Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

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  1. Chan XY, Chua KO, How KY, Yin WF, Chan KG
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:930727.
    PMID: 25436236 DOI: 10.1155/2014/930727
    Most Pseudomonas putida strains are environmental microorganisms exhibiting a wide range of metabolic capability but certain strains have been reported as rare opportunistic pathogens and some emerged as multidrug resistant P. putida. This study aimed to assess the drug resistance profile of, via whole genome analysis, P. putida strain T2-2 isolated from oral cavity. At the same time, we also compared the nonenvironmental strain with environmentally isolated P. putida. In silico comparative genome analysis with available reference strains of P. putida shows that T2-2 has lesser gene counts on carbohydrate and aromatic compounds metabolisms, which suggested its little versatility. The detection of its edd gene also suggested T2-2's catabolism of glucose via ED pathway instead of EMP pathway. On the other hand, its drug resistance profile was observed via in silico gene prediction and most of the genes found were in agreement with drug-susceptibility testing in laboratory by automated VITEK 2. In addition, the finding of putative genes of multidrug resistance efflux pump and ATP-binding cassette transporters in this strain suggests a multidrug resistant phenotype. In summary, it is believed that multiple metabolic characteristics and drug resistance in P. putida strain T2-2 helped in its survival in human oral cavity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  2. Mohamad N, Amal MNA, Saad MZ, Yasin ISM, Zulkiply NA, Mustafa M, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2019 May 28;15(1):176.
    PMID: 31138199 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-019-1907-8
    BACKGROUND: Vibriosis is an important bacterial disease of cultured marine fishes worldwide. However, information on the virulence and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio spp. isolated from fish are scarce. This study investigates the distribution of virulence associated genes and antibiotic resistance patterns of Vibrio spp. isolated from cage-cultured marine fishes in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: A total of 63 Vibrio spp. isolated from 62 cultured marine fishes in various geographical regions in Peninsular Malaysia were analysed. Forty-two of the isolates (66.7%) were positive for all chiA, luxR and vhpA, the virulence genes produced by pathogenic V. harveyi. A total of 62 Vibrio isolates (98%) had tlh gene of V. parahaemolyticus, while flaC gene of V. anguillarum was detected in 43 of isolates (68%). Other virulence genes, including tdh, trh, hlyA and toxRvc were absent from any of the isolates. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) was exhibited in all strains of Harveyi clade, particularly against ampicillin, penicillin, polypeptides, cephems and streptomycin. The MAR index ranged between 0.06 and 0.56, and 75% of the isolates have MAR index of higher than 0.20. Host species and geographical origin showed no correlation with the presence of virulence genes and the antibiotic resistance patterns of Vibrio spp.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that majority of Vibrio spp. isolated from cultured marine fishes possess virulence genes, but were not associated with human pathogen. However, the antibiotics resistance is a real concern and warrants ongoing surveillance. These findings represent an updated knowledge on the risk of Vibrio spp. to human health, and also provides valuable insight on alternative approaches to combat vibriosis in cultured fish.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  3. Al-Marzooq F, Yusof MY, Tay ST
    Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 2013;66(6):555-7.
    PMID: 24270152
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics
  4. Jeevajothi Nathan J, Mohd Desa MN, Thong KL, Clarke SC, Masri SN, Md Yasin R, et al.
    Infect Genet Evol, 2014 Jan;21:391-4.
    PMID: 24342879 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2013.11.026
    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an epidemiologically important bacterial pathogen. Recently, we reported the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of a limited collection of pneumococcal isolates in Malaysia with a high prevalence of erythromycin resistant strains. In the present study, 55 of the pneumococcal isolates of serotype 19F were further analysed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The generated genotypic patterns were then correlated with the antibiograms previously reported. Forty-seven different PFGE profiles (PTs) were obtained, showing that the isolates were genetically diverse. MLST identified 16 sequence types (STs) with ST-236 being predominant (58.2%), followed by ST-81 (10.3%). Among the ST-236 isolates, 22 were erythromycin resistant S. pneumoniae (ERSP) and 15 were trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) resistant, while among ST-81, four isolates were ERSP and two were TMP/SMX resistant. The high prevalence of erythromycin resistant serotype 19F isolates of ST-236 in this study has also been reported in other North and South East Asian countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  5. Thong KL, Lai KS, Ganeswrie R, Puthucheary SD
    Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 2004 Oct;57(5):206-9.
    PMID: 15507777
    Over a period of 6 months from January to June 2002, an unusual increase in the isolation of highly resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains was observed in the various wards and intensive care units of a large general hospital in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. An equal number of multidrug resistant (MDR) and drug-susceptible strains were collected randomly from swabs, respiratory specimens, urine, blood, cerebral spinal fluid, and central venous catheters to determine the clonality and genetic variation of the strains. Macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the 19 MDR strains were genetically very homogenous; the majority showed the dominant profile S1 (n = 10), the rest very closely related profiles S1a (n = 1), S2 (n = 4), and S2a (n = 3), indicating the endemicity of these strains. In contrast, the 19 drug-sensitive strains isolated during the same time period were genetically more diverse, showing 17 pulsed-field profiles (F = 0.50-1.00), and probably derived from the patients themselves. The presence of the MDR clone poses serious therapeutic problems as it may become endemic in the hospital and give rise to future clonal outbreaks. There is also the potential for wider geographical spread.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  6. Steinig EJ, Andersson P, Harris SR, Sarovich DS, Manoharan A, Coupland P, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2015;16:388.
    PMID: 25981586 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-015-1599-9
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of hospital-associated infection, but there is growing awareness of the emergence of multidrug-resistant lineages in community settings around the world. One such lineage is ST772-MRSA-V, which has disseminated globally and is increasingly prevalent in India. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of DAR4145, a strain of the ST772-MRSA-V lineage from India, and investigate its genomic characteristics in regards to antibiotic resistance and virulence factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  7. Kuan CS, Chan CL, Yew SM, Toh YF, Khoo JS, Chong J, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(6):e0131694.
    PMID: 26110649 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131694
    The outbreak of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has become an increasing problem in many TB-burdened countries. The underlying drug resistance mechanisms, including the genetic variation favored by selective pressure in the resistant population, are partially understood. Recently, the first case of XDR-TB was reported in Malaysia. However, the detailed genotype family and mechanisms of the formation of multiple drugs resistance are unknown. We sequenced the whole genome of the UM 1072388579 strain with a 2-kb insert-size library and combined with that from previously sequenced 500-bp-insert paired-end reads to produce an improved sequence with maximal sequencing coverage across the genome. In silico spoligotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that UM 1072388579 strain belongs to an ancestral-like, non-Beijing clade of East Asia lineage. This is supported by the presence of a number of lineage-specific markers, including fadD28, embA, nuoD and pks7. Polymorphism analysis showed that the drug-susceptibility profile is correlated with the pattern of resistance mutations. Mutations in drug-efflux pumps and the cell wall biogenesis pathway such as mmpL, pks and fadD genes may play an important role in survival and adaptation of this strain to its surrounding environment. In this work, fifty-seven putative promoter SNPs were identified. Among them, we identified a novel SNP located at -4 T allele of TetR/acrR promoter as an informative marker to recognize strains of East Asian lineage. Our work indicates that the UM 1072388579 harbors both classical and uncommon SNPs that allow it to escape from inhibition by many antibiotics. This study provides a strong foundation to dissect the biology and underlying resistance mechanisms of the first reported XDR M. tuberculosis in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  8. Hancock SJ, Phan MD, Peters KM, Forde BM, Chong TM, Yin WF, et al.
    PMID: 27872077 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01740-16
    Plasmids of incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C) are becoming increasingly prevalent within pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae They are associated with the dissemination of multiple clinically relevant resistance genes, including blaCMY and blaNDM Current typing methods for IncA/C plasmids offer limited resolution. In this study, we present the complete sequence of a blaNDM-1-positive IncA/C plasmid, pMS6198A, isolated from a multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Hypersaturated transposon mutagenesis, coupled with transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), was employed to identify conserved genetic elements required for replication and maintenance of pMS6198A. Our analysis of TraDIS data identified roles for the replicon, including repA, a toxin-antitoxin system; two putative partitioning genes, parAB; and a putative gene, 053 Construction of mini-IncA/C plasmids and examination of their stability within E. coli confirmed that the region encompassing 053 contributes to the stable maintenance of IncA/C plasmids. Subsequently, the four major maintenance genes (repA, parAB, and 053) were used to construct a new plasmid multilocus sequence typing (PMLST) scheme for IncA/C plasmids. Application of this scheme to a database of 82 IncA/C plasmids identified 11 unique sequence types (STs), with two dominant STs. The majority of blaNDM-positive plasmids examined (15/17; 88%) fall into ST1, suggesting acquisition and subsequent expansion of this blaNDM-containing plasmid lineage. The IncA/C PMLST scheme represents a standardized tool to identify, track, and analyze the dissemination of important IncA/C plasmid lineages, particularly in the context of epidemiological studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  9. Hara H, Yusaimi YA, Zulkeflle SNM, Sugiura N, Iwamoto K, Goto M, et al.
    J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 2019 Jan 24;64(6):284-292.
    PMID: 29877296 DOI: 10.2323/jgam.2018.02.003
    The emergence of antibiotic resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) microbes is of growing concern, and threatens public health globally. A total of 129 Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from lowland aqueous environments near hospitals and medical service centers in the vicinity of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Among the eleven antibacterial agents tested, the isolates were highly resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83.7%) and nalidixic acid (71.3%) and moderately resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol (66.7%), tetracycline (65.1%), fosfomycin (57.4%), cefotaxime (57.4%), and ciprofloxacin (57.4%), while low resistance levels were found with aminoglycosides (kanamycin, 22.5%; gentamicin, 21.7%). The presence of relevant resistance determinants was evaluated, and the genotypic resistance determinants were as follows: sulfonamides (sulI, sulII, and sulIII), trimethoprim (dfrA1 and dfrA5), quinolones (qnrS), β-lactams (ampC and blaCTX-M), chloramphenicol (cmlA1 and cat2), tetracycline (tetA and tetM), fosfomycin (fosA and fosA3), and aminoglycosides (aphA1 and aacC2). Our data suggest that multidrug-resistant E. coli strains are ubiquitous in the aquatic systems of tropical countries and indicate that hospital wastewater may contribute to this phenomenon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  10. Noorizhab Fakhruzzaman MN, Abidin NZ, Aziz ZA, Lim WF, Richard JJ, Noorliza MN, et al.
    Int J Mycobacteriol, 2019 12 4;8(4):320-328.
    PMID: 31793500 DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_144_19
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major health problem in Malaysia with thousands of cases reported yearly. This is further burdened with the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides high-resolution molecular epidemiological data for the accurate determination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) lineages and prediction of the drug-resistance patterns. This study aimed to investigate the diversity of MTBC in Malaysia in terms of lineage and drug-resistance patterns of the clinical MTBC isolates using WGS approach.

    Methods: The genomes of 24 MTBC isolated from sputum and pus samples were sequenced. The phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) of the isolates was determined for ten anti-TB drugs. Bioinformatic analysis comprising genome assembly and annotation and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in genes associated with resistance to the ten anti-TB drugs were done on each sequenced genome.

    Results: The draft assemblies covered an average of 97% of the expected genome size. Eleven isolates were aligned to the Indo-Oceanic lineage, eight were East-Asian lineage, three were East African-Indian lineage, and one was of Euro-American and Bovis lineages, respectively. Twelve of the 24 MTBC isolates were phenotypically MDR M. tuberculosis: one is polyresistance and another one is monoresistance. Twenty-six SNPs across nine genes associated with resistance toward ten anti-TB drugs were detected where some of the mutations were found in isolates that were previously reported as pan-susceptible using DST. A haplotype consisting of 65 variants was also found among the MTBC isolates with drug-resistance traits.

    Conclusions: This study is the first effort done in Malaysia to utilize 24 genomes of the local clinical MTBC isolates. The high-resolution molecular epidemiological data obtained provide valuable insights into the mechanistic and epidemiological qualities of TB within the vicinity of Southeast Asia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  11. Ali SA, Chew YW, Omar TC, Azman N
    PLoS One, 2015;10(12):e0144189.
    PMID: 26642325 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144189
    Maintenance of recombinant plasmid vectors in host bacteria relies on the presence of selection antibiotics in the growth media to suppress plasmid -free segregants. However, presence of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics themselves is not acceptable in several applications of biotechnology. Previously, we have shown that FabV-Triclosan selection system can be used to select high and medium copy number plasmid vectors in E. coli. Here, we have extended our previous work and demonstrated that expression vectors containing FabV can be used efficiently to express heterologous recombinant proteins in similar or better amounts in E. coli host when compared with expression vectors containing β-lactamase. Use of small amount of non-antibiotic Triclosan as selection agent in growth medium, enhanced plasmid stability, applicability in various culture media, and compatibility with other selection systems for multiple plasmid maintenance are noteworthy features of FabV-Triclosan selection system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics
  12. Ontsira Ngoyi EN, Atipo Ibara BI, Moyen R, Ahoui Apendi PC, Ibara JR, Obengui O, et al.
    Helicobacter, 2015 Aug;20(4):316-20.
    PMID: 25585658 DOI: 10.1111/hel.12204
    Helicobacter pylori infection is involved in several gastroduodenal diseases which can be cured by antimicrobial treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection and its bacterial resistance to clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones, and tetracycline in Brazzaville, Congo, by using molecular methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  13. Forde BM, Ben Zakour NL, Stanton-Cook M, Phan MD, Totsika M, Peters KM, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(8):e104400.
    PMID: 25126841 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104400
    Escherichia coli ST131 is now recognised as a leading contributor to urinary tract and bloodstream infections in both community and clinical settings. Here we present the complete, annotated genome of E. coli EC958, which was isolated from the urine of a patient presenting with a urinary tract infection in the Northwest region of England and represents the most well characterised ST131 strain. Sequencing was carried out using the Pacific Biosciences platform, which provided sufficient depth and read-length to produce a complete genome without the need for other technologies. The discovery of spurious contigs within the assembly that correspond to site-specific inversions in the tail fibre regions of prophages demonstrates the potential for this technology to reveal dynamic evolutionary mechanisms. E. coli EC958 belongs to the major subgroup of ST131 strains that produce the CTX-M-15 extended spectrum β-lactamase, are fluoroquinolone resistant and encode the fimH30 type 1 fimbrial adhesin. This subgroup includes the Indian strain NA114 and the North American strain JJ1886. A comparison of the genomes of EC958, JJ1886 and NA114 revealed that differences in the arrangement of genomic islands, prophages and other repetitive elements in the NA114 genome are not biologically relevant and are due to misassembly. The availability of a high quality uropathogenic E. coli ST131 genome provides a reference for understanding this multidrug resistant pathogen and will facilitate novel functional, comparative and clinical studies of the E. coli ST131 clonal lineage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics
  14. Lim KT, Teh CS, Yusof MY, Thong KL
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2014 Feb;108(2):112-8.
    PMID: 24336696 DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/trt111
    The prevalence of resistance to rifampicin and fusidic acid among Malaysian strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of rifampicin and fusidic acid resistance and the genetic diversity of MRSA strains from a Malaysian tertiary hospital.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  15. Khosravi Y, Tay ST, Vadivelu J
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2011 Jul;60(Pt 7):988-994.
    PMID: 21436370 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.029868-0
    In this study, 90 non-replicate imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA) Malaysian isolates collected between October 2005 and March 2008 were subjected to a screening test for detection of the integron and the gene cassette. Class 1 integrons were detected in 54 IRPA clinical isolates, whilst three isolates contained class 2 integrons. Analysis of the gene cassettes associated with the class 1 integrons showed the detection of accC1 in isolates carrying bla(IMP-7) and aacA7 in isolates carrying bla(VIM-2). aadA6 was detected in two isolates carrying bla(IMP-4). Using random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis, 14 PCR fingerprint patterns were generated from the 32 isolates carrying metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes (35.5 %), whilst 20 patterns were generated from the 58 non-MBL gene isolates (64.4 %). Based on the differences in the fingerprinting patterns, two clusters (A and B) were identified among the MBL-producing isolates. Cluster A comprised 18 isolates (56 %) carrying the bla(VIM) gene, whereas cluster B comprised 14 (44 %) isolates carrying the bla(IMP) gene. The non-MBL isolates were divided into clusters C and D. Cluster C comprised 22 non-MBL isolates harbouring class 1 integrons, whilst cluster D consisted of three isolates carrying class 2 integrons. These findings suggest that the class 1 integron is widespread among P. aeruginosa isolated in Malaysia and that characterization of cassette arrays of integrons will be a useful epidemiological tool to study the evolution of multidrug resistance and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics
  16. Thong KL, Ang CP
    PMID: 22299444
    Abstract. Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B is known to cause either paratyphoid fever or gastroenteritis. Differentiation of Salmonella ser. Paratyphi B into biotype Java (d-tartrate fermenting, dT+) and biotype Paratyphi B (d-tartrate non-fermenting, dT) is important for Salmonella epidemiology. This study applied a PCR approach to differentiate the two biotypes to augment the conventional biochemical method and to determine the antibiograms and genomic diversity of Malaysian S. Paratyphi B. Among 100 strains tested (clinical, 86; non-humans, 14), only two clinical strains were confirmed as biotype Paratyphi B as indicated by both lead acetate test and PCR. Antibiotic resistance rates were as follows: streptomycin 18%, sulphonamides 13%, ampicillin 10%, chloramphenicol 4%, tetracycline 3%, cefotaxime 2%, cefpodoxime 2%, ceftazidime 2%, gentamicin 1% and trimethoprim 1%. None showed resistance towards amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Seven strains showed multidrug resistance towards 3 or more classes of antimicrobial agents. REP-PCR and PFGE generated 32 and 76 different profiles, respectively. PFGE (D = 0.99) was more discriminative than REP-PCR (D = 0.93) and antimicrobial susceptibility test (D = 0.48) in subtyping the strains. Strains isolated 18 years apart (1982 - 2008) from different localities in Malaysia were clonally related as demonstrated by REP-PCR and PFGE, indicating that these strains were stable and widely distributed. In some clusters, strains isolated from different sources (clinical, food and animal) were grouped together. Thus, biotype Java was the most common biotype of Salmonella ser. Paratyphi B in Malaysia. The PCR approach is highly recommended due to its simplicity, specificity and ease of operation. The level of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella ser. Paratyphi B remained relatively low in Malaysia but the emergence of resistance to cephalosporins is a cause for concern.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  17. Wong EW, Yusof MY, Mansor MB, Anbazhagan D, Ong SY, Sekaran SD
    Singapore Med J, 2009 Aug;50(8):822-6.
    PMID: 19710984
    The AdeABC pump of Acinetobacter spp. confers resistance to various antibiotic classes. This pump is composed of the AdeA, AdeB, and AdeC proteins where AdeB is a member of the resistance-nodulation-division efflux pump superfamily. The adeA, adeB, and adeC genes are contiguous and adjacent to adeS and adeR, which are transcribed in the opposite direction and which specify proteins homologous to sensors and regulators of two-component systems, respectively. In this study, an attempt is made to elucidate the role of the AdeABC efflux pump in carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics
  18. Sabet NS, Subramaniam G, Navaratnam P, Sekaran SD
    J Microbiol Methods, 2007 Jan;68(1):157-62.
    PMID: 16935372
    In this study we describe a triplex real-time PCR assay that enables the identification of S. aureus and detection of two important antibiotic resistant genes simultaneously using real-time PCR technology in a single assay. In this triplex real-time PCR assay, the mecA (methicillin resistant), femA (species specific S. aureus) and aacA-aphD (aminoglycoside resistant) genes were detected in a single test using dual-labeled Taqman probes. The assay gives simultaneous information for the identification of S. aureus and detection of methicillin and aminoglycoside resistance in staphylococcal isolates. 152 clinical isolates were subjected to this triplex real-time PCR assay. The results of the triplex real-time PCR assay correlated with the results of the phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility testing. The results obtained from triplex real-time PCR assay shows that the primer and probe sets were specific for the identification of S. aureus and were able to detect methicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant genes. The entire assay can be performed within 3 h which is a very rapid method that can give simultaneous information for the identification of S. aureus and antibiotic resistance pattern of a staphylococcal isolate. The application of this rapid method in microbiology laboratories would be a valuable tool for the rapid identification of the S. aureus isolates and determination of their antibiotic resistance pattern with regards to methicillin and aminoglycosides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  19. Al-Marzooq F, Mohd Yusof MY, Tay ST
    PLoS One, 2015;10(7):e0133654.
    PMID: 26203651 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133654
    Infections caused by multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae have been increasingly reported in many parts of the world. A total of 93 Malaysian multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae isolated from patients attending to University of Malaya Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 2010-2012 were investigated for antibiotic resistance determinants including extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), aminoglycoside and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance genes and plasmid replicons. CTX-M-15 (91.3%) was the predominant ESBL gene detected in this study. aacC2 gene (67.7%) was the most common gene detected in aminoglycoside-resistant isolates. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance (90.3%) was attributed to the presence of sul1 (53.8%) and dfrA (59.1%) genes in the isolates. Multiple plasmid replicons (1-4) were detected in 95.7% of the isolates. FIIK was the dominant replicon detected together with 13 other types of plasmid replicons. Conjugative plasmids (1-3 plasmids of ~3-100 kb) were obtained from 27 of 43 K. pneumoniae isolates. An ESBL gene (either CTX-M-15, CTX-M-3 or SHV-12) was detected from each transconjugant. Co-detection with at least one of other antibiotic resistance determinants [sul1, dfrA, aacC2, aac(6')-Ib, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrB] was noted in most conjugative plasmids. The transconjugants were resistant to multiple antibiotics including β-lactams, gentamicin and cotrimoxazole, but not ciprofloxacin. This is the first study describing the characterization of plasmids circulating in Malaysian multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae isolates. The results of this study suggest the diffusion of highly diverse plasmids with multiple antibiotic resistance determinants among the Malaysian isolates. Effective infection control measures and antibiotic stewardship programs should be adopted to limit the spread of the multidrug resistant bacteria in healthcare settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*
  20. Norazah A, Lim VKE, Koh YT, Rohani MY, Zuridah H, Spencer K, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2002 Dec;51(12):1113-1116.
    PMID: 12466411 DOI: 10.1099/0022-1317-51-12-1113
    The emergence and spread of multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, especially those resistant to fusidic acid and rifampicin, in Malaysian hospitals is of concern. In this study DNA fingerprinting by PFGE was performed on fusidic acid- and rifampicin-resistant isolates from Malaysian hospitals to determine the genetic relatedness of these isolates and their relationship with the endemic MRSA strains. In all, 32 of 640 MRSA isolates from 9 Malaysian hospitals were resistant to fusidic acid and rifampicin. Seven PFGE types (A, ZC, ZI, ZJ, ZK, ZL and ZM) were observed. The commonest type was type ZC, seen in 72% of isolates followed by type A, seen in 13%. Each of the other types (ZI, ZJ, ZK, ZL and ZM) was observed in a single isolate. Each type, even the commonest, was found in only one hospital. This suggests that the resistant strains had arisen from individual MRSA strains in each hospital and not as a result of the transmission of a common clone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics
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