To investigate the psychometric properties of the developed 21 item questionnaire to measure definitions, attitudes and management practices in relation to diarrhea during enteral nutrition (DAPonDEN).
This article is a review of the latest information on the prevalence of G. lamblia in South Asia, South East Asia and Far East, characterizing the current endemic situation within these regions. Around 33 published papers from 2002-2007 were collected on G. lamblia. The included countries were Nepal, Bangladesh, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Republic of Korea, and China. Only five published papers were discarded because data was extracted before 2002-2007 or they are not included within our regions, emphasizing more on G. lamblia in animals, or performed at extensive molecular level. The prevalence of G. lamblia varied markedly between studies illustrating higher levels in the urban than in the rural areas, more among poor communities, slightly higher in males than in females with age range of 2-5-year-old children, and among university students, old-aged people, HIV-positive patients, and gastric carcinoma patients. Though G. lamblia is not a life-threatening parasite, nevertheless, it is still considered as the most common water-borne diarrhea-causing disease. It is important to understand the etiology, frequency, and consequences of acute diarrhea in children. Routine surveillance such as bi-annual follow-up treatments, treating G. duodenalis cysts and other protozoa oocysts detected in ground water sources, and continuous health education are the most preventive measures.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Information on real world treatment experiences of patients with functional bowel disorders is lacking from Asia. This study aimed to describe the medication exposure and treatment satisfaction of patients presenting to gastroenterology clinics across a sampling of Asian cities.
METHODS: From March 2011 to October 2013, adult patients presenting to hospital-based gastroenterology outpatient clinics in 11 cities across Asia, who fulfilled screening criteria for any functional gastrointestinal disorder, were asked to complete a validated culturally adapted translation of the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire, a checklist of medications received in the preceding 3 months and questions on treatment satisfaction.
RESULTS: A total of 1376 patients (female 755, male 621, 41.36 ± 13.25 years) comprising irritable bowel (621, 45.1%), unspecified functional bowel disorder (372, 27.8%), functional constipation (202, 14.7%), functional bloating (144, 10.5%), and functional diarrhea (56, 4.1%) completed the study. Of 1105 patients with a previous consultation, 509 (46.1%) were dissatisfied with their treatment, with ineffective treatment being the commonest reason. Satisfaction with previous consultation was lowest by diagnosis for functional constipation (29.2%), and the most bothersome symptom was straining (37.5%). Of 1046 patients who had taken medications for their gastrointestinal symptoms in the last 3 months, 793 (75.8%) had received two or more drugs. For irritable bowel syndrome patients, treatment with proton pump inhibitors and antispasmodics was recorded in 57% and 31%, with overlapping epigastric pain and heartburn predicting proton pump inhibitors use.
CONCLUSIONS: More attention should be given to treatment gaps with regards to possible under-treatment with antispasmodics in irritable bowel syndrome and to critically evaluating the efficacy of constipation management.
Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Infected healthy individuals are usually asymptomatic, however it is potentially fatal in immunocompromised hosts due to its capacity to cause an overwhelming hyperinfection. Strongyloidiasis could be missed during routine screening because of low and intermittent larval output in stool and variable manifestations of the symptoms. We present two cases of strongyloidiasis occurring in children with solid organ malignancies suspected to have the infection based on their clinical conditions and treatment history for cancer. Both patients were diagnosed by molecular and serological tests and were successfully treated. Thus, strongyloidiasis in patients undergoing intensive treatment for malignancies should be suspected, properly investigated and treated accordingly.
Diarrheal diseases cause illness and death among children younger than 10 years in developing countries. Conventional testing for the detection of hemorrhagic bacteria takes 2 to 5 days to yield complete information on the organism and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Hence, in the present study, we developed a molecular-based diagnostic assay that identifies common hemorrhagic bacteria in stool samples. A set of specific primers were designed for the detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), and Campylobacter spp., suitable for use in a one-tube PCR assay. The assay in the present study simultaneously detected five genes, namely, ompC for the Salmonella genus, virA for the Shigella genus, eaeA for EHEC, 16S rRNA for the Campylobacter genus, and hemA for an internal control. Specific primer pairs were successfully designed and simultaneously amplified the targeted genes. Validation with 20 Gram-negative and 17 Gram-positive strains yielded 100% specificity. The limit of detection of the multiplex PCR assay was 1 × 10(3) CFU at the bacterial cell level and 100 pg at the genomic DNA level. Further evaluation of the multiplex PCR with 223 bacterium-spiked stool specimens revealed 100% sensitivity and specificity. We conclude that the developed multiplex PCR assay was rapid, giving results within 4 h, which is essential for the identification of hemorrhagic bacteria, and it might be useful as an additional diagnostic tool whenever time is important in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic bacteria that cause diarrhea. In addition, the presence of an internal control in the multiplex PCR assay is important for excluding false-negative cases.
A blocking test was incorporated into the commercial IDEIA Adenovirus test (DAKO Diagnostics Ltd., Cambridgeshire, UK) to detect false positive results when faecal specimens were tested for adenovirus antigen. Immune rabbit serum raised against pooled adenovirus particles from human faecal specimens, together with the pre-immune serum, was used. Assessment of positive showed that false positives were produced under two different conditions: when results were based on visual determination instead of a cut-off value determined from photometric reading, and when absorbance values were not immediately read at the end of the test. Under the optimum condition for reading and assessment of test results (immediate reading and photometric determination), 11% of 65 adenovirus-positive samples were checked by the blocking ELISA as false positives. The rest of the specimens showed blocking of positive absorbance values by 70 to 98%. ELISA was found to be more sensitive than immune electron microscopy on samples with lower antigen concentration.
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasitic fungi causing chronic diarrhea, particularly among immunocompromised patients. The current method used for diagnosis is based on conventional microscopy, which does not differentiate parasites at the species level. The present study was carried out to identify microsporidian species in immunocompromised patients. From March 2016 to March 2017, a total of 289 archived stool samples were examined microscopically for microsporidian spores using Gram-chromotrope Kinyoun (GCK) stain. Positive stool samples by microscopy were subjected to polymerase chain reaction and sequencing for species identification. Based on microscopy examination, the overall prevalence of microsporidian infections was 32.2% (93/289; 95% CI = 27.1-37.8). Of these stool samples, 45 samples were successfully amplified and confirmed as Enterocytozoon bieneusi. No Encephalitozoon intestinalis was detected. Accurate identification of species might help clinicians to decide appropriate management strategies as dissemination risks and treatment response vary for different species, hence improving the management of microsporidian infections.