Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Wee SY, Aris AZ
    Environ Int, 2017 09;106:207-233.
    PMID: 28552550 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.05.004
    To date, experimental and epidemiological evidence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) adversely affecting human and animal populations has been widely debated. Notably, human health risk assessment is required for risk mitigation. The lack of human health risk assessment and management may thus unreliably regulate the quality of water resources and efficiency of treatment processes. Therefore, drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) may be still unwarranted in assuring safe access to potable drinking water. Drinking water supply, such as tap water, is an additional and crucial route of human exposure to the health risks associated with EDCs. A holistic system, incorporating continuous research in DWSS monitoring and management using multi-barrier approach, is proposed as a preventive measure to reduce human exposure to the risks associated with EDCs through drinking water consumption. The occurrence of EDCs in DWSSs and corresponding human health risk implications are analyzed using the Needs, Approaches, Benefits, and Challenges (NABC) method. Therefore, this review may act as a supportive tool in protecting human health and environmental quality from EDCs, which is essential for decision-making regarding environmental monitoring and management purposes. Subsequently, the public could have sustainable access to safer and more reliable drinking water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  2. Wee SY, Haron DEM, Aris AZ, Yusoff FM, Praveena SM
    Environ Geochem Health, 2020 Oct;42(10):3247-3261.
    PMID: 32328897 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-020-00565-8
    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are typical endocrine disruptors found in common pharmaceuticals and personal care products, which are frequently detected in aquatic environments, especially surface water treated for drinking. However, current treatment technologies are inefficient for removing emerging endocrine disruptors, leading to the potential contamination of tap water. This study employed an optimized analytical method comprising solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) to detect APIs in tap water in Putrajaya, Malaysia. Several therapeutic classes of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, including anti-inflammatory drugs (dexamethasone and diclofenac), antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and triclosan), antiepileptics (primidone), antibacterial agents (ciprofloxacin), beta-blockers (propranolol), psychoactive stimulants (caffeine), and antiparasitic drugs (diazinon), were detected in the range of water pollutants. Diclofenac accounted for the highest concentration (21.39 ng/L), followed by triclosan and ciprofloxacin (9.74 ng/L and 8.69 ng/L, respectively). Caffeine was observed in all field samples with the highest distribution at 35.32%. Caffeine and triclosan exhibited significantly different distributions in household tap water (p water; however, the estimated risk was negligible (risk quotient water quality monitoring indicators for water resource conservation and water supply safety related to emerging organic contaminants; thus, API detection is important for safeguarding the environment and human health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  3. Santhi VA, Sakai N, Ahmad ED, Mustafa AM
    Sci Total Environ, 2012 Jun 15;427-428:332-8.
    PMID: 22578698 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.04.041
    This study investigated the level of bisphenol A (BPA) in surface water used as potable water, drinking water (tap and bottled mineral water) and human plasma in the Langat River basin, Malaysia. BPA was present in 93% of the surface water samples at levels ranging from below limit of quantification (LOQ; 1.3 ng/L) to 215 ng/L while six fold higher levels were detected in samples collected near industrial and municipal sewage treatment plant outlets. Low levels of BPA were detected in most of the drinking water samples. BPA in tap water ranged from 3.5 to 59.8 ng/L with the highest levels detected in samples collected from taps connected to PVC pipes and water filter devices. Bottled mineral water had lower levels of BPA (3.3±2.6 ng/L) although samples stored in poor storage condition had significantly higher levels (11.3±5.3 ng/L). Meanwhile, only 17% of the plasma samples had detectable levels of BPA ranging from 0.81 to 3.65 ng/mL. The study shows that BPA is a ubiquitous contaminant in surface, tap and bottled mineral water. However, exposure to BPA from drinking water is very low and is less than 0.01% of the tolerable daily intake (TDI).
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  4. Muhammad BG, Jaafar MS, Azhar AR, Akpa TC
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry, 2012 Apr;149(3):340-6.
    PMID: 21642647 DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncr230
    Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  5. Siti Farizwana MR, Mazrura S, Zurahanim Fasha A, Ahmad Rohi G
    J Environ Public Health, 2010;2010:615176.
    PMID: 21461348 DOI: 10.1155/2010/615176
    The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al) and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and residual chlorine) in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S), the treatment plant outlet (TPO), and at the nearest houses (H1) and the furthest houses (H2) from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90). The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU). Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L). Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  6. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy A, Yusop Z, Jaafar J, Bin Aris A, Abdul Majid Z, Umar K, et al.
    J Sep Sci, 2016 Jun;39(12):2276-83.
    PMID: 27095506 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201600155
    A sensitive and selective gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of three organophosphorus pesticides, namely, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and diazinon in three different food commodities (milk, apples, and drinking water) employing solid-phase extraction for sample pretreatment. Pesticide extraction from different sample matrices was carried out on Chromabond C18 cartridges using 3.0 mL of methanol and 3.0 mL of a mixture of dichloromethane/acetonitrile (1:1 v/v) as the eluting solvent. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry using selected-ion monitoring mode. Good linear relationships were obtained in the range of 0.1-50 μg/L for chlorpyrifos, and 0.05-50 μg/L for both malathion and diazinon pesticides. Good repeatability and recoveries were obtained in the range of 78.54-86.73% for three pesticides under the optimized experimental conditions. The limit of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 μg/L, and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 μg/L for all three pesticides. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of three targeted pesticides in milk, apples, and drinking water samples each in triplicate. No pesticide was found in apple and milk samples, but chlorpyrifos was found in one drinking water sample below the quantification level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis
  7. Muhamad MS, Salim MR, Lau WJ, Yusop Z
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016 Jun;23(12):11549-67.
    PMID: 26939684 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-6357-2
    Massive utilization of bisphenol A (BPA) in the industrial production of polycarbonate plastics has led to the occurrence of this compound (at μg/L to ng/L level) in the water treatment plant. Nowadays, the presence of BPA in drinking water sources is a major concern among society because BPA is one of the endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs) that can cause hazard to human health even at extremely low concentration level. Parallel to these issues, membrane technology has emerged as the most feasible treatment process to eliminate this recalcitrant contaminant via physical separation mechanism. This paper reviews the occurrences and effects of BPA toward living organisms as well as the application of membrane technology for their removal in water treatment plant. The potential applications of using polymeric membranes for BPA removal are also discussed. Literature revealed that modifying membrane surface using blending approach is the simple yet effective method to improve membrane properties with respect to BPA removal without compromising water permeability. The regeneration process helps in maintaining the performances of membrane at desired level. The application of large-scale membrane process in treatment plant shows the feasibility of the technology for removing BPA and possible future prospect in water treatment process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  8. Pramanik BK, Pramanik SK, Suja F
    J Water Health, 2016 Feb;14(1):90-6.
    PMID: 26837833 DOI: 10.2166/wh.2015.159
    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC), biological aerated filter (BAF), alum coagulation and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated to remove iron and arsenic contaminants from drinking water. At an initial dose of 5 mg/L, the removal efficiency for arsenic and iron was 63% and 58% respectively using alum, and 47% and 41% respectively using Moringa oleifera. The removal of both contaminants increased with the increase in coagulant dose and decrease in pH. Biological processes were more effective in removing these contaminants than coagulation. Compared to BAF, BAC gave greater removal of both arsenic and iron, removing 85% and 74%, respectively. Longer contact time for both processes could reduce the greater concentration of arsenic and iron contaminants. The addition of coagulation (at 5 mg/L dosage) and a biological process (with 15 or 60 min contact time) could significantly increase removal efficiency, and the maximum removal was observed for the combination of alum and BAC treatment (60 min contact time), with 100% and 98.56% for arsenic and iron respectively. The reduction efficiency of arsenic and iron reduced with the increase in the concentration of dissolved organics in the feedwater due to the adsorption competition between organic molecules and heavy metals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  9. Hinwood AL, Stasinska A, Callan AC, Heyworth J, Ramalingam M, Boyce M, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2015 Sep;204:256-63.
    PMID: 25984984 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2015.04.024
    Most studies of metals exposure focus on the heavy metals. There are many other metals (the transition, alkali and alkaline earth metals in particular) in common use in electronics, defense industries, emitted via combustion and which are naturally present in the environment, that have received limited attention in terms of human exposure. We analysed samples of whole blood (172), urine (173) and drinking water (172) for antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, gallium, rubidium, silver, strontium, thallium, thorium and vanadium using ICPMS. In general most metals concentrations were low and below the analytical limit of detection with some high concentrations observed. Few factors examined in regression models were shown to influence biological metals concentrations and explained little of the variation. Further study is required to establish the source of metals exposures at the high end of the ranges of concentrations measured and the potential for any adverse health impacts in children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis
  10. Rizeei HM, Azeez OS, Pradhan B, Khamees HH
    Environ Monit Assess, 2018 Oct 04;190(11):633.
    PMID: 30288624 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-018-7013-8
    Groundwater hazard assessments involve many activities dealing with the impacts of pollution on groundwater, such as human health studies and environment modelling. Nitrate contamination is considered a hazard to human health, environment and ecosystem. In groundwater management, the hazard should be assessed before any action can be taken, particularly for groundwater pollution and water quality. Thus, pollution due to the presence of nitrate poses considerable hazard to drinking water, and excessive nutrient loads deteriorate the ecosystem. The parametric IPNOA model is one of the well-known methods used for evaluating nitrate content. However, it cannot predict the effect of soil and land use/land cover (LULC) types on calculations relying on parametric well samples. Therefore, in this study, the parametric model was trained and integrated with the multivariate data-driven model with different levels of information to assess groundwater nitrate contamination in Saladin, Iraq. The IPNOA model was developed with 185 different well samples and contributing parameters. Then, the IPNOA model was integrated with the logistic regression (LR) model to predict the nitrate contamination levels. Geographic information system techniques were also used to assess the spatial prediction of nitrate contamination. High-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images with 5 m spatial resolution were processed by object-based image analysis and support vector machine algorithm to extract LULC. Mapping of potential areas of nitrate contamination was examined using receiver operating characteristic assessment. Results indicated that the optimised LR-IPNOA model was more accurate in determining and analysing the nitrate hazard concentration than the standalone IPNOA model. This method can be easily replicated in other areas that have similar climatic condition. Therefore, stakeholders in planning and environmental decision makers could benefit immensely from the proposed method of this research, which can be potentially used for a sustainable management of urban, industrialised and agricultural sectors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis
  11. Ahmed MF, Alam L, Mohamed CAR, Mokhtar MB, Ta GC
    PMID: 30241360 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15102056
    The presence of toxic polonium-210 (Po-210) in the environment is due to the decay of primordial uranium-238. Meanwhile, several studies have reported elevated Po-210 radioactivity in the rivers around the world due to both natural and anthropogenic factors. However, the primary source of Po-210 in Langat River, Malaysia might be the natural weathering of granite rock along with mining, agriculture and industrial activities. Hence, this is the first study to determine the Po-210 activity in the drinking water supply chain in the Langat River Basin to simultaneously predict the human health risks of Po-210 ingestion. Therefore, water samples were collected in 2015⁻2016 from the four stages of the water supply chain to analyze by Alpha Spectrometry. Determined Po-210 activity, along with the influence of environmental parameters such as time-series rainfall, flood incidents and water flow data (2005⁻2015), was well within the maximum limit for drinking water quality standard proposed by the Ministry of Health Malaysia and World Health Organization. Moreover, the annual effective dose of Po-210 ingestion via drinking water supply chain indicates an acceptable carcinogenic risk for the populations in the Langat Basin at 95% confidence level; however, the estimated annual effective dose at the basin is higher than in many countries. Although several studies assume the carcinogenic risk of Po-210 ingestion to humans for a long time even at low activity, however, there is no significant causal study which links Po-210 ingestion via drinking water and cancer risk of the human. Since the conventional coagulation method is unable to remove Po-210 entirely from the treated water, introducing a two-layer water filtration system at the basin can be useful to achieve SDG target 6.1 of achieving safe drinking water supplies well before 2030, which might also be significant for other countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  12. Mohd Nor NA, Chadwick BL, Farnell DJ, Chestnutt IG
    Rev Environ Health, 2020 Nov 18;35(4):419-426.
    PMID: 32598322 DOI: 10.1515/reveh-2019-0059
    OBJECTIVE: The increased availability of fluoride and concern over the impact of fluorosis, have led to guidance suggesting a decrease or cease in the optimal concentration of fluoride in water fluoridation schemes. To date there have been no systematic reviews looking at both impact of fluoride reduction and total cessation. This review aimed to examine the impact of stopping or reducing the level of fluoride in public water supplies on dental fluorosis.

    CONTENT: Multiple databases were searched (MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Web of Science). Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data and assessed study quality. Results were synthesised qualitatively and quantitatively. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of dental fluorosis.

    SUMMARY: Six studies of cross-sectional design were included. Two studies were scored as evidence level B (moderate) and the remaining four publications were evidence level C (poor). Meta-analysis indicated fluorosis prevalence was significantly decreased following either a reduction in the concentration of fluoride or cessation of adding fluoride to the water supply (OR:6.68; 95% CI:2.48 to 18.00).

    OUTLOOK: The evidence suggests a significant decrease in the prevalence of fluorosis post cessation or reduction in the concentration of fluoride added to the water supply. However, this work demonstrates that when studies are subject to current expectations of methodological and experimental rigour, there is limited evidence with low methodological quality to determine the effect of stopping or reducing the concentration of fluoride in the water supply on dental fluorosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  13. Ahmed MF, Mokhtar MB, Alam L
    Environ Geochem Health, 2021 Feb;43(2):897-914.
    PMID: 32372251 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-020-00571-w
    The prolonged persistence of toxic arsenic (As) in environment is due to its non-biodegradable characteristic. Meanwhile, several studies have reported higher concentrations of As in Langat River. However, it is the first study in Langat River Basin, Malaysia, that As concentrations in drinking water supply chain were determined simultaneously to predict the health risks of As ingestion. Water samples collected in 2015 from the four stages of drinking water supply chain were analysed for As concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Determined As concentrations along with the time series data (2004-2015) were significantly within the maximum limit 0.01 mg/L of drinking water quality standard set by World Health Organization. The predicted As concentration by auto-regression moving average was 3.45E-03 mg/L in 2020 at 95% level based on time series data including climatic control variables. Long-term As ingestion via household filtration water at Langat Basin showed no potential lifetime cancer risk (LCR) 9.7E-06 (t = 6.68; p = 3.37E-08) as well as non-carcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) 4.8E-02 (t = 6.68; p = 3.37E-08) risk at 95% level. However, the changing landscape, ex-mining ponds and extensive use of pesticides for palm oil plantation at Langat Basin are considered as the major sources of increased As concentration in Langat River. Therefore, a two-layer water filtration system at Langat Basin should be introduced to accelerate the achievement of sustainable development goal of getting safe drinking water supply.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  14. Nasser SM, Khandaker MU, Bradley DA, Isinkaye MO
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry, 2019 Oct 01;184(3-4):422-425.
    PMID: 31038706 DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncz088
    The present study concerns measurement of the radon concentration in drinking and irrigation waters obtained from the eastern part of Oman, in particular in regard to water quality assessment of the region. The samples were collected from different places covering most types of water sources in the region. A passive and time-integrated track etch detector (LR-115 type II) combined with a high-resolution optical microscope has been used to obtain the radon concentration in the studied samples. Values of dissolved radon in water varied among the water sources; the highest concentration of radon was found to be 363 Bq m-3 in a drinking water sample while well water used for irrigation showed the lowest value, at 140 Bq m-3. Measured data for all water sources are below the permissible limit of 11.1 kBq m-3 recommended by the US-EPA. Annual effective doses for the studied samples were in the range 0.38-0.99 μSv y-1 which is significantly less than the action level recommended by the WHO (0.1 mSv y-1), indicating that the water sources in the Jalan BBH region of Oman are safe to use. The obtained data may serve as a reference for any future radiological study of the waterbody of this region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  15. Alomari AH, Saleh MA, Hashim S, Alsayaheen A, Abdeldin I, Bani Khalaf R
    J Water Health, 2019 Dec;17(6):957-970.
    PMID: 31850902 DOI: 10.2166/wh.2019.158
    The current study was conducted to measure the activity concentration of the gross alpha and beta in 87 groundwater samples collected from the productive aquifers that constitute a major source of groundwater to evaluate the annual effective dose and the corresponding health impact on the population and to investigate the quality of groundwater in Jordan. The mean activity concentration of gross alpha and beta in groundwater ranges from 0.26 ± 0.03 to 3.58 ± 0.55 Bq L-1 and from 0.51 ± 0.07 to 3.43 ± 0.46 Bq L-1, respectively. A very strong relationship was found between gross alpha and beta activity concentrations. The annual effective dose for alpha and beta was found in the range of 0.32-2.40 mSv with a mean value of 0.89 mSv, which is nine times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limit and one and half times higher than the national regulation limit. The mean lifetime risk was found to be 45.47 × 10-4 higher than the Jordanian estimated upper-bound lifetime risk of 25 × 10-4. The data obtained in the study would be the baseline for further epidemiological studies on health effects related to the exposure to natural radioactivity in Jordan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  16. Miskam M, Abu Bakar NK, Mohamad S
    Talanta, 2014 Mar;120:450-5.
    PMID: 24468395 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2013.12.037
    A solid phase extraction (SPE) method has been developed using a newly synthesized titanium (IV) butoxide-cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (Ti-CNPrTEOS) sorbent for polar selective extraction of aromatic amines in river water sample. The effect of different parameters on the extraction recovery was studied using the SPE method. The applicability of the sorbents for the extraction of polar aromatic amines by the SPE was extensively studied and evaluated as a function of pH, conditioning solvent, sample loading volume, elution solvent and elution solvent volume. The optimum experimental conditions were sample at pH 7, dichloromethane as conditioning solvent, 10 mL sample loading volume and 5 mL of acetonitrile as the eluting solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for solid phase extraction using Ti-CNPrTEOS SPE sorbent (0.01-0.2; 0.03-0.61 µg L(-1)) were lower compared with those achieved using Si-CN SPE sorbent (0.25-1.50; 1.96-3.59 µg L(-1)) and C18 SPE sorbent (0.37-0.98; 1.87-2.87 µg L(-1)) with higher selectivity towards the extraction of polar aromatic amines. The optimized procedure was successfully applied for the solid phase extraction method of selected aromatic amines in river water, waste water and tap water samples prior to the gas chromatography-flame ionization detector separation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis
  17. Idros N, Chu D
    ACS Sens, 2018 09 28;3(9):1756-1764.
    PMID: 30193067 DOI: 10.1021/acssensors.8b00490
    Heavy metals are highly toxic at trace levels and their pollution has shown great threat to the environment and public health worldwide where current detection methods require expensive instrumentation and laborious operation, which can only be accomplished in centralized laboratories. Herein, we report a low-cost, paper-based microfluidic analytical device (μPAD) for facile, portable, and disposable monitoring of mercury, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron ions. Triple indicators or ligands that contain ions or molecules are preloaded on the μPADs and upon addition of a metal ion, the colorimetric indicators will elicit color changes observed by the naked eyes. The color features were quantitatively analyzed in a three-dimensional space of red, green, and blue or the RGB-space using digital imaging and color calibration techniques. The sensing platform offers higher accuracy for cross references, and is capable of simultaneous detection and discrimination of different metal ions in even real water samples. It demonstrates great potential for semiquantitative and even qualitative analysis with a sensitivity below the safe limit concentrations, and a controlled error range.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis
  18. Sehreen F, Masud MM, Akhtar R, Masum MRA
    Environ Monit Assess, 2019 Jun 22;191(7):457.
    PMID: 31230139 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-019-7595-9
    The city of Dhaka has been ranked repeatedly as the most polluted, the most populous, and the most unbearable city in the world. More than 19.5 million inhabitants live in Dhaka, and the population growth rate of urban areas in Bangladesh is almost double that of rural areas. Rapid urbanization is one of the leading contributors to water pollution in Dhaka and could prevent the country from achieving sustainable development. Therefore, this study estimates respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) to improve water pollution management systems and identifies factors that influence WTP in Dhaka. This study employed the contingent valuation method (CVM) to estimate WTP of the respondents. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with CVM questions, which was distributed to households in the study areas. The results revealed that 67% of the respondents are willing to pay for an improved water pollution management system, while 31.8% of households are unwilling to pay. The study also found that socio-economic factors (e.g., income and education) and perception significantly influence WTP. Therefore, this paper will provide directives for policymakers in developing an effective policy framework, as well as sensitize all stakeholders to the management of water pollution in Dhaka. The study suggests that social institutions, financial institutions, banks, non-government organizations (NGOs), insurance companies, and the government could provide effective outreach programs for water pollution management as part of their social responsibility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  19. Yajima I
    Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 2017;72(1):49-54.
    PMID: 28154361 DOI: 10.1265/jjh.72.49
    Several experimental studies on hygiene have recently been performed and fieldwork studies are also important and essential tools. However, the implementation of experimental studies is insufficient compared with that of fieldwork studies on hygiene. Here, we show our well-balanced implementation of both fieldwork and experimental studies of toxic-element-mediated diseases including skin cancer and hearing loss. Since the pollution of drinking well water by toxic elements induces various diseases including skin cancer, we performed both fieldwork and experimental studies to determine the levels of toxic elements and the mechanisms behind the development of toxic-element-related diseases and to develop a novel remediation system. Our fieldwork studies in several countries including Bangladesh, Vietnam and Malaysia demonstrated that drinking well water was polluted with high concentrations of several toxic elements including arsenic, barium, iron and manganese. Our experimental studies using the data from our fieldwork studies demonstrated that these toxic elements caused skin cancer and hearing loss. Further experimental studies resulted in the development of a novel remediation system that adsorbs toxic elements from polluted drinking water. A well-balanced implementation of both fieldwork and experimental studies is important for the prediction, prevention and therapy of toxic-element-mediated diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis*
  20. Brindha K, Paul R, Walter J, Tan ML, Singh MK
    Environ Geochem Health, 2020 Nov;42(11):3819-3839.
    PMID: 32601907 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-020-00637-9
    Monitoring the groundwater chemical composition and identifying the presence of pollutants is an integral part of any comprehensive groundwater management strategy. The present study was conducted in a part of West Tripura, northeast India, to investigate the presence and sources of trace metals in groundwater and the risk to human health due to direct ingestion of groundwater. Samples were collected from 68 locations twice a year from 2016 to 2018. Mixed Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-Cl and Ca-Mg-Cl were the main groundwater types. Hydrogeochemical methods showed groundwater mineralization due to (1) carbonate dissolution, (2) silicate weathering, (3) cation exchange processes and (4) anthropogenic sources. Occurrence of faecal coliforms increased in groundwater after monsoons. Nitrate and microbial contamination from wastewater infiltration were apparent. Iron, manganese, lead, cadmium and arsenic were above the drinking water limits prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards. Water quality index indicated 1.5% had poor, 8.7% had marginal, 16.2% had fair, 66.2% had good and 7.4% had excellent water quality. Correlation and principal component analysis reiterated the sources of major ions and trace metals identified from hydrogeochemical methods. Human exposure assessment suggests health risk due to high iron in groundwater. The presence of unsafe levels of trace metals in groundwater requires proper treatment measures before domestic use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drinking Water/analysis
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