Microaneurysms (MAs) are known to be the early signs of diabetic retinopathy (DR). An automated MA detection system based on curvelet transform is proposed for color fundus image analysis. Candidates of MA were extracted in two parallel steps. In step one, blood vessels were removed from preprocessed green band image and preliminary MA candidates were selected by local thresholding technique. In step two, based on statistical features, the image background was estimated. The results from the two steps allowed us to identify preliminary MA candidates which were also present in the image foreground. A collection set of features was fed to a rule-based classifier to divide the candidates into MAs and non-MAs. The proposed system was tested with Retinopathy Online Challenge database. The automated system detected 162 MAs out of 336, thus achieved a sensitivity of 48.21% with 65 false positives per image. Counting MA is a means to measure the progression of DR. Hence, the proposed system may be deployed to monitor the progression of DR at early stage in population studies.
This is a retrospective study of 525 posterior chamber implants in diabetics performed by A S M Lim and B C Ang of Singapore. The patients were reviewed by visiting ophthalmologists--J E Kennedy (Sydney), M Ngui (East Malaysia) and P M Hart (Belfast). This study did not show any significant difference in the complication of post-operative visual acuity between diabetics and non-diabetics. 95% obtained 6/12 vision or better when pre-existing disease was excluded. It also showed that posterior chamber implants can be inserted in eyes with maculopathy or proliferative retinopathy if laser treatment was effectively done before or after surgery.
Diabetic cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is a condition which involves fluid accumulation in the inner portion of the retina. It often follows changes in retinal blood vessels which enhance the fluid to come out of vessels. Although it may be asymptomatic, symptoms are primarily painless loss of central vision, often with the complaint of seeing black spots in front of the eye.It is reported that CMO may resolve spontaneously, or fluctuate for months, before causing loss of vision. If left untreated or undiagnosed, progression of CMO may lead to permanent visual loss.It has been noted that patients with diabetic retinopathy have elevated inflammatory markers, and therefore it is likely that inflammation aids in the progression of vascular disease in these patients. Several topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ketorolac 0.5%, bromfenac 0.09%, and nepafenac 0.1%, have therefore also been used topically to treat chronic diabetic CMO. Hence this review was conducted to find out the effects of topical NSAIDs in diabetic CMO.
To describe the usage of 100% perfluoropropane and subsequent laser retinopexy for the repair of posterior pole retinal detachment in a previously vitrectomised patient with diabetic tractional detachment.
PURPOSE: To investigate the change in the profile of patients who had cataract surgery at Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals in Malaysia.
DESIGN: Secondary analysis on Malaysian Cataract Surgery Registry data.
METHODS: The Malaysian Cataract Surgery Registry, a MOH-initiated registry, collects data on patients who had cataract surgery at the 36 MOH ophthalmology departments including demography, causes of cataract, systemic and ocular comorbidity, preoperative visual acuity (VA), operative details, and postoperative outcomes. This article reviews data on patient profiles from 2002 to 2004 and 2007 to 2011.
RESULTS: The coverage of cataract surgery was 91.5% (171,482/185,388). Mean patient age was 64.5 years, and 51.6% were women. A high proportion of patients had hypertension (48.9%), diabetes mellitus (37.1%), and diabetic retinopathy (10.7%). Most had senile cataract (93.4%) and one third had second eye surgery. Most patients (82.0%) had preoperative unaided VA of worse than 6/12. Eyes presenting with unaided VA of worse than 3/60 decreased from 62.6% in 2002 to 47.7% in 2011, whereas those with 6/18 to 3/60 increased from 35.2% to 48.5% (P < 0.001). Patients who had extracapsular cataract extraction had worse preoperative VA than those who had phacoemulsification (81.3% vs 40% had vision worse than 3/60).
CONCLUSIONS: The obvious change in patient profiles was the decreasing number of eyes presenting with worse than 3/60 vision. Compared with developed countries, patients who had cataract surgery at MOH hospitals in Malaysia were younger and had higher associations with diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients with micoalbuminuria and to evaluate the association of risk factors with prevalence of retinopathy in these patients.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A fundus examination of 137 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus with microalbuminuria was done, with direct ophthalmoscope/ binocular indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating the pupils with 1 % tropicamide eye drops. Retinal changes were graded as no retinopathy, non-proliferative retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy and maculopathy. The association of the duration of diabetes, control of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, obesity and peripheral neuropathy was assessed with the prevalence of retinopathy in these patents.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 58 years (range 35 - 79 years); 62 % were females, and 49.6 % were Chinese. Diabetic retinopathy was seen in 36.5 % of the patients - non proliferative in 29.2 %, proliferative in 7.3 % and maculopathy in 5.1 % of patients. A longer duration of diabetes (p = 0.002), poor control of diabetes (p = 0.002), presence of hypertension (p = 0.03), and presence of peripheral neuropathy (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of retinopathy; while hyperlipidemia (p = 0.29), smoking (p = 0.43) and obesity (p = 0.43) were not associated with retinopathy.
CONCLUSION: Retinopathy was seen in 36.5 % of type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria; 7.3 % had proliferative retinopathy and 5.1 % maculopathy (both sight threatening changes). All diabetic patients with microalbuminuria should be screened for retinopathy so that treatment can be instituted in the required patients to prevent ocular morbidity/ blindness.