OBJECTIVES: The current study was designed to explore the in vivo anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties of Raphanus sativus seeds oil.
METHODS: Cold press method was used for the extraction of oil (RsSO) and was characterised by using GC-MS techniques. Three in vitro antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP) were performed to explore the antioxidant potential of RsSO. Disc diffusion methods were used to study in vitro antimicrobial properties. In vivo anti-inflammatory properties were studied in both acute and chronic inflammation models. In vivo chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay was performed to study antiangiogenic effects. Molecular mechanisms were identified using TNF-α ELISA kit and docking tools.
RESULTS: GC-MS analysis of RsSO revealed the presence of hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acid. Findings of DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP models indicated relatively moderate radical scavenging properties of RsSO. Oil showed antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacterial and fungal strains tested. Data of inflammation models showed significant (p < 0.05) anti-inflammatory effects of RsSO in both acute and chronic models. 500 mg/kg RsSO halted inflammation development significantly better (p < 0.05) as compared with lower doses. Histopathological evaluations of paws showed minimal infiltration of inflammatory cells in RsSO-treated animals. Findings of TNF-α ELSIA and docking studies showed that RsSO has the potential to down-regulate the expression of TNF-α, iNOS, ROS, and NF-κB respectively. Moreover, RsSO showed in vivo antiangiogenic effects.
CONCLUSION: Data of the current study highlight that Raphanus sativus seeds oil has anti-inflammatory, and antiangiogenic properties and can be used as an adjunct to standard NSAIDs therapy which may reduce the dose and related side effects.
METHODS: Immunofluorescence staining was used to observe the structural features of PC12 cells after culturing in medium with nerve growth factor (NGF). After different doses and different durations of alcohol treatment, CCK-8 assay was performed to detect the viability of PC12 cells, flow cytometry assay was carried out to detect the apoptosis rate of PC12 cells, dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to definitude the regulatory relationship between miR-96-5p and Tp73, and western blot was used to detect the protein expression of TAp73.
RESULTS: The result of immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that PC12 cells abundantly expressed Map2, CCK-8 assay illustrated alcohol exposure significantly downregulated the cell viability of PC12 cells, Treatment with miR-96-5p inhibitor induced apoptosis and upregulated the expression of TAp73 in PC12 cells. Contrastingly, miR-96-5p mimic reversed the above effects and downregulation of TAp73 inhibited the apoptosis of PC12 cells.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that miR-96-5p participates in alcohol-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells via negatively regulating TAp73.
METHODS: We evaluated the expression patterns of 11 candidate miRNAs using quantitative real-time PCR in whole blood (n = 10) and muscle biopsy samples (n = 9) of DM1 patients, and compared them to those of normal control samples (whole blood, n = 10; muscle, n = 9).
RESULTS: In DM1 whole blood, miRNA-133a, -29b, and -33a were significantly upregulated, whereas miRNA-1, -133a, and -29c were significantly downregulated in the skeletal muscles compared to controls.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings align to those reported in other studies and point towards pathways that potentially contribute toward pathogenesis in DM1. However, the currently available data is not sufficient for these miRNAs to be made DM1-specific biomarkers because they seem to be common to many muscle pathologies. Hence, they lack specificity, but reinforce the need for further exploration of DM1 biomarkers.
PURPOSE: The present work aimed to assess the antidiabetic potential of arjunolic acid (AA) isolated from Terminalia arjuna in type 2 diabetic rats.
STUDY DESIGN: After extraction, isolation and purification, AA was orally administered to type 2 diabetic Sprague Dawley rats to investigate antidiabetic effect of AA.
METHOD: T2DM was induced via single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NIC) in adult male rats. After 10 days, fasting and random blood glucose (FBG and RBG), body weight (BW), food and water intake, serum C-peptide, insulin and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured to confirm T2DM development. Dose dependent effects of orally administered AA (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks was investigated by measuring BW variation, fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and levels of serum HbA1c, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), serum and pancreatic C-peptide, insulin, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), serum and pancreatic inflammatory cytokines.
RESULTS: The oral administration of AA in preclinical model of T2DM significantly normalized FBG and RBG, restored BW, controlled polyphagia, polydipsia and glucose tolerance. In addition, AA notably reduced serum HbA1c, TC, TG, LDL with non-significant increase in HDL. On the other hand, significant increase in serum and pancreatic C-peptide and insulin was observed with AA treatment, while serum and pancreatic GDF-15 were non-significantly altered in AA treated diabetic rats. Moreover, AA showed dose dependent reduction in serum and pancreatic proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6.
CONCLUSION: For the first time our findings highlighted AA as a potential candidate in type 2 diabetic conditions.
Materials and Methods: All groups of hFOB 1.19 cells were induced with 12.5 μg/ml of BPA except the control (Ctrl) group. Meanwhile, treated groups received phytoestrogens; Daidzein (Dz), Genistein (Gt), Equol (Eq) and 17β-oestradiol (Est) in different concentrations for 24 hr duration.
Results: We found that the protein expression of non-classical oestrogen-related receptor (ERRG) was highly expressed in BPA group, whereas classical oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) were relatively increased with phytoestrogens treatment under BPA exposure. The dense actin cytoskeletal filaments were also observed. qRT-PCR showed up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) and G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) expressions; significant down-regulation of ERRG and up-regulation of ERα and ERβ were observed in phytoestrogens-treated cells, which was supported by the increased expressions of oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and oestrogen receptor 2 (ESR2).
Conclusion: Phytoestrogens improved the deteriorative effect of BPA via down-regulation of ERRG in hFOB 1.19 cells. This study showed that the efficacy of consumption of phytoestrogens in rendering them as potential therapeutic strategy in combating the adverse bone effects of BPA.