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  1. Mak JW, Cheong WH, Yen PK, Lim PK, Chan WC
    Acta Trop., 1982 Sep;39(3):237-45.
    PMID: 6128892
    The dynamics of the transmission of subperiodic Brugia malayi in a typical endemic area in Malaysia was studied over a period of 4 years. Mass chemotherapeutic control with diethylcarbamazine citrate was found to be inefficient, new cases being detected even after the fifth treatment cycle of 6 mg/kg X 6 days per cycle. This is in marked contrast to the situation in periodic b. malayi areas where mass treatment efficiently controlled the infection. The disparity in results in these two areas is attributed to zoonotic transmission of subperiodic B. malayi from non-human primates where a mean infection rate of 76.3% was found.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use
  2. Watts MB
    Med J Malaya, 1969 Dec;24(2):89-93.
    PMID: 4244149
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use*
  3. Barclay R
    Med J Malaya, 1966 Dec;21(2):131-2.
    PMID: 4227383
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use
  4. Rohela M, Jamaiah I, Yaw CC
    PMID: 17121289
    We are reporting a case of an eye lesion caused by an adult Brugia malayi. The patient was a 3-year-old Chinese boy from Kemaman District, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. He presented with a one week history of redness and palpebral swelling of his right eye. He claimed that he could see a worm in his right eye beneath the conjunctiva. He had no history of traveling overseas and the family kept dogs at home. He was referred from Kemaman Hospital to the eye clinic of Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. On examination by the ophthalmologist, he was found to have a subconjunctival worm in his right eye. Full blood count revealed eosinophilia (10%). Four worm fragments, each about 1 cm long were removed from his right eye under general anesthesia. A thick blood smear stained with Giemsa was positive for microfilariae of Brugia malayi. A Brugia Rapid test done was positive. He was treated with diethylcarbamazine.

    Study site: Opthamolagy clinic, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use
  5. Navaratnam V
    PMID: 7973948
    Lymphatic filariasis is the most widespread of human filarial infections, a group of vector-borne infestations. After the discovery of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), little advance was made in the development of new chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis until 1985. Since then, several new initiatives have occurred as the result of a global effort by the World Bank/UNDP/WHO Special Programme on Tropical Diseases and the Onchocerciasis Control Programme. Some of these global research initiatives are reviewed in this paper. Recent observations throw a new light on the rational use of DEC including its deployment as a medicated salt. Ivermectin, an established drug for the treatment of river-blindness is examined for its potential use in the treatment of lymphatic filariasis. Experimental results from two novel compounds out of several being developed by the WHO/OCP Macrofil project are considered in respect to their potential macrofilaricidal activity, particularly in relation to lymphatic filarial infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use
  6. Hanjeet K, Ow Yang CK, Mak JW
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1988 Sep;43(3):263-6.
    PMID: 3241589
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use
  7. Hiil JL, Kan SK, Parmar SS, Chan MK, Mak JW, Lim PK, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1988 May;38(3):582-8.
    PMID: 3275137
    Mass drug administration via 3 modes of delivery reduced the incidence and prevalence rates and intensity of Brugia malayi infection in 3 rural villages in the Bengkoka Peninsula, Sabah, in 1982-1983. A dosage of 6 mg diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC-C)/kg body weight was administered either daily or weekly (total of 6 doses, 36 mg/kg body weight), and impact on B. malayi cases were comparable in the 3 villages. A total of 384 people participated in the DEC-C regimens, and all pregnant women and children under 2 years were excluded from the study. Bekessy's method of estimation of incidence and recovery rates was applied to data on B. malayi microfilaremia before drug administration. Treatment with DEC-C by any of the 3 modes of delivery drastically reduced the number of episodes of patent microfilaremia, incidence and prevalence, and median microfilarial density. Reduction was sustained for at least 18 to 24 months after treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use*
  8. Mak JW, Lim PK
    Z Parasitenkd, 1983;69(5):677-80.
    PMID: 6415950
    The chemoprophylactic use of diethylcarbamazine citrate at total oral doses of 15--180 mg/kg body weight was tested against subperiodic Brugia malayi infection in the leaf monkey (Presbytis melalophos). A total dose of 45 mg/kg body weight given over 9 days killed all developing infective larvae. Similarly, a total dose of 35 mg/kg body weight given over 7 days killed all fourth stage larvae. The minimum effective dose that prevents infection would be 5 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days every month.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use
  9. Danaraj TJ, Pacheco G, Shanmugaratnam K, Beaver PC
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1966 Mar;15.(2):183-9.
    PMID: 5910525
    The finding of microfilariae in lung tissue from patients with eosinophilic lung is reported and the histopathological appearances are described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use
  10. Dissanaike AS, Ramalingam S, Fong A, Pathmayokan S, Thomas V, Kan SP
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1977 Nov;26(6 Pt 1):1143-7.
    PMID: 596511
    An active worm was seen in the right eye of a 62-year-old man in Malaysia. The worm was behind the lens and attached at one end to some vitreous fibers. It was tentatively identified as an immature Dirofilaria immitis. There appear to be only five previous authentic reports of filariae in the vitreous.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use
  11. Tan LH, Fong MY, Mahmud R, Muslim A, Lau YL, Kamarulzaman A
    Parasitol. Int., 2011 Jan;60(1):111-3.
    PMID: 20951228 DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2010.09.010
    Five local Malaysian patients with clinical manifestations consistent with lymphatic filariasis were referred to our medical centre between 2003 and 2006. Although no microfilariae (mf) were detected in their nocturnal blood samples, all were diagnosed to have lymphatic filariasis on the basis of clinical findings and positive serology results. PCR on their blood samples revealed that two of the patients were infected with Brugia pahangi, an animal filarial worm hitherto not known to cause human disease in the natural environment. All the patients were successfully treated with anti-filarial drugs: four patients were treated with a combination of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole, and one with doxycycline. Four of them were residents of Petaling Jaya, a residential suburbia located 10 km southwest of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The fifth patient was a frequent visitor of the suburbia. This suburbia has no history or record of B. malayi infection. The most likely vector of the worm was Armigeres subalbatus as extensive entomological surveys within the suburbia revealed only adult females of this mosquito species were infected with B. pahangi larvae. Wild monkeys caught in the suburbia were free from B. pahangi mf, but domestic cats were mf positive. This suggests that infected cats might be the source of the zoonotic infection in the suburbia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use
  12. Chang MS
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2002 Dec;96 Suppl 2:S71-6.
    PMID: 12625920
    An estimated 13 million people in the Oriental Region have brugian filariasis. The filarial parasites that cause this disease exist in periodic and sub-periodic forms and are transmitted by four genera of mosquito: Anopheles, Mansonia and, less frequently, Coquillettidia and Ochlerotatus. In most endemic countries, control of the disease has been entirely based on chemotherapy, although house-spraying and use of insecticide-treated bednets can be quite effective against the vectors of nocturnally periodic Brugia malayi and B. timori. The vector-control methods that may be applied against the Mansonia mosquitoes that transmit the parasites causing sub-periodic brugian filariasis are reviewed here. Most of the conventional methods for controlling the immature, aquatic stages of mosquitoes have proved unsatisfactory against Mansonia. The reason is that, unlike the those of other genera, the larvae and pupae of Mansonia spp. are relatively immobile and obtain air not at the water surface but from the underwater roots, stems and leaves of floating plants to which the larvae and pupae attach. Removal of host plants can be very effective in reducing Mansonia productivity, whereas large-scale use of herbicides is restricted by the potential adverse effects on the ecosystem. Environmental management in water-development projects remains the best option.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use
  13. Chang MS, Chan KL, Ho BC
    PMID: 7973956
    Two field trials in the control of subperiodic brugian filariasis vectors, mainly Mansonia bonneae and Mansonia dives were carried out in Sarawak, East Malaysia. In the first trial, malathion ultra-low volume (ULV) spray was used to control the Mansonia mosquitos in two filariasis endemic villages. Six spray rounds were applied at biweekly intervals at Kampung Rasau and two spray rounds were applied at monthly intervals in Kampung Triboh. ULV malathion spray reduced biting Ma. bonneae population for 3 days after spraying. The biting density decreased to 50% of the pre-treatment level by the 12th - 13th day and reached the pre-treatment level by the 24th - 25th day. Contact bioassay tests on caged Mansonia mosquitos revealed considerable penetration of the malathion aerosol indoors and relatively adequate coverage outdoors. The estimated number of bites per case per day was 1.09 to 4 times less in the sprayed kampung than in an unsprayed control kampung. The parous and daily survival rates of Mansonia mosquitos were not significantly affected by the spraying. In a second trial, chemotherapy with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) was combined with vector control through indoor residual spraying in Kampung Ampungan. The results were compared with the use of only DEC mass treatment in Kampung Sebangkoi and Kampung Sebamban. The combined control measures in Kampung Ampungan reduced the MfD-50 to 44% of the pre-treatment level over a period of 4 years. In the other two kampungs where only mass DEC therapy was applied, the microfilarial rate and MfD-50 declined significantly in the second blood survey but increased gradually in two subsequent follow-up blood surveys. The total insecticidal impact for Ma. bonneae was 3.9 to 1 indoors and 2.7 to 1 outdoors. These results indicated that quarterly pirimiphos-methyl indoor spraying used in integrated control could reduce indoor transmission by 3.9 times. The infective rate from the Ma. bonneae dissected in all three kampungs after the interventions, irrespective of DEC treatment alone or in combination with pirimiphos-methyl residual spraying were reduced by two fold. However the infection rate of brugian filarial larvae in Kampung Ampungan was significantly reduced after the use of DEC and insecticide. Annual Transmission Potential (ATP) showed a high significant reduction in Kampung Ampungan (p > 0.001) compared with Kampungs Sebangkoi and Schambam. In Ampungan, the ATP was reduced by 8.5 times indoors after the MDA and insecticidal application and 3 times outdoors. The reduction rate for Sebangkoi and Sebamban both indoors and outdoors were less than 2 fold.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use
  14. Panicker KN, Krishnamoorthy K, Sabesan S, Prathiba J, Abidha
    PMID: 1818392
    Annual and biannual mass single dose diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) at 6 mg/kg body weight was administered to people in a Brugia malayi endemic area in Shertallai part of Kerala, India, in 1987 and 1988. The coverage of population ranged between 41.33% and 66.01% in different rounds. The highest percentage of treated population developing side reactions was 8.4%. Both annual and biannual regimens were effective in reducing the microfilaria prevalence significantly from 4.90% to 1.23% and from 6.27% to 0.62% respectively and the incidence of infection was minimal in the adult population and zero among children. There was significant reduction in mean microfilaria count in both annual (81.08%) and biannual (98.00%) areas. Marked reduction in the proportion of high density carriers and infectivity index of the population after DEC therapy was also observed. Beneficial effect of mass single dose DEC on clinical cases of filariasis was evident from the reduction in the prevalence of acute manifestations, recent edema cases and the proportion of chronic cases with acute episodes. Results obtained from mass treatment areas were compared with those of the control area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use
  15. Neva FA, Kaplan AP, Pacheco G, Gray L, Danaraj TJ
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 1975 Jun;55(5):422-9.
    PMID: 1138016
    The diverse clinical syndromes characterized by asthmatic symptoms, transient pulmonary infiltrates, and eosinophilia have tended to obscure the specific association of one such entity with filarial infections. Serum IgE levels were determined before and after therapy in a group of well-characterized patients with tropical eosinophilia (TE), studied earlier in Singapore. The mean serum IgE level in 14 cases before treatment with diethylcarbamazine was 2,355 ng. per milliliter, with a trend but statistically nonsignificant decrease in levels to 600-1,000 ng. occurring 8 to 12 weeks after therapy. Leukocyte and eosinophil counts showed a rapid reduction after treatment, and although mean complement-fixing (cf) titers to Dirofilarial antigen tended to decrease, they were not significantly reduced until 5 to 6 weeks. The historical development of evidence supporting the filarial etiology of TE was reviewed. Many basic questions engendered by the clinical syndrome of tropical eosinophilia make it an excellent model for study of the immunopathology of parasitic infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use
  16. Putrali J, Kaleb YM, Van Peenen PF, Saroso JS
    PMID: 1166347
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use*
  17. Mak JW, Lam PL, Choong MF, Suresh K
    J. Helminthol., 1990 Jun;64(2):96-9.
    PMID: 2387979
    The known filaricides, suramin and diethylcarbamazine citrate, were tested against subperiodic Brugia malayi infection in the leaf-monkey, Presbytis cristata. As expected, intravenous suramin at 10 mg/kg daily x 5 days or 17 mg/kg weekly x 5 weeks, did not show any microfilaricidal activity, but substantially reduced the recovery of live adult worms to 50.6% and 13.6% of controls respectively. Oral diethylcarbamazine citrate at 6 mg/kg daily x 6 or 10 days reduced final microfilarial counts to 30% of initial counts four weeks post-treatment and adult worm recovery was reduced to 4.5% and 0% of controls respectively. Although the antifilarial activity of these drugs against the infection in this non-human primate model appears to be similar to that seen in man, these results have to be confirmed using larger groups of animals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use*
  18. Kar SK, Dwibedi B, Das BK, Agrawala BK, Ramachandran CP, Horton J
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2017 Oct;11(10):e0005631.
    PMID: 29059186 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005631
    BACKGROUND: Once interruption of transmission of lymphatic filariasis is achieved, morbidity prevention and management becomes more important. A study in Brugia malayi filariasis from India has shown sub-clinical lymphatic pathology with potential reversibility. We studied a Wuchereria bancrofti infected population, the major contributor to LF globally.

    METHODS: Children aged 5-18 years from Odisha, India were screened for W. bancrofti infection and disease. 102 infected children, 50 with filarial disease and 52 without symptoms were investigated by lymphoscintigraphy and then randomized to receive a supervised single oral dose of DEC and albendazole which was repeated either annually or semi-annually. The lymphatic pathology was evaluated six monthly for two years.

    FINDINGS: Baseline lymphoscintigraphy showed abnormality in lower limb lymphatics in 80% of symptomatic (40/50) and 63·5% (33/52) of asymptomatic children. Progressive improvement in baseline pathology was seen in 70·8, 87·3, 98·6, and 98·6% of cases at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months follow up, while in 4·2, 22·5, 47·9 and 64·8%, pathology reverted to normal. This was independent of age (p = 0·27), symptomatic status (p = 0·57) and semi-annual/bi-annual dosing (p = 0·46). Six of eleven cases showed clinical reduction in lymphedema of legs.

    INTERPRETATION: A significant proportion of a young W. bancrofti infected population exhibited lymphatic pathology which was reversible with annual dosage of DEC and albendazole. This provides evidence for morbidity prevention & treatment of early lymphedema. It can also be used as a tool to improve community compliance during mass drug administration.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov No CTRI/2013/10/004121.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use*
  19. Chang MS, Ho BC, Chan KL
    Trop. Med. Parasitol., 1991 Jun;42(2):95-102.
    PMID: 1680246
    A control programme against subperiodic brugian filariasis was implemented in three villages, (Kg. Ampungan, Kg. Sebangkoi and Kg. Sebamban) in Sarawak, Malaysia. In Kampong Ampungan, the mass administration of diethylcarbamazine (DEC-citrate) combined with residual house spraying of pirimiphos-methyl reduced microfilarial rate to 8% of the pre-treatment level and microfilarial density (MfD50) to 44% of the pre-treatment level over a period of four years. In Kampong Sebangkoi and Kampong Sebamban, where only mass DEC therapy was applied, the microfilarial rate and MfD50 declined distinctly in the second blood survey but increased gradually in two subsequent follow-up blood surveys. In Kg, Ampungan, we observed a significant reduction of infective biting rate (88.3%), infection rate (62.5%) and transmission potential (88.1%) of Mansonia bonneae at the fourth spray round. The corresponding reduction rates in Kg. Sebangkoi and Kg. Sebamban were 35.3%, 26.7%, 42.2% and 24%, 30.8% and 15.4% respectively. The biting density of the vector was reduced by 79.8% indoors and 31.8% outdoors at the sprayed village, while only a slight decrease in densities (17.9% indoors and 12.4% outdoors) was observed at the unsprayed village. Bioassay tests revealed that pirimiphos-methyl had a substantial fumigant effect on the vector. The integrated control measure in controlling subperiodic brugian filariasis is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use*
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