Jugular phlebectasia has been increasingly recognised with the advent of non-invasive diagnostic methods. Phlebectasia differs from varix, as it is an abnormal outward dilatation of a vein without tortuosity. It presents as a soft, compressible mass, apparent upon straining or execution of the Valsalva maneuver. The differentials for neck masses are broad, but if the swelling appears on the Valsalva maneuver, the type of mass narrows down to a laryngocele, superior mediastinal mass or phlebectasia. A simple non-invasive investigation, such as ultrasonography, is used as a diagnostic tool. We report a case of jugular phlebectasia that was suspected clinically and confirmed via ultrasound to be a vascular lesion which changed its size upon straining.
Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by the triad of liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatation and arterial oxygenation abnormality. It occurs in 4% to 47% in patient with liver cirrhosis . We describe 2 cases of HPS with recovery from hypoxaemia after liver transplantation.(Copied from article)
Investigation on in vivo effects of copper (Cu) on the ultrastructure of P. javanicus liver was
carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The addition of sublethal
concentration of 5 mg/L of Cu caused abnormalities on the bile canaliculi (BC) including
dilation and elongation compared to control and at lower concentrations of copper with a normal
round shape form. Findings from this study support an alternative histological assessment of the
effects of Cu concentration on P. javanicus liver.
Middle-aortic syndrome is a surgically curable cause of childhood hypertension. Open surgery is traditionally offered but with the advance of medical technology, endovascular approached is available in many country. Failure to control BP in open surgery is as low as 4.1% compares to 13% in endovascular approaches. However, mortality is 4% in open surgery almost 2 times higher than 2.3% in endovascular approach. This article presents a case of 10 years old child treated successfully without complication with endovascular balloon dilatation, as a first case of such disease in East Malaysia.
Tracheobronchial stenosis is a known complication of endobronchial tuberculosis. Despite antituberculous and steroid therapy, the development of bronchial stenosis is usually irreversible and requires airway patency to be restored by either bronchoscopic or surgical interventions. We report the use of balloon dilatation and topical mitomycin-C to successful restore airway patency.
Opacification of both Cowper's glands and ducts is a rare finding in urethroqraphv.' Its demonstration almost always indicates an abnormality in the posterior urethra or posterior aspect of the bulbous urethra. Conversely, its visualisation may be a diagnostic pitfall, and may lead to misinterpretation. We present a case delineating both Cowper's glands and ducts, to illustrate its anatomy so as to help differentiate it from pathological conditions.
Pupil diameter (PD) has been suggested as a reliable parameter for identifying an individual's emotional state. In this paper, we introduce a learning machine technique to detect and differentiate between positive and negative emotions. We presented 30 participants with positive and negative sound stimuli and recorded pupillary responses. The results showed a significant increase in pupil dilation during the processing of negative and positive sound stimuli with greater increase for negative stimuli. We also found a more sustained dilation for negative compared to positive stimuli at the end of the trial, which was utilized to differentiate between positive and negative emotions using a machine learning approach which gave an accuracy of 96.5% with sensitivity of 97.93% and specificity of 98%. The obtained results were validated using another dataset designed for a different study and which was recorded while 30 participants processed word pairs with positive and negative emotions.
This case report describes a rigid bronchoscopy-assisted placement of a silicone airway Y-stent in a patient who developed tracheobronchomalacia following repeated dilatations for post-tuberculous airway stenosis. This is the first report of an airway Y-stent insertion in Malaysia.
Cavernous hemangioma is a vascular tumor composed of large dilated blood vessels and containing large blood-filled spaces. The formation is due to dilation and thickening of the walls of the capillary loops. Most cavernous hemangiomas present at birth or soon after. On the other hand, jugular phlebectasia is an abnormal benign sacculofusiform dilatation of jugular veins. It should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of neck swelling. Majority of the reported cases occurred in a young child. We reported a case of an elderly woman who was diagnosed clinically as anterior jugular vein phlebectesia. Histologically the mass turned out to be a cavernous hemangioma.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia through the foramen of Bochdalek may present after infancy. A 21/2-year-old Malay girl presented with acute respiratory distress. Chest examination showed reduced chest expansion and decreased breath sounds on the left side. Chest radiograph showed a large "cyst" in the left chest, which was thought to be a lung cyst under tension. Tube thoracostomy resulted in clinical improvement. Results of a barium study showed that the cyst perforated by the thoracostomy tube was the stomach, which had herniated through a Bochdalek diaphragmatic defect. Surgical repair of the diaphragmatic defect and closure of the perforated stomach was performed successfully. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia should be included in the differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in young children. Nasogastric tube placement must be considered as an early diagnostic or therapeutic intervention when the diagnosis is suspected.
We describe a 7-year-old child who presented with a soft fluctuant swelling on the neck which became more prominent during the Valsalva manoeuvre. He underwent adeno-tonsillectomy based on a mistaken diagnosis of ballooning of the pharynx secondary to enlarged adenoids and tonsils obstructing the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airways. Investigations revealed the swelling to be a markedly dilated internal jugular vein. We discuss the diagnostic features and mode of treatment of this condition so as to avoid unnecessary and dangerous surgical intervention.
Tubular colonic duplication presenting in adults is rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 29-year-old lady presenting with a long history of chronic constipation, abdominal mass and repeated episodes of abdominal pain. The abdominal-pelvic computed tomography scan showed segmental bowel wall thickening thought to be small bowel, and dilatation with stasis of intraluminal content. The provisional diagnosis was small bowel duplication. She was scheduled for single port laparoscopic resection. However, a T-shaped tubular colonic duplication at sigmoid colon was found intraoperatively. Resection of the large T-shaped tubular colonic duplication containing multiple impacted large fecaloma and primary anastomosis was performed. There was no perioperative complication. We report, herein, the case of a T-shaped tubular colonic duplication at sigmoid colon in an adult who was successfully treated through mini-laparotomy assisted by single port laparoscopic surgery.
INTRODUCTION: Ketamine is frequently abused nowadays as a recreational drug. Case reports are emerging since 2007 to describe a new clinical entity of severe bladder dysfunction associated with chronic abuse of street ketamine.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Severe lower urinary tract symptoms of urinary frequency and urgency which are refractory to conventional treatment. Quality of life is adversely affected as a consequence. Chronic kidney disease will develop in advanced cases. Investigation findings: The urine is sterile on culture. Ultrasound will show reduced bladder capacity with thickened bladder wall. In advanced stage, hydronephrosis and renal impairment will develop.
TREATMENT: Patients should be advised to stop street ketamine use immediately. Anticholinergic medication could be tried to alleviate the symptoms. Refractory cases with dilatation of the upper urinary tract might need urinary diversion.
CONCLUSION: Awareness of this new condition is essential in diagnosis. Early intervention offers better treatment outcome.
KEYWORDS: Ketamine; bladder dysfunction; lower urinary tract symptoms
We report a-56-year old army pensioner who presented initially to a peripheral hospital with acute ST-elevation inferior myocardial infarction thrombolysed with streptokinase. He was subsequently referred to the National Heart Institute (Institut Jantung Negara, Malaysia) for coronary revascularization. Coronary angiogram revealed an ectatic right coronary artery with discrete lesions at the proximal and distal segments stented with bare metal stents (BMS). Post dilatation shots revealed a wire-induced, distal dissection at the posterior left ventricular artery remedied by balloon angioplasty but resulting in balloon-induced crumpling of the distal BMS. We discuss the importance of sequential, distal-to-proximal coronary intervention, stent crumpling and remedial strategies.
Introduction: We aim to investigate the effect of vasectomy on the histology of the testis as well as to evaluate DNA fragmentation in testicular tissue of male mice. Methods: Bilateral vasectomy was performed on 20 mature male mice; 10 control mice underwent sham-operation. After 6 weeks, the testes were evaluated for histological changes and DNA fragmentation by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Results: Marked alterations were observed in the testes of vasectomized mice, including degeneration of spermatids, thickened basement membrane, dilatation of the seminiferous tubules, exfoliation of germ cells, reduction in the seminiferous cell population, vacuolated appearance of the epithelium in the tubules and marked interstitial fibrosis. Single cell gel electrophoresis showed a highly significant (P
Background: Kawasaki Disease (KD) and acute rheumatic fever are the two leading causes of acquired heart disease in children in the developing countries. Objectives: To determine the epidemiology of KD and its short-term outcome in Malaysian children. Materials & Methods: A retrospective study of patients with a diagnosis of KD at the Kuala Lumpur Hospital from January 1999 to December 2003. Results: 84 patients with KD were seen over the 5 year period. Of these, 52 (61.90%) were male and 32 (38.10%) female. Malays comprised 51 (60.71%), Chinese 30 (35.71%) and Indian 3 (3.57%). Their ages ranged from 2 months to 11 years 1 month old. There were 25 (29.76%) patients less than one year old, 50 (59.52%) aged 1-4 years, 4 (4.76%) aged 5-7 years and 5 (5.95%) were more than 7 years old. Echocardiographic examination during the acute phase showed that 24 patients (28.57%) had coronary artery dilatation; 23 had mild dilatation and one had giant aneurysm involving both coronary arteries. Echocardiographic examination at 8 weeks showed that 5 (21.74%) of the 23 patients with mildly dilated coronary arteries had resolved; the bilateral giant coronary aneurysms remained the same. There was no death due to KD over the 5 year period. Conclusion: KD occurred most commonly in children aged 1-4 years old with a peak at 17 months. There was male preponderance with a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. Despite immunoglobulin therapy, 29% of patients had coronary artery involvementduring the acute phase; 22% of those with mild coronary artery dilatation resolved at 8 weeks after disease onset.