OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a teacher-led Healthy Lifestyle Program on eating behaviors among adolescents in Malaysia.
METHODS: This was a cluster randomized controlled trial (conducted in 2012 to 2014), with 100 schools randomly selected from 721 schools, then assigned to 50 intervention schools and 50 control schools. A Healthy Eating and Be Active among Teens (HEBAT) module was developed for pretrained teachers to deliver a Healthy Lifestyle Program on eating behaviors among adolescents. Eating behaviors of the respondents was determined using Eating Behaviors Questionnaire. Linear Mixed Model analysis and χ2 test were used to determine within- and between-group effects of studied variables.
RESULTS: A total of 4277 respondents participated in this study, with 2635 samples involved in the final analysis, comprised of 921 intervention and 1714 control respondents. There were 32.4% (36.4%) males and 67.6% (63.6%) females in the intervention (control) group. Mean age was comparable between the groups (intervention = 12.98 years; control = 12.97 years). Majority of the respondents skipped meals at baseline (intervention = 74.7%; control = 79.5%). After the program, intervention respondents had higher consumption frequency of lunch, dinner, and mid-morning snack but a lower consumption frequency of late-evening snack and meal skipping behaviors than their control counterparts.
CONCLUSION: The teacher-led Healthy Lifestyle Program was effective in reducing meal-skipping behaviors among Malaysian adolescents.
METHODS: A total of 590 preschoolers, comprising 317 boys and 273 girls were included. Pre-pilot parental questionnaires were used to assess diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour practices and anthropometry was assessed in preschoolers and their parents.
RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that preschoolers with more frequent weekly intake of snacks [OR 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.4; p diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour factors were significantly associated with SSB intake among Malaysian preschoolers. Continued effort is required to encourage healthier beverage choices, as well as healthy diet and active lifestyle practices among children during the critical early years of growth and development.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores with the stages of change of adequate physical activity and fruit and vegetables intake.
DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among employees of the main campus and Engineering campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) during October 2009 and March 2010.
MAIN VARIABLES STUDIED: Data on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake was collected using the WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk factors surveillance. The Short Form-12 health survey (SF-12) was used to gather information on participants' HRQoL. The current stages of change are measured using the measures developed by the Pro-Change Behaviour Systems Incorporation.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: One way ANOVA and its non-parametric equivalent Kruskal-Wallis were used to compare the differences between SF-12 scores with the stages of change.
RESULTS: A total of 144 employees were included in this analysis. A large proportion of the participants reported inadequate fruits and vegetable intake (92.3%) and physical activity (84.6%). Mean physical and mental component scores of SF-12 were 50.39 (SD = 7.69) and 49.73 (SD = 8.64) respectively. Overall, there was no statistical significant difference in the SF-12 domains scores with regards to the stages of change for both the risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS: There were some evidence of positive relationship between stages of change of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake with SF-12 scores. Further studies need to be conducted to confirm this association.
Methods: We used information of the EPIC-NL cohort, a prospective cohort of 39 393 men and women, aged 20-70 years at recruitment. A lifestyle questionnaire and a validated food frequency questionnaire were administered at recruitment (1993-97). Low adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was used to determine an unhealthy dietary pattern. Lifestyle-related factors included body mass index, waist circumference, smoking status, physical activity level, dietary supplement use and daily breakfast consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for the total population and by strata of educational level.
Results: In total 30% of the study population had an unhealthy dietary pattern: 39% in the lowest educated group and 20% in the highest educated group. Physical inactivity, a large waist circumference, no dietary supplement use and skipping breakfast were associated with an unhealthy dietary pattern in both low and high educated participants. Among low educated participants, current smokers had a greater odds of an unhealthy diet compared with never smokers: OR 1.42 (95% CI: 1.25; 1.61). This association was not observed in the high educated group.
Conclusions: Most associations between lifestyle-related factors and unhealthy diet were consistent across educational levels, except for smoking. Only among low educated participants, current smokers reported an unhealthier dietary pattern in comparison to never smokers. These results can be used in the development of targeted health promotion strategies.
METHOD: This cross-sectional study assessed the level of general nutrition knowledge in a convenience sample of Australian carers (C) of people with ID and compared this to the general Australian community (CM). Nutrition knowledge was evaluated using the validated General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire. Total knowledge score as well as performance on instrument sub-sections (dietary guidelines, nutrient sources, healthy food choices and diet disease relationships) were assessed (expressed as %). Knowledge scores were adjusted for known confounders (age, sex, education level, BMI, living arrangement and English spoken at home) using generalised linear modelling.
RESULTS: A total of 589 participants were recruited (C: n = 40; CM: n = 549). Age (C: 40.8 ± 12.1 year; CM: 37.8 ± 13.3 years; P = 0.145), sex distribution (C: 62.5%; CM: 67.2% female; P = 0.602) and English spoken at home (C: 82.5%; CM: 89.6%; P = 0.183) were similar between groups, but BMI (C: 28.5 ± 5.7 kgm-2 ; CM: 25.3 kgm-2 ; P = 0.002) was significantly lower and tertiary education (C: 52.5%; CM: 85.1%; P diet for people with ID in group homes.
METHODS: A total of 50 obese children (7-11 years old) were randomized to the intervention group (IG, n = 25) or the control group (CG, n = 25). Data were collected at baseline, at follow-up (every month) and at six months after the end of the intervention. IG received stage-based lifestyle modification intervention based on the Nutrition Practice Guideline for the Management of Childhood Obesity, while CG received standard treatment. Changes in body composition, physical activity and dietary intake were examined in both the intervention and control groups.
RESULTS: Both groups had significant increases in weight (IG: 1.5 ± 0.5 kg; CG: 3.9 ± 0.6 kg) (p
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the diet quality of households by their type of engagement in homestead aquaculture and/or horticulture. Socio-demographic determinants of diet quality were also studied.
METHOD: Diet quality was assessed using a nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), based on the preceding 7 days' dietary recall at the household level. Adult male equivalent units (AMEs) were used for age- and sex-specific intra-household distribution of household intakes. Mean adequacy ratios (MAR) were computed as an overall measure of diet quality, using NAR.
RESULTS: Better diet quality (mean ± SD) was associated with households engaged in both homestead aquaculture and horticulture (0.43 ± 0.23; p < 0.001) compared to only one type of agriculture (0.38 ± 0.20) or none (0.36 ± 0.20). Tukey's post-hoc test confirmed significant differences in diet quality between both and either engagement (0.05 ± 0.01, p < 0.001), both and no engagement (0.07 ± 0.01, p < 0.001), and either and no engagement households (0.02 ± 0.01, p < 0.001). Beyond farm production of nutrient-rich foods, generalized estimating equations showed that diet quality was influenced by the higher educational level and occupation of adult household members, higher daily per capita food expenditure, sex, family size and region.
CONCLUSIONS: Projects that promote and support household engagement in both homestead aquaculture and horticulture have the potential to improve the diet quality of households.
METHODS: Item selection for the FFQ was based on explained variation and contribution to intake of energy and 24 nutrients. For validation, the FFQ was completed by 135 participants (25-70 y of age) of the Nutrition Questionnaires plus study. Per person, on average 2.8 (range 1-5) telephone-based 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs), two 24-h urinary samples, and one blood sample were available. Validity of 54 nutrients and 22 food groups was assessed by ranking agreement, correlation coefficients, attenuation factors, and ultimately deattenuated correlation coefficients (validity coefficients).
RESULTS: Median correlation coefficients for energy and macronutrients, micronutrients, and food groups were 0.45, 0.36, and 0.38, respectively. Median deattenuated correlation coefficients were 0.53 for energy and macronutrients, 0.45 for micronutrients, and 0.64 for food groups, being >0.50 for 18 of 22 macronutrients, 16 of 30 micronutrients and >0.50 for 17 of 22 food groups. The FFQ underestimated protein and potassium intake compared with 24-h urinary nitrogen and potassium excretion by -18% and -2%, respectively. Correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 and 0.55 for (fatty) fish intake and plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and from 0.26 to 0.42 between fruit and vegetable intake and plasma carotenoids.
CONCLUSION: Overall, the validity of the 253-item Maastricht FFQ was satisfactory. The comprehensiveness of this FFQ make it well suited for use in The Maastricht Study and similar populations.