.8 mg GAE/100 g DW, respectively. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that Cosmos caudatus can be used as a potential source of antioxidants for food and medicinal applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desiccation/methods
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