Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

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  1. Koo HC, Poh BK, Lee ST, Chong KH, Bragt MC, Abd Talib R, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2016 07;28(5 Suppl):8S-20S.
    PMID: 27073200 DOI: 10.1177/1010539516641504
    A large body of epidemiological data has demonstrated that diet quality follows a sociodemographic gradient. Little is known, however, about food group intake patterns among Malaysian children. This study aimed to assess consumption pattern of 7 food groups, including cereals/grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, fish, meat/poultry, and milk/dairy products, among children 7 to 12 years of age. A total of 1773 children who participated in SEANUTS Malaysia and who completed the Food Frequency Questionnaire were included in this study. A greater proportion of children aged 10 to 12 years have an inadequate intake of cereals/grains, meat/poultry, legumes, and milk/dairy products compared with children 7 to 9 years old. With the exception of meat/poultry, food consumption of Malaysian children did not meet Malaysian Dietary Guidelines recommendations for the other 6 food groups, irrespective of sociodemographic backgrounds. Efforts are needed to promote healthy and balanced dietary habits, particularly for foods that fall short of recommended intake level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data*
  2. Teng CY, Chin YS, Taib MNM, Chan YM
    Food Nutr Bull, 2018 12;39(4):595-607.
    PMID: 30407077 DOI: 10.1177/0379572118795358
    BACKGROUND: Independence gained during adolescence may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors. Although malnutrition among adolescents is evident, studies on eating behaviors among adolescents are scarce.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a teacher-led Healthy Lifestyle Program on eating behaviors among adolescents in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This was a cluster randomized controlled trial (conducted in 2012 to 2014), with 100 schools randomly selected from 721 schools, then assigned to 50 intervention schools and 50 control schools. A Healthy Eating and Be Active among Teens (HEBAT) module was developed for pretrained teachers to deliver a Healthy Lifestyle Program on eating behaviors among adolescents. Eating behaviors of the respondents was determined using Eating Behaviors Questionnaire. Linear Mixed Model analysis and χ2 test were used to determine within- and between-group effects of studied variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 4277 respondents participated in this study, with 2635 samples involved in the final analysis, comprised of 921 intervention and 1714 control respondents. There were 32.4% (36.4%) males and 67.6% (63.6%) females in the intervention (control) group. Mean age was comparable between the groups (intervention = 12.98 years; control = 12.97 years). Majority of the respondents skipped meals at baseline (intervention = 74.7%; control = 79.5%). After the program, intervention respondents had higher consumption frequency of lunch, dinner, and mid-morning snack but a lower consumption frequency of late-evening snack and meal skipping behaviors than their control counterparts.

    CONCLUSION: The teacher-led Healthy Lifestyle Program was effective in reducing meal-skipping behaviors among Malaysian adolescents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet/statistics & numerical data*
  3. Tallman DA, Sahathevan S, Karupaiah T, Khosla P
    Nutrients, 2018 Dec 07;10(12).
    PMID: 30544535 DOI: 10.3390/nu10121945
    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are often instructed to adhere to a renal-specific diet depending on the severity and stage of their kidney disease. The prescribed diet may limit certain nutrients, such as phosphorus and potassium, or encourage the consumption of others, such as high biological value (HBV) proteins. Eggs are an inexpensive, easily available and high-quality source of protein, as well as a rich source of leucine, an essential amino acid that plays a role in muscle protein synthesis. However, egg yolk is a concentrated source of both phosphorus and the trimethylamine N-oxide precursor, choline, both of which may have potentially harmful effects in CKD. The yolk is also an abundant source of cholesterol which has been extensively studied for its effects on lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts to reduce dietary cholesterol to manage dyslipidemia in dialysis patients (already following a renal diet) have not been shown to offer additional benefit. There is a paucity of data regarding the impact of egg consumption on lipid profiles of CKD patients. Additionally, egg consumption has not been associated with the risk of developing CKD based on epidemiological studies. The egg yolk also contains bioactive compounds, including lutein, zeaxanthin, and vitamin D, which may confer health benefits in CKD patients. Here we review research on egg intake and CKD, discuss both potential contraindications and favorable effects of egg consumption, and describe the need for further research examining egg intake and outcomes in the CKD and end-stage renal disease population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data*
  4. Foo LH, Lee YH, Suhaida CY, Hills AP
    BMC Public Health, 2020 Apr 25;20(1):552.
    PMID: 32334561 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-08461-7
    BACKGROUND: There is little information about the diet, lifestyle and parental characteristics associated with habitual sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in Asian children. The aim of the present study was to assess cross-sectional associations between habitual SSB consumption and preschoolers' diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour as well as parental and child characteristics in Malaysian preschoolers aged 3 to 6 y.

    METHODS: A total of 590 preschoolers, comprising 317 boys and 273 girls were included. Pre-pilot parental questionnaires were used to assess diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour practices and anthropometry was assessed in preschoolers and their parents.

    RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that preschoolers with more frequent weekly intake of snacks [OR 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.4; p diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour factors were significantly associated with SSB intake among Malaysian preschoolers. Continued effort is required to encourage healthier beverage choices, as well as healthy diet and active lifestyle practices among children during the critical early years of growth and development.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data
  5. Akmal Muhamat N, Hasan R, Saddki N, Mohd Arshad MR, Ahmad M
    PLoS One, 2021;16(9):e0257035.
    PMID: 34495979 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0257035
    In several nations, caries in pre-school children remain a significant oral health issue. In an outbreak period such as the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), remote contact and education aimed at the prevention of oral diseases and the preservation of children's oral health are more relevant than ever. Currently, the amount of published applications is far higher than the published scientific studies while the problems of usability remains vulnerable. The goal of this paper was to comprehensively document the phase of development and usability testing of a mobile application for diet and oral health, namely Gigiku Sihat, which was primarily intended to be used by parents and guardians of pre-school children. The mobile application was developed using the System Development Life Cycle principle. Apart from searching for the available oral health application on Android platform, the initial requirement gathering process consisted of situational analysis, concept generation, content development, and features and functional requirement determination. The mobile application design and implementation evolved at each phase before being finalised. Gigiku Sihat was successfully developed in the Bahasa Malaysia. Finalised Gigiku Sihat was installed on mobile devices to determine the usability using translated and validated System Usability Scale questionnaire namely Skala Kebolehgunaan Aplikasi Mudah Alih (SKAMA). The mean score usability with score of 68 and above was deemed to have good usability. This study found that Gigiku Sihat mean (SD) usability score was 77.0 (14.18). The results were promising as they showed that Gigiku Sihat had a good usability. Thus, the development of this mobile application focusing on diet and oral health served as a new source of oral health education and provided a necessary foundation in developing future improved mobile application development for parents in the prevention of early childhood caries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data
  6. Bamia C, Lagiou P, Jenab M, Aleksandrova K, Fedirko V, Trichopoulos D, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2015 Mar 31;112(7):1273-82.
    PMID: 25742480 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2014.654
    BACKGROUND: Vegetable and/or fruit intakes in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been investigated in case-control studies conducted in specific European countries and cohort studies conducted in Asia, with inconclusive results. No multi-centre European cohort has investigated the indicated associations.

    METHODS: In 486,799 men/women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition, we identified 201 HCC cases after 11 years median follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence for sex-specific quintiles and per 100 g d(-1) increments of vegetable/fruit intakes.

    RESULTS: Higher vegetable intake was associated with a statistically significant, monotonic reduction of HCC risk: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.98. This association was consistent in sensitivity analyses with no apparent heterogeneity across strata of HCC risk factors. Fruit intake was not associated with HCC incidence: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92-1.11.

    CONCLUSIONS: Vegetable, but not fruit, intake is associated with lower HCC risk with no evidence for heterogeneity of this association in strata of important HCC risk factors. Mechanistic studies should clarify pathways underlying this association. Given that HCC prognosis is poor and that vegetables are practically universally accessible, our results may be important, especially for those at high risk for the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data*
  7. Yen ST, Tan AK, Feisul MI
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP2635-50.
    PMID: 23007483 DOI: 10.1177/1010539512458523
    This study examines the sociodemographic factors associated with daily fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in Malaysia. Based on a cross-sectional sample of 2447 individuals from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1, a multivariate sample selection system is developed and estimated, to accommodate high frequencies of daily FV consumption and the days of servings among nondaily consumers. Results indicate that the authors' attempt to account for endogenous sample selectivity and cross-equation correlations is justified. There exist positive correlations between FV consumption likelihoods and longer work hours, higher levels of education, high income, female gender, nonsmoking status, and being from East Malaysia. Among nondaily consumers, those with longer work hours, singles, and people with diabetes are less inclined to eat fruits on more days. Overall, higher-educated, affluent people, nonsmokers, and East Malaysians display more days of FV consumption. Based on these outcomes, several policy implications are recommended vis-à-vis FV consumption patterns in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data*
  8. Liau SY, Shafie AA, Ibrahim MI, Hassali MA, Othman AT, Mohamed MH, et al.
    Health Expect, 2013 Jun;16(2):199-210.
    PMID: 21645189 DOI: 10.1111/j.1369-7625.2011.00702.x
    BACKGROUND: Transtheoretical Model of change has been used successfully in promoting behaviour change.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores with the stages of change of adequate physical activity and fruit and vegetables intake.

    DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among employees of the main campus and Engineering campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) during October 2009 and March 2010.

    MAIN VARIABLES STUDIED: Data on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake was collected using the WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk factors surveillance. The Short Form-12 health survey (SF-12) was used to gather information on participants' HRQoL. The current stages of change are measured using the measures developed by the Pro-Change Behaviour Systems Incorporation.

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: One way ANOVA and its non-parametric equivalent Kruskal-Wallis were used to compare the differences between SF-12 scores with the stages of change.

    RESULTS: A total of 144 employees were included in this analysis. A large proportion of the participants reported inadequate fruits and vegetable intake (92.3%) and physical activity (84.6%). Mean physical and mental component scores of SF-12 were 50.39 (SD = 7.69) and 49.73 (SD = 8.64) respectively. Overall, there was no statistical significant difference in the SF-12 domains scores with regards to the stages of change for both the risk factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: There were some evidence of positive relationship between stages of change of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake with SF-12 scores. Further studies need to be conducted to confirm this association.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data
  9. Safari A, Shariff ZM, Kandiah M, Rashidkhani B, Fereidooni F
    BMC Public Health, 2013;13:222.
    PMID: 23497250 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-222
    Colorectal cancer is the third and fourth leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality among men and women, respectively in Iran. However, the role of dietary factors that could contribute to this high cancer incidence remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and its relationship with colorectal cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data
  10. Chong KH, Wu SK, Noor Hafizah Y, Bragt MC, Poh BK, SEANUTS Malaysia Study Group
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2016 07;28(5 Suppl):59S-73S.
    PMID: 27307424 DOI: 10.1177/1010539516654260
    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data
  11. Molina-Montes E, Sánchez MJ, Zamora-Ros R, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Wark PA, Obon-Santacana M, et al.
    Int J Cancer, 2016 10 01;139(7):1480-92.
    PMID: 27184434 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.30190
    Despite the potential cancer preventive effects of flavonoids and lignans, their ability to reduce pancreatic cancer risk has not been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. Our aim was to examine the association between dietary intakes of flavonoids and lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 865 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases occurred after 11.3 years of follow-up of 477,309 cohort members. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake was estimated through validated dietary questionnaires and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Phenol Explorer databases. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using age, sex and center-stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for energy intake, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol and diabetes status. Our results showed that neither overall dietary intake of flavonoids nor of lignans were associated with pancreatic cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR for a doubling of intake = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.95-1.11 and 1.02; 95% CI: 0.89-1.17, respectively). Statistically significant associations were also not observed by flavonoid subclasses. An inverse association between intake of flavanones and pancreatic cancer risk was apparent, without reaching statistical significance, in microscopically confirmed cases (HR for a doubling of intake = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00). In conclusion, we did not observe an association between intake of flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses or lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC cohort.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data
  12. Cheng WH, Yap CK
    Chemosphere, 2015 Sep;135:156-65.
    PMID: 25950409 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.04.013
    Samples of mangrove snails Nerita lineata and surface sediments were collected from nine geographical sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia to determine the concentrations of eight metals. For the soft tissues, the ranges of metal concentrations (μg g(-1) dry weight (dw)) were 3.49-9.02 for As, 0.69-6.25 for Cd, 6.33-25.82 for Cu, 0.71-6.53 for Cr, 221-1285 for Fe, 1.03-50.47 for Pb, and 102.7-130.7 for Zn while Hg as 4.00-64.0 μg kg(-1) dw(-1). For sediments, the ranges were 21.81-59.49 for As, 1.11-2.00 for Cd, 5.59-28.71 for Cu, 18.93-62.91 for Cr, 12973-48916 for Fe, 25.36-172.57 for Pb, and 29.35-130.34 for Zn while for Hg as 2.66-312 μg kg(-1) dw(-1). To determine the ecological risks on the surface habitat sediments, sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the geochemical indices, and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were used. Based on the SQGs, all the metals investigated were most unlikely to cause any adverse effects. Based on geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor, the sediments were also not polluted by the studied metals. The PERI values based on As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb and Zn in this study were found as 'low ecological risk'. In order to assess the potential health risks, the estimated daily intakes (EDI) of snails were found to be all lower than the RfD guidelines for all metals, except for Pb in some sites investigated. Furthermore, the calculated target hazard quotients (THQ) were found to be less than 1. However, the calculated total target hazard quotients (TTHQ) from all sites were found to be more than 1 for high level consumers except KPPuteh. Therefore, moderate amount of intake is advisable to avoid human health risks to the consumers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data*
  13. Fransen HP, Boer JMA, Beulens JWJ, de Wit GA, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Hoekstra J, et al.
    Eur J Public Health, 2017 04 01;27(2):274-278.
    PMID: 27744349 DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw190
    Background: : Unhealthy dietary patterns have been associated with other unhealthy lifestyle factors such as smoking and physical inactivity. Whether these associations are similar in high- and low-educated individuals is currently unknown.

    Methods: We used information of the EPIC-NL cohort, a prospective cohort of 39 393 men and women, aged 20-70 years at recruitment. A lifestyle questionnaire and a validated food frequency questionnaire were administered at recruitment (1993-97). Low adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was used to determine an unhealthy dietary pattern. Lifestyle-related factors included body mass index, waist circumference, smoking status, physical activity level, dietary supplement use and daily breakfast consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for the total population and by strata of educational level.

    Results: In total 30% of the study population had an unhealthy dietary pattern: 39% in the lowest educated group and 20% in the highest educated group. Physical inactivity, a large waist circumference, no dietary supplement use and skipping breakfast were associated with an unhealthy dietary pattern in both low and high educated participants. Among low educated participants, current smokers had a greater odds of an unhealthy diet compared with never smokers: OR 1.42 (95% CI: 1.25; 1.61). This association was not observed in the high educated group.

    Conclusions: Most associations between lifestyle-related factors and unhealthy diet were consistent across educational levels, except for smoking. Only among low educated participants, current smokers reported an unhealthier dietary pattern in comparison to never smokers. These results can be used in the development of targeted health promotion strategies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data
  14. Hamzaid NH, Flood VM, Prvan T, O'Connor HT
    J Intellect Disabil Res, 2018 05;62(5):422-430.
    PMID: 29484759 DOI: 10.1111/jir.12480
    BACKGROUND: Good nutrition knowledge among carers of people with intellectual disability (ID) living in group homes is essential as they have a primary role in food provision for residents. Research on the nutrition knowledge of carers is limited.

    METHOD: This cross-sectional study assessed the level of general nutrition knowledge in a convenience sample of Australian carers (C) of people with ID and compared this to the general Australian community (CM). Nutrition knowledge was evaluated using the validated General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire. Total knowledge score as well as performance on instrument sub-sections (dietary guidelines, nutrient sources, healthy food choices and diet disease relationships) were assessed (expressed as %). Knowledge scores were adjusted for known confounders (age, sex, education level, BMI, living arrangement and English spoken at home) using generalised linear modelling.

    RESULTS: A total of 589 participants were recruited (C: n = 40; CM: n = 549). Age (C: 40.8 ± 12.1 year; CM: 37.8 ± 13.3 years; P = 0.145), sex distribution (C: 62.5%; CM: 67.2% female; P = 0.602) and English spoken at home (C: 82.5%; CM: 89.6%; P = 0.183) were similar between groups, but BMI (C: 28.5 ± 5.7 kgm-2 ; CM: 25.3 kgm-2 ; P = 0.002) was significantly lower and tertiary education (C: 52.5%; CM: 85.1%; P diet for people with ID in group homes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data
  15. Md Yusop NB, Mohd Shariff Z, Hwu TT, Abd Talib R, Spurrier N
    BMC Public Health, 2018 03 01;18(1):299.
    PMID: 29490648 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-5206-2
    BACKGROUND: Interventions that encompass behavioural modifications of dietary intake and physical activity are essential for the management of obesity in children. This study assessed the effectiveness of a stage-based lifestyle modification intervention for obese children.

    METHODS: A total of 50 obese children (7-11 years old) were randomized to the intervention group (IG, n = 25) or the control group (CG, n = 25). Data were collected at baseline, at follow-up (every month) and at six months after the end of the intervention. IG received stage-based lifestyle modification intervention based on the Nutrition Practice Guideline for the Management of Childhood Obesity, while CG received standard treatment. Changes in body composition, physical activity and dietary intake were examined in both the intervention and control groups.

    RESULTS: Both groups had significant increases in weight (IG: 1.5 ± 0.5 kg; CG: 3.9 ± 0.6 kg) (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data
  16. Karupaiah T, Swee WC, Liew SY, Ng BK, Chinna K
    J Community Health, 2013 Feb;38(1):163-71.
    PMID: 22930284 DOI: 10.1007/s10900-012-9597-1
    Diet-related non-communicable disease (DR-NCD) occurrence is a serious problem amongst Malaysian women and urbanization is probably a challenge to their achieving the nutritional environment conducive to healthy eating. This case study aimed to determine diet quality of an urban community using women respondents from high rise dwellings in Kuala Lumpur. The sample consisted of 135 households and a healthy eating index (HEI) scale was used to evaluate the women's diet quality. A total of 128 women (Malays = 45, Chinese = 56, Indian = 27) participated. Total HEI score was significantly different (P < 0.05) within ethnicity (Indians = 75.7 ± 8.1 0.05) regardless of ethnicity. Income strata (ρ = 0.159, P = 0.048) and eating out frequency (ρ = -0.149, P = 0.046) also independently affected HEI scores. Income negatively correlated with sodium restriction score (ρ = -0.294, P = 0.001) but positively with cereals (ρ = 0.181; P = 0.025), fruits (ρ = 0.178; P = 0.022), dairy products (ρ = 0.198; P = 0.013) and food variety (ρ = 0.219, P = 0.007). Decreased vegetable intake (ρ = -0.320; P < 0.001) and sodium excess (ρ = -0.135, P = 0.065) were associated with eating out frequency and poor HEI scores. This case study suggests health promotion for DR-NCD prevention is needed at the community level to improve diet quality of urban women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data*
  17. Ng AK, Hairi NN, Dahlui M, Su TT, Jalaludin MY, Abdul Majid H
    Br J Nutr, 2020 12 14;124(11):1207-1218.
    PMID: 32624008 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114520002202
    The longitudinal relationship between muscle strength, dietary intake and physical activity among adolescents is not well understood. We investigated the trend and longitudinal effects of dietary intakes and physical activity scores on muscle strength in adolescents. This prospective cohort study consisted of 436 adolescents (134 males; 302 females) aged 13 years at baseline (2012) who were followed up at the ages of 15 (2014) and 17 (2016) years, respectively. We measured muscle strength using a calibrated hand dynamometer, estimated dietary intake with a 7-d dietary history and physical activity scores with a validated physical activity questionnaire for older children. A generalised estimating equation was used to examine the effect of dietary intakes and physical activity on muscle strength changes. The analysis was performed separately by sex. The muscle strength for males and females had increased within the 5-year period. The dietary intakes (energy and macronutrients) also increased initially but plateaued after the age of 15 years for both sexes. Females recorded a significant declining trend in physical activity scores compared with males as they grew older. A significant positive longitudinal relationship was found between protein (β = 0·035; P = 0·016), carbohydrate intake (β = 0·002; P = 0·013) and muscle strength among males. However, no longitudinal relationship was found between dietary intake, physical activity and muscle strength among females. Higher protein and carbohydrate intake among males was associated with higher muscle strength but was not observed in females. Nutrition and physical activity focusing on strength building are required in early adolescence and need to be tailored to males and females accordingly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data*
  18. Akter R, Yagi N, Sugino H, Thilsted SH, Ghosh S, Gurung S, et al.
    Nutrients, 2020 Sep 04;12(9).
    PMID: 32899764 DOI: 10.3390/nu12092705
    The consumption of high-quality diverse diets is crucial for optimal growth, health, and wellbeing.

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the diet quality of households by their type of engagement in homestead aquaculture and/or horticulture. Socio-demographic determinants of diet quality were also studied.

    METHOD: Diet quality was assessed using a nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), based on the preceding 7 days' dietary recall at the household level. Adult male equivalent units (AMEs) were used for age- and sex-specific intra-household distribution of household intakes. Mean adequacy ratios (MAR) were computed as an overall measure of diet quality, using NAR.

    RESULTS: Better diet quality (mean ± SD) was associated with households engaged in both homestead aquaculture and horticulture (0.43 ± 0.23; p < 0.001) compared to only one type of agriculture (0.38 ± 0.20) or none (0.36 ± 0.20). Tukey's post-hoc test confirmed significant differences in diet quality between both and either engagement (0.05 ± 0.01, p < 0.001), both and no engagement (0.07 ± 0.01, p < 0.001), and either and no engagement households (0.02 ± 0.01, p < 0.001). Beyond farm production of nutrient-rich foods, generalized estimating equations showed that diet quality was influenced by the higher educational level and occupation of adult household members, higher daily per capita food expenditure, sex, family size and region.

    CONCLUSIONS: Projects that promote and support household engagement in both homestead aquaculture and horticulture have the potential to improve the diet quality of households.

    Matched MeSH terms: Healthy Diet/statistics & numerical data*
  19. Selamat R, Raib J, Abdul Aziz NA, Zulkafly N, Ismail AN, W Mohamad WNA, et al.
    Ecol Food Nutr, 2019 11 22;59(3):263-278.
    PMID: 31755310 DOI: 10.1080/03670244.2019.1694922
    This study aimed to determine dietary practices and meal patterns among Malaysian overweight and obese school children at baseline. This study was part of a school-based obesity intervention study, My Body is Fit and Fabulous at School (MyBFF@school). It involved 1045 primary and 1041 secondary overweight and obese school children from a randomly selected 23 out of 1196 primary and 15 out of 416 secondary government schools in central Peninsular Malaysia. The results showed a significantly higher of adequate intake (4-8 servings/day) of cereals and grains among primary (54.7%) than secondary school children (48.2%). About 28.2% of primary and 32.6% of secondary school children had consumed adequate fruit (2 servings/day), while a very low percentage of both primary (5.0%) and secondary (3.6%) school children consumed adequate vegetables (3 servings/day). As for the meal patterns, school children in both primary and secondary were not taking breakfast regularly (mean±SD for primary: 3.16 ± 2.61 days/week vs secondary: 2.97 ± 2.52 days/week). There was also a significantly higher mean frequency of primary school children brought plain water to school than the secondary school children. In conclusion, urgent actions to address improper dietary practices and meal patterns of overweight and obese school children in Malaysia are warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data*
  20. van Dongen MC, Wijckmans-Duysens NEG, den Biggelaar LJ, Ocké MC, Meijboom S, Brants HA, et al.
    Nutrition, 2019 06;62:39-46.
    PMID: 30826598 DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.10.015
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for The Maastricht Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in Maastricht, The Netherlands.

    METHODS: Item selection for the FFQ was based on explained variation and contribution to intake of energy and 24 nutrients. For validation, the FFQ was completed by 135 participants (25-70 y of age) of the Nutrition Questionnaires plus study. Per person, on average 2.8 (range 1-5) telephone-based 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs), two 24-h urinary samples, and one blood sample were available. Validity of 54 nutrients and 22 food groups was assessed by ranking agreement, correlation coefficients, attenuation factors, and ultimately deattenuated correlation coefficients (validity coefficients).

    RESULTS: Median correlation coefficients for energy and macronutrients, micronutrients, and food groups were 0.45, 0.36, and 0.38, respectively. Median deattenuated correlation coefficients were 0.53 for energy and macronutrients, 0.45 for micronutrients, and 0.64 for food groups, being >0.50 for 18 of 22 macronutrients, 16 of 30 micronutrients and >0.50 for 17 of 22 food groups. The FFQ underestimated protein and potassium intake compared with 24-h urinary nitrogen and potassium excretion by -18% and -2%, respectively. Correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 and 0.55 for (fatty) fish intake and plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and from 0.26 to 0.42 between fruit and vegetable intake and plasma carotenoids.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, the validity of the 253-item Maastricht FFQ was satisfactory. The comprehensiveness of this FFQ make it well suited for use in The Maastricht Study and similar populations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/statistics & numerical data*
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