Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 73 in total

  1. Panadi M, Mat K, Rahman MM, Khan MAKG, Balakrishnan M, Rusli ND
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2021 Oct 13;53(5):515.
    PMID: 34647184 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-021-02953-3
    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of varying crude protein (CP) levels on intake, growth performances and nutrient digestibility of Dorper lambs at pre- and post-weaning period. Twenty lambs at 7 days old with an initial body weight of 2.91 kg were individually penned and randomly assigned into four (4) dietary groups using a randomised complete block design. In Trial I, pre-weaning lambs were fed with creep feeding (CF) diet containing 14% crude protein (CP) as a control diet (CON14), 16% (CF16), 18% (CF18) and 20% (CF20) of CP for 84 days. Following Trial 1, the animals were fed with a growing ration (GR) diet for 96-day feeding trial. The diets consisted of 11% CP as a control diet (CON11), 14% (GR14), 16% (GR16) and 18% (GR18) of CP. The water was available ad libitum and the feed intake was measured daily by the difference of feed offered and refused. The increase of CP level resulted in a linear increase of dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient intake and average daily gain (ADG) in pre- and post-weaning lambs. The DMI (g/day) of lambs fed with CF20 (1059.92) was significantly higher (p  0.05) compared to those fed with CF16 (217.95). For post-weaning lambs, GR16 had significantly higher ADG than CON11 (43.14), but it was no difference with GR14 (72.94) and GR18 (69.41). However, increased CP level resulted in linear increase of DM, ash, organic matter (OM) and CP digestibility. The present finding suggested that the optimum CP level for pre- and post-weaning Dorper lambs in Malaysia was 16% and 14%, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary
  2. Hassan R, Lee SY, Morni WZW
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2017;2017:1489360.
    PMID: 28695188 DOI: 10.1155/2017/1489360
    Sea star (class Asteroidea, phylum Echinodermata) is one of the most successful marine organisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats. As one of the key stone species, sea stars are responsible for maintaining much of the local diversity of species within certain communities. Malaysian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Resource Survey had been carried out from 16th Aug to 6th Nov 2015 and one of the invertebrate by-catch organisms is sea star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840. This study documents morphological characters and diet of the sea star, besides providing brief descriptions of the habitats based on particle size analysis and vessel log data sheet. A total of 217 individuals had been examined throughout this study. Fragments of flora and fauna were found in the gut including Mollusca (gastropod, bivalves, and scaphopods), sponge seagrass, and seaweed as well as benthic Foraminifera. Stellaster childreni were found at depth of 45 m to 185 m in the South China Sea off Sarawak Malaysia, with various sea bottom substrata. Approximately 41% of S. childreni were found at a mixture of sandy and muddy substratum, followed by mixture of sandy and coral (19.3%), muddy substratum (17.5%), coral substratum (11.5%), and sandy areas (10.6%). The widely distributed sea star on different types of sea beds suggested healthy deep sea ecosystem; thus Malaysia should explore further potential fisheries resources in the EEZ off Sarawak coast.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary
  3. Matsuda I, Ihobe H, Tashiro Y, Yumoto T, Baranga D, Hashimoto C
    Primates, 2020 May;61(3):473-484.
    PMID: 32026152 DOI: 10.1007/s10329-020-00794-6
    One of the goals for primate feeding ecology is to understand the factors that affect inter- and intra-specific variations. Therefore, a detailed description of basic feeding ecology in as many populations as possible is necessary and warrants further understanding. The black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza) or guereza is widely distributed in Africa and is one of the well-studied colobines in terms of their feeding; they demonstrate considerable variation in their diets in response to local conditions. We studied the diet of a group of guerezas in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda, for over 30 consecutive months using behavioral observation (4308 h in total), phenology, and vegetation surveys. A total of 31 plant species were consumed by the study group. This study group was predominantly folivorous; the majority of their feeding time was involved in feeding on young leaves (87%). However, during certain times of the year, fruits and seeds accounted for 45% of monthly feeding time. Young leaves of Celtis durandii were by far the most important food, which constituted 58% of the total feeding records. There was a significant increase in the consumption of fruits and flowers once young leaf availability was low, but their consumption of fruits did not significantly increase even when fruit availability was high. Their monthly dietary diversity increased as the number of available plants with young leaves declined, suggesting that much of the dietary diversity in the study group may be attributable to the young leaf portion of their diet. Our findings may help contribute to a better understanding of the dietary adaptations and feeding ecology of guerezas in response to local environmental conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary*
  4. Rahman MM, Abdullah RB, Mat KB, Ishigaki G, Nor MM, Akashi R
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2020 Nov;52(6):3085-3090.
    PMID: 32564217 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-020-02330-6
    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with soya waste at different levels on intake, digestibility and growth in goats. Eighteen male goat kids with initial body weight (BW) of 13.0 kg were distributed equally to three dietary groups. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and concentrate mixture, and each goat was assigned to an individual pen. Soybean meal in the concentrate mixture was replaced with soya waste at 0% (T1), 50% (T2) and 100% (T3) levels in respective dietary groups. These diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Results showed that animals fed T3 diet exhibited higher Napier grass intake than those fed T1 or T2 diet. There was no influence on total intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), metabolic BW, per cent BW and metabolisable energy by the dietary groups. However, there was an increasing trend on intake and digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) with increasing levels of soya waste in the diets. Animals fed T3 diet showed higher intake and digestibility of NDF than those fed T1 diet. There was no influence of the dietary groups on digestibilities of DM, OM and CP. Similarly, there was no effect of them on the final BW, total BW gain, daily BW gain, feed conversion ratio and feed cost. Soya waste can replace 100% soybean meal in diets for growing goats, because no change was observed in nutrient intake, digestibility and growth performance; inclusion of soya waste enhanced the intake and digestibility of NDF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary
  5. Musa SO, Okomoda VT, Tiamiyu LO, Solomon SG, Adeyemo BT, Alamanjo CC, et al.
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2021 Mar 27;53(2):232.
    PMID: 33772665 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-021-02678-3
    The nutritional value of Jatropha curcas kernel (JCK) can be improved through different processing methods; however, when using a thermal treatment, optimization of the process is needed to prevent denaturation of nutrients. In this study, JCK was toasted for varying durations (0, 10, 20, and 30 min) and nutritionally evaluated. The implication of feeding Clarias gariepinus with dietary inclusions (35% CP; 315 kcal g-1) of the toasted JCK was also reported. The results obtained suggest that prolonged duration of toasting improved the nutritional characteristics of the JCK until the 20th min. Beyond this time, the protein content and essential amino acids are reduced. However, the antinutrients continuously decreased with prolonged processing. The growth, carcass analysis, and haematology of the fish groups fed toasted JCK at varying duration also did better than those fed raw JCK. Importantly, the performance tends to reduce for those fed JCK toasted beyond 20 min. The estimated cost of producing 1 kg of the fish also substantially reduced with feeding the processed JCK than feeding raw JCK. Histological examination of the intestine and liver tissues further revealed fewer signs of histopathological degeneration for fish-fed processed JCK compared to the control. It was concluded that the processing of JCK by toasting should not exceed 20 min to improve the nutritional composition of the feed ingredients and their dietary utilization by fish.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary
  6. Ibrahim NA, Alimon AR, Yaakub H, Samsudin AA, Candyrine SCL, Wan Mohamed WN, et al.
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2021 Jul 31;53(4):422.
    PMID: 34331142 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-021-02863-4
    Understanding the nature of ruminant nutrition and digestion is essential to improve feeding management and animal production. Among many approaches, manipulating ruminant nutrition and fermentation through feed supplementation is being practised and researched. Over the last decade, the utilization of vegetable oils in feed formulation and their effects on various aspects of ruminants have been reported by many researchers. It is important to understand the lipid metabolism in ruminants by microorganisms because it affects the quality of ruminant-derived products such as meat and milk. Majority of vegetable oil supplementation could reduce rumen protozoa population in ruminants due to the effects of medium-chain fatty acids (FAs). However, vegetable oil also contains unsaturated FAs that are known to have a negative effect on cellulolytic bacteria which could show inhibitory effects of the fibre digestion. In this paper, the physiology of nutrient digestion of ruminants is described. This paper also provides a current review of studies done on improvement and modification of rumen fermentation and microbial population through vegetable oil supplementation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary
  7. Gelabert P, Sandoval-Velasco M, Serres A, de Manuel M, Renom P, Margaryan A, et al.
    Curr Biol, 2020 01 06;30(1):108-114.e5.
    PMID: 31839456 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.10.066
    As the only endemic neotropical parrot to have recently lived in the northern hemisphere, the Carolina parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis) was an iconic North American bird. The last surviving specimen died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1918 [1]. The cause of its extinction remains contentious: besides excessive mortality associated to habitat destruction and active hunting, their survival could have been negatively affected by its range having become increasingly patchy [2] or by the exposure to poultry pathogens [3, 4]. In addition, the Carolina parakeet showed a predilection for cockleburs, an herbaceous plant that contains a powerful toxin, carboxyatractyloside, or CAT [5], which did not seem to affect them but made the birds notoriously toxic to most predators [3]. To explore the demographic history of this bird, we generated the complete genomic sequence of a preserved specimen held in a private collection in Espinelves (Girona, Spain), as well as of a close extant relative, Aratinga solstitialis. We identified two non-synonymous genetic changes in two highly conserved proteins known to interact with CAT that could underlie a specific dietary adaptation to this toxin. Our genomic analyses did not reveal evidence of a dramatic past demographic decline in the Carolina parakeet; also, its genome did not exhibit the long runs of homozygosity that are signals of recent inbreeding and are typically found in endangered species. As such, our results suggest its extinction was an abrupt process and thus likely solely attributable to human causes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary*
  8. Kwasek K, Thorne-Lyman AL, Phillips M
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2020;60(22):3822-3835.
    PMID: 31983214 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2019.1708698
    Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 2 of zero hunger and malnutrition by 2030 will require dietary shifts that include increasing the consumption of nutrient dense foods by populations in low- and middle-income countries. Animal source foods are known to be rich in a number of highly bioavailable nutrients that otherwise are not often consumed in the staple-food based diets of poorer populations throughout the world. Fish is the dominant animal source food in many low- and middle-income countries in the global south and is available from both fisheries and aquaculture. Consumers often perceive that wild caught fish have higher nutritional value than fish produced through aquaculture, and this may be true for some nutrients, for example omega-3 fatty acid content. However, there is potential to modify the nutritional value of farmed fish through feeds and through production systems, illustrated by the common practice of supplementing omega-3 fatty acids in fish diets to optimize their fatty acid profile. This manuscript reviews the evidence related to fish feeds and the nutritional composition of fish with respect to a number of nutrients of interest to human health, including iron, zinc, vitamins A and D, selenium, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids, with low- and middle-income country populations in mind. In general, we find that the research on fortification of fish diet particularly with vitamins and minerals has not been directed toward human health but rather toward improvement of fish growth and health performance. We were unable to identify any studies directly exploring the impact of fish feed modification on the health of human consumers of fish, but as nutrition and health rises in the development agenda and consumer attention, the topic requires more urgent attention in future feed formulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary
  9. Saminathan M, Mohamed WNW, Noh 'M, Ibrahim NA, Fuat MA, Ramiah SK
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2022 Jan 17;54(1):64.
    PMID: 35038035 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-022-03046-5
    Palm oil is a natural energy source ingredient in poultry diets that offers a broad range of beneficial effects on the performance of broiler chickens. This review was conducted to highlight the impact of palm oil as a feed ingredient on growth performance and carcass quality, as well as the biochemical, antioxidant activity and tissue fatty acids (FA) composition of broiler chickens. Palm oil inclusion in broiler chickens' rations contributes significantly to the high metabolisable energy (ME) of feed formulation, increases feed palatability and decreases digesta passage rate in the intestine. The reviewed literature indicated that dietary palm oil has a beneficial effect on broiler chickens' overall growth performance traits. The addition of palm oil can also improve the heat tolerance of chickens reared in high ambient temperature conditions. Regardless of breed and breeding conditions, palm oil exhibits good oxidative stability in broiler chickens due to the presence of prevalent phytonutrient elements in this oil. The inclusion of palm oil increased palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids in tissue deposits, which improves meat stability and quality. Moreover, molecular studies have revealed that higher mRNA expression of several lipid-related hepatic genes in broiler chickens fed palm oil. Nonetheless, dietary palm oil can influence FA deposition in tissues, modulate lipoprotein and triglycerides (TG) levels, and cytokine contents in the blood serum of broiler chickens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary
  10. Salisi MS, Saad MZ, Kasim A
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2012 Feb;44(2):207-11.
    PMID: 22083271 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-011-0008-x
    A Boer goat breeding farm with 800 heads of breeder females, 50 breeder males, and 400 growing goats of various ages in Sabah, Malaysia was selected to study the effect of implementing herd health program. This included vaccination program against pneumonic mannheimiosis; fecal monitoring for helminthiasis, coccidiosis, and colibacillosis; and introduction of modified feeding regime comprised of day-time grazing and feeding of cut grass and supplemented feed. The herd health program was implemented in September 2007 and the impact was observed on body weight gains, body scoring, and annual mortality among adults and kids. It was found that implementation of herd health program significantly (p < 0.05) increased the average body weight gains in both adults and kids from 1.8 g per kid and 0.6 g per adult in 2006 to 3.7 g per kid and 2.2 g per adult in 2008. The percentage of adults with body scoring of <3 was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from 82.3% in 2006 to 77.6% in 2007 and 4% in 2008. Similarly, the annual mortality rate was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced from 6.5% among kids and 58.2% among adults in 2006 to 12.1% among kids and 10.4% among adults in 2007, and to 9.1% among kids and 1.1% among adults in 2008. Therefore, it was concluded that implementation of herd health program significantly improved the survival and performance of goats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary
  11. Ebrahimi M, Rajion MA, Goh YM, Sazili AQ
    J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), 2012 Dec;96(6):962-9.
    PMID: 21848848 DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01206.x
    The effects of different inclusion levels of oil palm fronds (OPF) on the fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi (LD), biceps femoris (BF) and infraspinatus (IS) muscle of goats fed for 100 days are described. Twenty-four individually housed Kacang crossbred male goats (averaged 21.7 ± 0.97 kg BW) were allocated to three groups receiving either a 100% concentrate control diet (CON), diet with 25% inclusion level of OPF (HAF) or a diet with 50% inclusion of OPF. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed at 3.0% of BW daily. Samples of LD, BF and IS muscles were taken at slaughter for the determination of fatty acid profiles. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the LD and BF muscles of the OPF group were significantly (p diet except for total SFA. It is concluded that OPF at 25-50% inclusion levels may decrease the SFA and increase the n-3PUFA content in chevon, with no apparent adverse effects on the growth performance of the animals, can be used as a feed ingredient to support goat farming in countries that lack grazing pasture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary
  12. Aljuobori A, Zulkifli I, Soleimani AF, Abdullah N, Liang JB, Mujahid A
    Poult Sci, 2016 Jun 01;95(6):1326-31.
    PMID: 26944983 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew023
    Extruded canola meal (ECM) was included in diet of broiler chickens at 0, 10, 20, and 30% (wt/wt) from 1 to 35 days of age. A total of 240 day-old male chicks were assigned in groups of 5 to 48 battery cages in environmentally controlled chambers and diets were replicated with 12 cages/treatment. From d 29 to 35, birds from each dietary group were exposed to either thermoneutral (23 ± 1°C; unheated) or high (36 ± 1°C; heated) temperature conditions. High ambient temperature, irrespective of ECM inclusion, depressed the growth performance of birds. Inclusion of ECM increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) linearly in unheated birds during d 1 to 28 (P < 0.001) and d 29 to 35 (P = 0.001). However, no adverse effects of ECM inclusion were observed on the growth performance of heated birds. The absence of these detrimental effects could be associated with the lack of triiodothyronine (T3) elevation by ECM inclusion in heated birds. In conclusion, ECM can be fed, at least, up to 30%, without any adverse effect on growth performance of broiler chickens raised under chronic high ambient temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary
  13. Rahman MM, Khadijah WE, Abdullah RB
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2016 Aug;48(6):1287-90.
    PMID: 27116608 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-016-1065-y
    Twelve Jermasia kids were individually housed in pens to study the effects of soywaste on growth performance and carcass characteristics and to compare such effects with commercial pellet. Kids were divided into a pellet group and a soywaste group, including six kids (3 males and 3 females) in each group. Pellet or soywaste was offered to kids at a rate of 2.0 % dry matter (DM) of body weight/day in addition to Napier grass ad libitum. In last 10 days of experiment, kids were housed in metabolism crates for faeces collection. At the end of the experiment, three males from each group were slaughtered. Kids fed soywaste diet consumed more grass and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than those fed pellet. The same trend was found for the digestibilities of DM, organic matter (OM) and NDF. Conversely, kids fed soywaste diet consumed less soywaste supplement than kids fed pellet. No treatment effects were observed on total intakes of DM, OM and crude protein (CP) including CP digestibility. Similarly, no effects were found on carcass and non-carcass components, except for lean, lean to fat ratio and kidney weight which were higher for kids fed soywaste diet. Results indicate that soywaste is effective as a feed for growing kids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary*
  14. Candyrine SCL, Mahadzir MF, Garba S, Jahromi MF, Ebrahimi M, Goh YM, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(7):e0199840.
    PMID: 29975711 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199840
    Twenty male Saanen goats were randomly assigned to four levels of lovastatin supplementation and used to determine the optimal dosage and sustainability of naturally produced lovastatin from fermentation of palm kernel cake (PKC) with Aspergillus terreus on enteric methane (CH4) mitigation. The effects on ruminal microbiota, rumen fermentation, feed digestibility and health of animal were determined over three measuring periods (4-, 8- and 12-weeks) and the accumulation of lovastatin in tissues was determined at the end of the experiment. The diets contained 50% rice straw, 22.8% concentrates and 27.2% of various proportions of untreated or treated PKC to achieve the target daily intake level of 0 (Control), 2, 4 or 6 mg lovastatin/kg body weight (BW). Enteric CH4 emissions per dry matter intake (DMI), decreased significantly (P<0.05) and equivalent to 11% and 20.4%, respectively, for the 2 and 4 mg/kg BW groups as compared to the Control. No further decrease in CH4 emission thereafter with higher lovastatin supplementation. Lovastatin had no effect on feed digestibility and minor effect on rumen microbiota, and specifically did not reduce the populations of total methanogens and Methanobacteriales (responsible for CH4 production). Similarly, lovastatin had little effect on rumen fermentation characteristics except that the proportion of propionate increased, which led to a decreasing trend (P<0.08) in acetic: propionate ratio with increasing dosage of lovastatin. This suggests a shift in rumen fermentation pathway to favor propionate production which serves as H+ sink, partly explaining the observed CH4 reduction. No adverse physiological effects were noted in the animals except that treated PKC (containing lovastatin) was less palatable at the highest inclusion level. Lovastatin residues were detected in tissues of goats fed 6 mg lovastatin/kg BW at between 0.01 to 0.03 μg/g, which are very low.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary*
  15. Abbood AA, Kassim AB, Jawad HSA, Manap YA, Sazili AQ
    Poult Sci, 2017 Jun 01;96(6):1767-1782.
    PMID: 28204764 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew460
    An experiment was carried out to estimate the meat quality characteristics of village chickens (Gallus gallus) fed diets supplemented with dry leaves of Borreria latifolia (BL) used as a potential antioxidant source in chicken feed. In this study, 252 sexed 9-week-old village chickens with mean live body weight of 1,525.4 g for males and 1,254.1 g for females were divided into 7 groups (each group 18 birds) for each sex represented in 2 experiments. The first experiment was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of BL and the effect on meat quality through a comparison with Rosmarinus officinalis (RO); hence, 3 groups were conducted and included: T1 (control), basal diet without supplementation; T2, basal diet with 1% of BL; T3, basal diet with 1% of RO. T2 and T3 significantly affect pH value, lipid oxidation, cooking loss, and overall acceptability compared to T1, while no significant difference was observed between the dietary groups in respect of drip loss, color, tenderness, fatty acid profile, and meat composition. Furthermore, a significant effect of sex on lipid oxidation, pH, yellowness, and fatty acid profile was observed. There was no significant effect of sex on WHC, tenderness, lightness, redness, and sensory evaluation. A significant influence of postmortem aging period was detected on lipid oxidation, pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and redness. The obtained result in this study revealed a significance in the interaction of herb by sex in pH parameter and between herb and sex, herb by aging period, sex by aging period, and the herb by sex by aging period interactions with regard to lipid oxidation test. The second experiment was to estimate the effect of 3 different levels of BL on meat quality. Four groups were provided and involved: T1 (control), basal diet without supplementation; T2, basal diet with 1.5% of BL; T3, basal diet with 2% of BL; and T4, basal diet with 2.5% of BL. The result of this study showed a significant effect (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary
  16. Lee S, Katya K, Hamidoghli A, Hong J, Kim DJ, Bai SC
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2018 Dec;83:283-291.
    PMID: 30217508 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2018.09.031
    This study evaluated the synergistic effects of dietary Bacillus subtilis WB60 and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) in juvenile Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Seven treatment diets were formulated to contain three different levels of B. subtilis (0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 × 107 CFU/g diet denoted as BS0, BS0.5, and BS1, respectively) with two MOS levels (0 and 5 g/kg diet denoted as M0 and M5, respectively), and one diet with oxytetracycline (OTC) at 5 g/kg diet. Each diet (BS0M0 (CON), BS0M5, BS0.5M0, BS0.5M5, BS1M0, BS1M5, and OTC) was fed to triplicate groups of 20 fish averaging 9.00 ± 0.11 g (mean ± SD) for eight weeks. Average weight gain, feed efficiency, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the BS0.5M5 and BS1M5 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed CON, BS0.5M0 and OTC diets (P diets compared to the CON, BS0.5M0, and BS0M5 diets (P diets compared to those of fish fed the other diets (P diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed the CON diet (P diets than those fed CON, BS0M5, and OTC diets. Additionally, resistance to bacterial challenge with Vibrio anguillarum was recorded significantly lower for fish fed the CON diet than those fed other diets (P > 0.05). Therefore, the results for growth performance, non-specific immune responses, intestinal morphology, and disease resistance demonstrated that supplementation of B. subtilis at 0.5 × 107 CFU/g diet and mannanoligosaccharide at 5 g/kg diet could have beneficial synergistic effects in Japanese eel. The isolated probiotic from eel and the selected prebiotic could lead to the development of a specific and potential synbiotic in Japanese eel aquaculture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary
  17. Yasin IM, Razak NF, Natrah FMI, Harmin SA
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):791-800.
    PMID: 28779739
    A total of 58 Gram-positive bacteria strains were isolated from the marine environment and screened for potential probiotics for disease prevention and improving the productivity of tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus larvae and juveniles. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. circulans, B. sphaericus, B. cereus, Brevibacillus brevis, Corynebacterium propinquum, Leifsonia aquatica and Paenibacillus macerans. Only 24 strains showed antagonistic activities against four pathogenic strains; Vibrio alginolyticus, V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila, where two of the Bacillus strains, B12 and B45 demonstrated intermediate to highest level of inhibitory activity against these pathogenic strains, respectively. Further assessment by co-culture assay showed that Bacillus strain B12 exhibited a total inhibition of V. alginolyticus, while B45 strain displayed no inhibitory activity. Mixed culture of Bacillus B12 and B45 strains to outcompete V. alginolyticus was observed at a cell density of 10(7) CFU ml(-1). Molecular identification and phylogenetic tree analysis have categorized Bacillus strain B12 to the reference strains GQ340480 and JX290193 of? B. amyloliquafaciens, and Bacillus strain B45 with a reference strain JF496522 of B. subtilis. Safety tests of probionts by intraperitoneal administration of B12 and B45 strains at cell densities of 103, 105 and 10(7) CFU ml(-1) revealed no abnormalities and cent percent survival for healthy Epinephelus fuscoguttatus juveniles within 15 days of experimental period. Overall, the study revealed that Bacillus B12 strain possesses tremendous probiotic potential that could be used as a feed supplement in tiger grouper diets. ?
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary
  18. Marty PR, Balasubramaniam KN, Kaburu SSK, Hubbard J, Beisner B, Bliss-Moreau E, et al.
    Primates, 2020 Mar;61(2):249-255.
    PMID: 31773350 DOI: 10.1007/s10329-019-00775-4
    In primates, living in an anthropogenic environment can significantly improve an individual's fitness, which is likely attributed to access to anthropogenic food resources. However, in non-professionally provisioned groups, few studies have examined whether individual attributes, such as dominance rank and sex, affect primates' ability to access anthropogenic food. Here, we investigated whether rank and sex explain individual differences in the proportion of anthropogenic food consumed by macaques. We observed 319 individuals living in nine urban groups across three macaque species. We used proportion of anthropogenic food in the diet as a proxy of access to those food resources. Males and high-ranking individuals in both sexes had significantly higher proportions of anthropogenic food in their diets than other individuals. We speculate that unequal access to anthropogenic food resources further increases within-group competition, and may limit fitness benefits in an anthropogenic environment to certain individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary*
  19. Nur Atikah I, Alimon AR, Yaakub H, Abdullah N, Jahromi MF, Ivan M, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2018 Nov 14;14(1):344.
    PMID: 30558590 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-018-1672-0
    BACKGROUND: The effects of the dietary oils with differing fatty acid profiles on rumen fermentation, microbial population, and digestibility in goats were investigated. In Experiment I, rumen microbial population and fermentation profiles were evaluated on 16 fistulated male goats that were randomly assigned to four treatment groups: i) control (CNT), ii) olive oil (OL), iii) palm olein oil (PO), and iv) sunflower oil (SF). In Experiment II, another group of 16 male goats was randomly assigned to the same dietary treatments for digestibility determination.

    RESULTS: Rumen ammonia concentration was higher in CNT group compared to treatment groups receiving dietary oils. The total VFA and acetate concentration were higher in SF and OL groups, which showed that they were significantly affected by the dietary treatments. There were no differences in total microbial population. However, fibre degrading bacteria populations were affected by the interaction between treatment and day of sampling. Significant differences were observed in apparent digestibility of crude protein and ether extract of treatment groups containing dietary oils compared to the control group.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that supplementation of different dietary oils containing different fatty acid profiles improved rumen fermentation by reducing ammonia concentration and increasing total VFA concentration, altering fibre degrading bacteria population, and improving apparent digestibility of crude protein and ether extract.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary*
  20. Lokman IH, Ibitoye EB, Hezmee MNM, Goh YM, Zuki ABZ, Jimoh AA
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2019 Nov;51(8):2219-2225.
    PMID: 31134556 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-019-01936-9
    Majority of the studies on the effect of chitin and chitosan on growth and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens has concentrated more on shrimp chitin and shrimp chitosan, and often with contradictory results. Therefore, the objective of this present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of dietary chitin and chitosan from cricket and shrimp on growth performance, carcass, and organ characteristics of broiler chickens. One hundred fifty-day-old male Cobb500 broiler chicks of similar average weight were randomly allotted into one of the five dietary treatments with three replicates. Treatment 1 (T1) chicks were fed basal diet only (control), treatment 2 and 3 (T2 and T3) chicks were given basal diet with 0.5 g/kg diet of cricket chitin and cricket chitosan, respectively, while treatment 4 and 5 (T4 and T5) chicks were served basal diet with 0.5 g/kg diet of shrimp chitin and shrimp chitosan respectively. No significant variation occurred between cricket chitin and shrimp chitin, although data on growth performance were higher in cricket chitin, but growth performance varied significantly between cricket chitosan and shrimp chitosan. This study revealed that cricket chitin at 0.5 g/kg significantly improved growth performance, carcass quality, and organ characteristics of broilers more than chitosan. Birds fed basal diet alone, although gained more weight, also accumulated more fat having the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR) and the highest mortality. However, carcass of birds fed cricket chitin was the leanest and thus economically beneficial as they consumed the least amount of feed with the best FCR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/veterinary*
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