Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 138 in total

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  1. Morokuma K, Matsumura T, Yamamoto A, Sakai A, Hifumi T, Ato M, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2021 Jun 01;38(2):111-118.
    PMID: 34172698 DOI: 10.47665/tb.38.2.042
    In 2000, an equine Yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus) antivenom (Lot 0001) was testmanufactured as an unapproved drug for treatment of Yamakagashi bites. It was stocked on the premise of super-legal use from the viewpoint of emergency health crisis management. The antivenom showed a strong neutralizing ability against the hemorrhagic and coagulation activity of the Yamakagashi venom in its potency test. One vial of the antivenom can effectively neutralize at least about 4 mg of Yamakagashi venom. Its efficacy has also been confirmed in patients with severe cases of R. tigrinus bite that has been used in emergency. In 2020, this antivenom (Lot 0001) has reached 20 years after its production. To evaluate the integrity and potency of the antivenom, quality control, safety and potency tests had been conducted almost every year since 2012. Physical and chemical tests (property test, moisture content test, insoluble foreign matter test, osmotic pressure ratio test, pH test, protein content test, endotoxin test, sterility test) of the antivenom, showed no significant changes throughout the years, when compared to the results immediately after its production in 2000. All the parameters measured were also within the standard values. In animal safety tests (test for absence of toxicity and pyrogen), there was no change in the test results during the storage period and no abnormalities were observed. The potency test (anti-coagulant activity) after 20 years of the product, showed the same potency as those recorded immediately after production. Therefore, in all of the stability monitoring tests conducted so far, the product did not show any significant change compared to the results immediately after production. This confirms the stability of the product during the stockpiling period to the present, that is, 20 years after production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability*
  2. Sengupta P, Chatterjee B, Tekade RK
    Int J Pharm, 2018 May 30;543(1-2):328-344.
    PMID: 29635054 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.04.007
    Different regulatory guidelines recommend establishing stability profile of pharmaceuticals at the time of drug development. The expiry date, retesting period and storage conditions of active drugs or products are established through stability analysis. Several regulatory guidelines exist for stability testing of pharmaceuticals. Mostly, ICH stability guidelines are followed in practice. This guideline recommends to validate stability indicating method using forced degradation samples that contains all possible degradation impurities. ICH guidelines provide general recommendations for inclusion of stability indicating parameters in a stability testing protocol. However, those guidelines do not provide specific requirements and experimental methodology to be followed for stability studies. Due to this gap, often confusion arises in the scientific community in designing stability testing protocol. Therefore, significant variations are observed in reported literature in selection of stability indicating parameters. Procedural dissimilarity amongst reported stability studies is also evident. This review discusses the regulatory guidelines and procedures to follow in performing stability testing of pharmaceuticals. Scope of this review also includes recommendations on practical approaches for designing stability testing protocol to fulfill current regulatory requirements for drug substances and their formulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability*
  3. Salimon J, Salih N, Yousif E
    J Oleo Sci, 2011;60(12):613-8.
    PMID: 22123242
    Petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems. Therefore petroleum needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources; the use of oleochemicals as biobased lubricants is of significant interest. This article presents a series of chemical modification on oleic acid to yield synthetic biolubricant basestocks. Measuring of density, volatility, cloud point (CP), pour point (PP), flash point (FP), viscosity index (VI), onset temperature (OT) and signal maximum temperature (SMT) was carried out for each compound. Furthermore, the friction and wear properties were measured using high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). The results showed that octadecyl 9-octadecyloxy-10-hydroxyoctadecanoate exhibited the most favorable low-temperature performance (CP %ndash;26°C, PP %ndash;28°C) and the lowest ball wear scan diameter (42 µm) while propyl 9-propyloxy-10-hydroxyoctadecanoate exhibited the higher oxidation stability (OT 156°C).
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  4. Hanjeet K, Lye MS, Sinniah M, Schnur A
    Bull World Health Organ, 1996;74(4):391-7.
    PMID: 8823961
    An analysis was carried out on a total of 883 cold chain monitor (CCM) cards, which had been attached to batches of poliomyelitis, measles, DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus) and hepatitis B vaccines, during their transport and storage from the central store in Kuala Lumpur to Kelantan, a state in north-eastern Malaysia; 234 freeze watches attached to hepatitis B vaccines were also analysed. The monitor cards and freeze watches were observed at six levels between the central store and the periphery during distribution of the vaccines, and a colour change in any of the four windows (A, B, C, D) on the CCM cards or the freeze watches was recorded. In addition, 33 unopened vials of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), collected from refrigerators in 29 health facilities in Kelantan, were tested for potency using the tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50) method; 14 of them (42%) did not meet the WHO criteria for potent vaccines. The results showed that at the final destination 13.4% of all cards remained white while a colour change to blue was observed in 65% in window A, 16.6% in window B, and 4.4% in window C; none had turned blue in window D indicating that the vaccine had not been subjected to temperatures > or = 34 degrees C for 2 hours. All but 2 of the 234 freeze watches had turned purple, which indicates exposure of the hepatitis B vaccines to temperatures below 0 degree C. These results will assist health planners to correct the weaknesses identified in the cold chain system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability*
  5. Osman WNAW, Selvarajah D, Samsuri S
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 11;26(16).
    PMID: 34443445 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26164856
    Saponin is a biopesticide used to suppress the growth of the golden apple snail population. This study aims to determine the stabilized conditions for saponin storage. The maceration process was used for saponin extraction, and for saponin concentration, progressive freeze concentration (PFC) was used. Afterwards, stability analysis was performed by storing the sample for 21 days in two conditions: Room temperature (26 °C) and cold room (10 °C). The samples kept in a cold room were sterilized samples that undergo thermal treatment by placing the sample in the water bath. The non-sterilized samples were kept in room temperature condition for 21 days. The results showed that saponin stored in the cold room (sterilized sample) has low degradation with higher concentration than those stored at room temperature in stability analysis with the highest saponin concentration (0.730 mg/mL) at a concentration temperature of -6 °C and concentration time of 15 min. The lowest saponin concentration obtained by saponin stored at room temperature (non-sterilized sample) is 0.025 mg/mL at a concentration temperature of -6 °C and concentration time of 10 min. Thus, the finding concluded that saponin is sensitive to temperature. Hence, the best storage condition to store saponin after thermal treatment is to keep it in a cold room at 10 °C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  6. Anarjan N, Nehdi IA, Sbihi HM, Al-Resayes SI, Malmiri HJ, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2014 Sep 10;19(9):14257-65.
    PMID: 25211006 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190914257
    The incorporation of lipophilic nutrients, such as astaxanthin (a fat soluble carotenoid) in nanodispersion systems can either increase the water solubility, stability and bioavailability or widen their applications in aqueous food and pharmaceutical formulations. In this research, gelatin and its combinations with sucrose oleate as a small molecular emulsifier, sodium caseinate (SC) as a protein and gum Arabic as a polysaccharide were used as stabilizer systems in the formation of astaxanthin nanodispersions via an emulsification-evaporation process. The results indicated that the addition of SC to gelatin in the stabilizer system could increase the chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions significantly, while using a mixture of gelatin and sucrose oleate as a stabilizer led to production of nanodispersions with the smallest particle size (121.4±8.6 nm). It was also shown that a combination of gelatin and gum Arabic could produce optimal astaxanthin nanodispersions in terms of physical stability (minimum polydispersity index (PDI) and maximum zeta-potential). This study demonstrated that the mixture of surface active compounds showed higher emulsifying and stabilizing functionality compared to using them individually in the preparation of astaxanthin nanodispersions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  7. Ee, S.C., Bakar, J., Kharidah, M., Dzulkifly, M.H., Noranizan, A.
    MyJurnal
    The physico-chemical properties of spray-dried pitaya peel powders kept at accelerated (45 ± 2°C) and room temperature (28 ± 2°C) for 14 weeks and 6 months, respectively were evaluated. Changes in physico-chemical properties of the peel powder were used as indicators of stability, while changes of the betacyanin pigment retention was used to calculate the shelf-life of the powder. Storage temperatures significantly (p < 0.05) affected all the studied parameters and Hunter a value had the most significant change. The pigment retention of peel powder was approximately 87% at 45°C and 89% at room temperature storage. Degradation of betacyanin pigment in the powder followed the first order reaction kinetics with the half-life (t1/2) of approximately 76 weeks at 45°C and 38 months at 28°C. The spray-dried pitaya peel powder had a solubility of 87 to 92% and low in powder hygroscopicity. The final Aw of the powder did not exceed 0.6 for both storage temperatures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  8. Tan KY, Liew ST, Tan QY, Abdul-Rahman FN, Azmi NI, Sim SM, et al.
    Toxicon, 2019 Mar 15;160:55-58.
    PMID: 30797900 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.02.010
    Gel filtration chromatography and gel electrophoresis revealed minimal protein degradation in lyophilized antivenoms which were 2-year expired (Hemato Polyvalent, Neuro Polyvalent; Thailand) and 18-year expired (Hemato Bivalent, Neuro Bivalent; Taiwan). All expired antivenoms retained immunological binding activity, and were able to neutralize the hemotoxic or neurotoxic as well as lethal effects of the homologous snake venoms. The findings show that antivenoms under proper storage conditions may remain relatively stable beyond the indicated shelf life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability*
  9. Syed HK, Liew KB, Loh GO, Peh KK
    Food Chem, 2015 Mar 1;170:321-6.
    PMID: 25306352 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.066
    A stability-indicating HPLC-UV method for the determination of curcumin in Curcuma longa extract and emulsion was developed. The system suitability parameters, theoretical plates (N), tailing factor (T), capacity factor (K'), height equivalent of a theoretical plate (H) and resolution (Rs) were calculated. Stress degradation studies (acid, base, oxidation, heat and UV light) of curcumin were performed in emulsion. It was found that N>6500, T<1.1, K' was 2.68-3.75, HETP about 37 and Rs was 1.8. The method was linear from 2 to 200 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The intra-day precision and accuracy for curcumin were ⩽0.87% and ⩽2.0%, while the inter-day precision and accuracy values were ⩽2.1% and ⩽-1.92. Curcumin degraded in emulsion under acid, alkali and UV light. In conclusion, the stability-indicating method could be employed to determine curcumin in bulk and emulsions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  10. Rasti B, Jinap S, Mozafari MR, Yazid AM
    Food Chem, 2012 Dec 15;135(4):2761-70.
    PMID: 22980870 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.07.016
    The relative oxidative stability of freshly prepared and stored liposomal and nanoliposomal systems of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) were investigated. The effects of organic solvents on the oxidative stability of liposomal polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) produced by two methods, the Bangham thin-film hydration (conventional rotary evaporation method and using organic solvents) and Mozafari (direct hydration and without using organic solvents) methods, were compared. The highest physicochemical stability was observed in PUFA liposomes prepared by the Mozafari method, followed by conventional liposomes and bulk PUFAs. There was no significant change in physicochemical stability during 10 months of cold storage (4°C) in the dark. Moreover, the comparison between liposomes (>200 nm) and nanoliposomes (50-200 nm) revealed that the surface charge, physical stability and oxidative stability of liposomal PUFAs increased as the size of the liposomes decreased. The differences in the oxidative stability of PUFAs may be due to the protective effects of aqueous systems, which indicate the advantage of using non-organic solvent (water and CO(2)) techniques in liposome manufacturing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  11. Ketuly KA, Hadi AH
    Molecules, 2010 Apr;15(4):2347-56.
    PMID: 20428047 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15042347
    Benzeneboronate of catecholic carboxyl methyl esters, N-acetyldopamine, coumarin and catechol estrogens were prepared as crystalline derivatives in high yield. Related catechol compounds with extra polar functional group(s) (OH, NH2) do not form or only partially form unstable cyclic boronate derivatives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  12. Khan N, Craig DQ
    J Pharm Sci, 2004 Dec;93(12):2962-71.
    PMID: 15459945
    Gelucire 50/13 alone and solid dispersions in this material containing two model drugs (10% w/w caffeine and paracetamol) have been studied with a view to establishing the mechanism underpinning changes in drug-release characteristics as a function of storage time and temperature. The lipid systems were fabricated into tablets and stored for up to 180 days at temperatures of 20 and 37 degrees C. The dispersions were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy, and dissolution testing. DSC studies indicated that the Gelucire 50/13 exists in two principal melting forms (melting points 38 and 43 degrees C) that undergo transformation to the higher melting form on storage at 37 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy studies indicated that the systems exhibit "blooming," with crystal formation on the surface being apparent on storage at both temperatures. The dissolution rate increased on storage, with the effect being particularly marked at higher storage temperatures and for the paracetamol systems. However, whereas these changes corresponded well to those seen for the morphology, the correlation between the changes in dissolution and those of the DSC profiles was poor. The study has suggested a novel explanation for the storage instability of Gelucire 50/13 whereby the change in dissolution is associated not with molecular rearrangement as such but with the gross distribution of the constituent components, this in turn altering the physical integrity of the lipid bases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  13. Berry SK
    J Sci Food Agric, 1980 Jul;31(7):657-62.
    PMID: 6779057
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  14. Ayumi NS, Sahudin S, Hussain Z, Hussain M, Samah NHA
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):482-496.
    PMID: 29569027 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0508-6
    To investigate the use of chitosan nanoparticles (CS-TPP-NPs) as carriers for α- and β-arbutin. In this study, CS-TPP-NPs containing α- and β-arbutin were prepared via the ionic cross-linking of CS and TPP and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and dispersity index. The entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of various β-arbutin concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%) were also investigated. SEM, TEM FTIR, DSC and TGA analyses of the nanoparticles were performed to further characterize the nanoparticles. Finally, stability and release studies were undertaken to ascertain further the suitability of the nanoparticles as a carrier system for α- and β-arbutin. Data obtained clearly indicates the potential for use of CS-TPP-NPs as a carrier for the delivery of α- and β-arbutin. The size obtained for the alpha nanoparticles (α-arbutin CSNPs) ranges from 147 to 274 d.nm, with an increase in size with increasing alpha arbutin concentration. β-arbutin nanoparticles (β-arbutin CSNPs) size range was from 211.1 to 284 dn.m. PdI for all nanoparticles remained between 0.2-0.3 while the zeta potential was between 41.6-52.1 mV. The optimum encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity for 0.4% α-arbutin CSNPs were 71 and 77%, respectively. As for β-arbutin, CSNP optimum encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity for 0.4% concentration were 68 and 74%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy for α-arbutin CSNPs showed a more spherical shape compared to β-arbutin CSNPs where rod-shaped particles were observed. However, under transmission electron microscopy, the shapes of both α- and β-arbutin CSNP nanoparticles were spherical. The crystal phase identification of the studied samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the XRD of both α and β-arbutin CSNPs showed to be more crystalline in comparison to their free form. FTIR spectra showed intense characteristic peaks of chitosan appearing at 3438.3 cm-1 (-OH stretching), 2912 cm-1 (-CH stretching), represented 1598.01 cm-1 (-NH2) for both nanoparticles. Stability studies conducted for 90 days revealed that both α- and β-arbutin CSNPs were stable in solution. Finally, release studies of both α- and β-arbutin CSNPs showed a significantly higher percentage release in comparison to α- and β-arbutin in their free form. Chitosan nanoparticles demonstrate considerable promise as a carrier system for α- and β-arbutin, the use of which is anticipated to improve delivery of arbutin through the skin, in order to improve its efficacy as a whitening agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  15. Siram K, Divakar S, Raghavan CV, Marslin G, Rahman H, Franklin G
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2019 Feb 01;174:443-450.
    PMID: 30497005 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.11.033
    The physico-chemical properties of lipids influencing the solubilisation of imatinib mesylate (IM) in lipid matrix were evaluated and a statistical model to predict the same has been derived in the present study. After experimental quantification of IM solubility in various lipids, Hansen Hildebrand's total solubility parameters were calculated in order to study the role of various forces connected to lipid-drug interaction. To develop a relationship between the various descriptors of the lipids and experimental solubility of IM in lipids (% w/w), quantitative structure-solubility relationship (QSSR) was used. To generate equations that can predict the solubility of IM in lipids (%w/w), multiple linear regression was used. Amongst the various lipids tested, glyceryl monostearate and behenic acid solubilised the highest (6.19 ± 0.22%) and lowest (0.01 ± 0.01%) amounts of IM respectively. Our results suggested that alkyl chain length, polarity of the lipids, index of cohesive interaction in solids, estimated number of hydrogen bonds that would be accepted by the solute from water molecules in an aqueous solution, estimated number of hydrogen bonds that would be donated by the solute to water molecules in an aqueous solution and solvent accessible surface area collectively play a significant role in solubilising IM in the lipids. The equation developed could predict the solubility of IM in lipids with good accuracy (R2pred = 0.912).
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  16. Gazzali AM, Lobry M, Colombeau L, Acherar S, Azaïs H, Mordon S, et al.
    Eur J Pharm Sci, 2016 Oct 10;93:419-30.
    PMID: 27575880 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejps.2016.08.045
    Folic acid is a small molecule, also known as vitamin B9. It is an essential compound involved in important biochemical processes. It is widely used as a vector for targeted treatment and diagnosis especially in cancer therapeutics. Nevertheless, not many authors address the problem of folic acid degradation. Several researchers reported their observations concerning its denaturation, but they generally only took into account one parameter (pH, temperature, light or O2etc.). In this review, we will focus on five main parameters (assessed individually or in conjunction with one or several others) that have to be taken into account to avoid the degradation of folic acid: light, temperature, concentration, oxygen and pH, which are the most cited in the literature. Scrupulous bibliographic research enabled us to determine two additional degradation factors that are the influence of singlet oxygen and electron beam on folic acid stability, which are not considered as among the prime factors. Although these two factors are not commonly present as compared to the others, singlet oxygen and electron beams intervene in new therapeutic technologies and must be taken in consideration for further applications such photodynamic or X-rays therapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  17. Kandel S, Zaidi STR, Wanandy ST, Ming LC, Castelino RL, Sud K, et al.
    Perit Dial Int, 2017 11 21;38(1):49-56.
    PMID: 29162678 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2017.00115
    BACKGROUND: Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of ceftazidime is recommended for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP) from Pseudomonas. Patients with PDAP may also need IP heparin to overcome problems with drainage of turbid peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids and blockage of catheters with fibrin. Physico-chemical stability of ceftazidime and heparin, and biological stability of heparin in many types of PD solutions is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the stability of ceftazidime and heparin in 4 types of PD solutions.

    METHODS: A total of 12 PD bags (3 for each type of solution) containing ceftazidime and heparin were prepared and stored at 4°C for 120 hours, and then at 25°C for 6 hours, and finally at 37°C for 12 hours. An aliquot was withdrawn after predefined time points and analyzed for the concentration of ceftazidime and heparin using high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC). Samples were assessed for pH, color changes, particle content, and anticoagulant activity of heparin.

    RESULTS: Ceftazidime and heparin retained more than 91% of their initial concentration when stored at 4°C for 120 hours followed by storage at 25°C for 6 hours and then at 37°C for 12 hours. Heparin retained more than 95% of its initial activity throughout the study period. Particle formation was not detected at any time under the storage conditions. The pH and color remained essentially unchanged throughout the study.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ceftazidime-heparin admixture retains its stability over long periods of storage at different temperatures, allowing its potential use for PDAP treatment in outpatient and remote settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  18. Donnan F, Senarathna SMDKG, Ware B, Rawlins MDM, Dontham C, Chuang VTG, et al.
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 2020 06;60(3):344-349.
    PMID: 31512230 DOI: 10.1111/ajo.13046
    BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) kits containing uterotonics are used on obstetric units for the timely management of PPH. Visible discolouration of ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin injections was observed in PPH kits stored in medical refrigerators on the obstetric unit at our hospital.

    AIM: To investigate the stability of ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin injections in PPH kits under simulated clinical storage conditions and to determine the potency of ampoules quarantined from PPH kits on our obstetric unit.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin injection ampoules were stored exposed to and protected from light at 4°C and room temperature (25°C) for up to three months, and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was based on the time for the ergometrine or oxytocin concentration to fall to 90% of the original concentration (t90 ). The potency of quarantined discoloured ampoules also was determined.

    RESULTS: Ergometrine was stable at both temperatures for >6 months, when stored protected from light in simulated clinical conditions. When exposed to light, ergometrine was stable for approximately 4 days at 25°C and 10 days at 4°C. Discoloured ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin injection ampoules were found to be <90% of the nominal concentration.

    CONCLUSION: Stability of ergometrine in PPH kits is largely unaffected by temperature fluctuations (at 4°C and 25°C) over 6 months when protected from light. Ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin ampoules should be inspected prior to use and any discoloured ampoules discarded.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  19. Edueng K, Mahlin D, Gråsjö J, Nylander O, Thakrani M, Bergström CAS
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 27;24(15).
    PMID: 31357587 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24152731
    This study explores the effect of physical aging and/or crystallization on the supersaturation potential and crystallization kinetics of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Spray-dried, fully amorphous indapamide, metolazone, glibenclamide, hydrocortisone, hydrochlorothiazide, ketoconazole, and sulfathiazole were used as model APIs. The parameters used to assess the supersaturation potential and crystallization kinetics were the maximum supersaturation concentration (Cmax,app), the area under the curve (AUC), and the crystallization rate constant (k). These were compared for freshly spray-dried and aged/crystallized samples. Aged samples were stored at 75% relative humidity for 168 days (6 months) or until they were completely crystallized, whichever came first. The solid-state changes were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. Supersaturation potential and crystallization kinetics were investigated using a tenfold supersaturation ratio compared to the thermodynamic solubility using the µDISS Profiler. The physically aged indapamide and metolazone and the minimally crystallized glibenclamide and hydrocortisone did not show significant differences in their Cmax,app and AUC when compared to the freshly spray-dried samples. Ketoconazole, with a crystalline content of 23%, reduced its Cmax,app and AUC by 50%, with Cmax,app being the same as the crystalline solubility. The AUC of aged metolazone, one of the two compounds that remained completely amorphous after storage, significantly improved as the crystallization kinetics significantly decreased. Glibenclamide improved the most in its supersaturation potential from amorphization. The study also revealed that, besides solid-state crystallization during storage, crystallization during dissolution and its corresponding pathway may significantly compromise the supersaturation potential of fully amorphous APIs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
  20. Ramakrishnan R, Gimbun J, Ramakrishnan P, Ranganathan B, Reddy SMM, Shanmugam G
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2019;16(10):913-922.
    PMID: 31663478 DOI: 10.2174/1567201816666191029122445
    BACKGROUND: This paper presents the effect of solution properties and operating parameters of polyethylene oxide (PEO) based nanofiber using a wire electrode-based needleless electrospinning.

    METHODS: The feed solution was prepared using a PEO dissolved in water or a water-ethanol mixture. The PEO solution is blended with Bovine Serum Albumin protein (BSA) as a model drug to study the effect of the electrospinning process on the stability of the loaded protein. The polymer solution properties such as viscosity, surface tension, and conductivity were controlled by adjusting the solvent and salt content. The morphology and fiber size distribution of the nanofiber was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

    RESULTS: The results show that the issue of a beaded nanofiber can be eliminated either by increasing the solution viscosity or by the addition of salt and ethanol to the PEO-water system. The addition of salt and solvent produced a high frequency of smaller fiber diameter ranging from 100 to 150 nm. The encapsulation of BSA in PEO nanofiber was characterized by three different spectroscopy techniques (i.e. circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared, and fluorescence) and the results showed the BSA is well encapsulated in the PEO matrix with no changes in the protein structure.

    CONCLUSION: This work may serve as a useful guide for a drug delivery industry to process a nanofiber at a large and continuous scale with a blend of drugs in nanofiber using a wire electrode electrospinning.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Stability
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