DESIGN: A collaboration of 12 prospective cohort studies from Europe and the United States (the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration) that includes 62 760 HIV-infected, therapy-naive individuals followed for an average of 3.3 years. Inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models was used to adjust for measured confounding by indication.
RESULTS: Two thousand and thirty-nine individuals died during the follow-up. The mortality hazard ratio was 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.41-0.57) for cART initiation versus no initiation. In analyses stratified by CD4 cell count at baseline, the corresponding hazard ratios were 0.29 (0.22-0.37) for less than 100 cells/microl, 0.33 (0.25-0.44) for 100 to less than 200 cells/microl, 0.38 (0.28-0.52) for 200 to less than 350 cells/microl, 0.55 (0.41-0.74) for 350 to less than 500 cells/microl, and 0.77 (0.58-1.01) for 500 cells/microl or more. The estimated hazard ratio varied with years since initiation of cART from 0.57 (0.49-0.67) for less than 1 year since initiation to 0.21 (0.14-0.31) for 5 years or more (P value for trend <0.001).
CONCLUSION: We estimated that cART halved the average mortality rate in HIV-infected individuals. The mortality reduction was greater in those with worse prognosis at the start of follow-up.
METHODS: We did a retrospective observational cohort study. We included consecutive people with ACS who were discharged from Scottish hospitals between January 2008 and December 2013 and who received DAPT after discharge followed by antiplatelet monotherapy. The rates of cardiovascular events were assessed during each 90-day period of DAPT treatment and 90-day period after stopping DAPT. Cardiovascular events were defined as a composite of death, ACS, transient ischaemic attack or stroke. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of cardiovascular events following DAPT cessation.
RESULTS: 1340 patients were included (62% male, mean age 64.9 (13.0) years). Cardiovascular events occurred in 15.7% (n=211) during the DAPT period (mean DAPT duration 175.1 (155.3) days) and in 16.7% (n=188) following DAPT cessation (mean of 2.7 years follow-up). Independent predictors for a cardiovascular event following DAPT cessation were age (HR 1.07; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.08; p<0.001), DAPT duration (HR 0.997; 95% CI 0.995 to 0.998; p<0.001) and having revascularisation therapy during the index admission (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.85; p=0.005).
CONCLUSIONS: The rate of cardiovascular events was not significantly increased in the early period post-DAPT cessation compared with later periods in this ACS population. Increasing age, DAPT duration and lack of revascularisation therapy were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up after DAPT cessation.
METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).
CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with unequivocal evidence of H. pylori infection based on culture, histology and rapid urease test of both antrum and corpus biopsies were recruited for the study. The study was a randomized, investigator-blind, comparative study. Patients received either omeprazole 20 mg o.m., clarithromycin 250 mg b.d. and amoxycillin 500 mg b.d. (OAC) or omeprazole 20 mg o.m., metronidazole 400 mg b.d. and clarithromycin 250 mg b.d. (OMC) for 1 week. Patients were assessed for successful eradication, which was defined as absence of bacteria in all tests (culture, histology and urease test on both antral and corpus biopsies), at least 4 weeks after completion of therapy.
RESULTS: Eighty-two patients were recruited for the study. Eradication rates on intention-to-treat analysis were--OAC: 36/41 (87.8%, 95% CI: 73.8, 95.9); OMC: 33/41 (80.5%, 95% CI: 65.1, 91.2). On per protocol analysis were--OAC: 36/40 (90%, 95% CI: 76.3, 97.2); OMC: 32/38 (84.2%, 95% CI: 68.7, 94.0). All side-effects encountered were mild and no patient discontinued treatment because of intolerance to medications. The most common side-effects were altered taste (OAC 31.7%, OMC 53.7%) and lethargy (OAC 14.6%, OMC 19.5%). Pre-treatment metronidazole resistance was encountered in 34/63 (54.0%) patients. No bacterial strains were found with primary resistance to clarithromycin. Metronidazole resistance did not significantly affect eradication rates. Emergence of resistance to clarithromycin was not seen post-therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Both the OAC and the OMC regimens were convenient and well-tolerated treatments for H. pylori. However, eradication rates were lower than anticipated.
PATIENTS: Patients selected had unequivocal evidence of H. pylori infection based on the urease test, culture and histology and had either peptic ulcer disease or non-ulcer dyspepsia.
DESIGN: The study was a comparative and double-blind study and patients were randomized to receive either amoxycillin 750 mg t.i.d. and metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d. for 12 days or amoxycillin 1000 mg b.i.d. and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d. for 12 days. Both groups also received famotidine 40 mg for 6 weeks.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Patients were assessed for successful eradication, defined as absence of bacteria in all tests, at least 4 weeks after completion of antibiotic therapy by repeat gastroscopy.
RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients were recruited for the study. Two patients defaulted follow-up, two patients were withdrawn from the study and six patients were found to be non-compliant with medications. The eradication rates of the t.i.d. regimen was higher than the b.i.d. regimen (per protocol (PP) analysis: 83.3% (50/60) vs. 76.3% (45/59), P=0.337; intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis: 78.5% (51/65) vs. 75.0% (48/64), P=0.642). Seventy-five patients had pre-treatment cultures checked for metronidazole resistance, 33 (44.0%) were found to be resistant. Acquired resistance occurred in 3/40 (7.5%) patients. Eradication rates of metronidazole-sensitive and metronidazole-resistant patients: t.i.d. regimen - 100% (17/17) and 88.2% (15/17), b.i.d. regimen - 19/21 (90.5%) and 11/15 (73.3%). Side effects were reported in up to 70% of patients but were mild and tolerable in the majority. Two patients were withdrawn from the study because of a fixed drug eruption in one and generalized macular rash in the other.
CONCLUSION: Combination amoxycillin and metronidazole is effective in eradicating H. pylori. There was a tendency for the t.i.d. regimen to be better than the b.i.d. regimen and for metronidazole-resistant infections to be associated with a lower eradication rate but these differences did not reach statistical significance.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of combined aclidinium bromide and long-acting beta2-agonists in stable COPD.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR), ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization (WHO) trials portal, United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturers' websites as well as the reference list of published trials up to 12 October 2018.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Parallel-group randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing combined aclidinium bromide and LABAs in people with stable COPD.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane for data collection and analysis. The primary outcomes were exacerbations requiring a short course of an oral steroid or antibiotic, or both; quality of life measured by a validated scale and non-fatal serious adverse events (SAEs). Where the outcome or study details were not reported, we contacted the study investigators or pharmaceutical company trial co-ordinators (or both) for missing data.
MAIN RESULTS: We identified RCTs comparing aclidinium/formoterol FDC versus aclidinium, formoterol or placebo only. We included seven multicentre trials of four to 52 weeks' duration conducted in outpatient settings. There were 5921 participants, whose mean age ranged from 60.7 to 64.7 years, mostly men with a mean smoking pack-years of 46.4 to 61.3 of which 43.9% to 63.4% were current smokers. They had a moderate-to-severe degree of COPD with a mean postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) between 50.5% and 61% of predicted normal and the baseline mean FEV1 of 1.23 L to 1.43 L. We assessed performance and detection biases as low for all studies whereas selection, attrition and reporting biases were either low or unclear.FDC versus aclidiniumThere was no evidence of a difference between FDC and aclidinium for exacerbations requiring steroids or antibiotics, or both (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.27; 2 trials, 2156 participants; moderate-certainty evidence); quality of life measured by St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score (MD -0.92, 95% CI -2.15 to 0.30); participants with significant improvement in SGRQ score (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.41; 2 trials, 2002 participants; moderate-certainty evidence); non-fatal SAE (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.80; 3 trials, 2473 participants; moderate-certainty evidence); hospital admissions due to severe exacerbations (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.29; 2 trials, 2156 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) or adverse events (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.18; 3 trials, 2473 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Compared with aclidinium, FDC improved symptoms (Transitional Dyspnoea Index (TDI) focal score: MD 0.37, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.68; 2 trials, 2013 participants) with a higher chance of achieving a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of at least one unit improvement (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.62; high-certainty evidence); the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) being 14 (95% CI 9 to 39).FDC versus formoterolWhen compared to formoterol, combination therapy reduced exacerbations requiring steroids or antibiotics, or both (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.99; 3 trials, 2694 participants; high-certainty evidence); may decrease SGRQ total score (MD -1.88, 95% CI -3.10 to -0.65; 2 trials, 2002 participants; low-certainty evidence; MCID for SGRQ is 4 units); increased TDI focal score (MD 0.42, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.72; 2 trials, 2010 participants) with more participants attaining an MCID (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.56; high-certainty evidence) and an NNTB of 16 (95% CI 10 to 60). FDC lowered the risk of adverse events compared to formoterol (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.93; 5 trials, 3140 participants; high-certainty evidence; NNTB 22). However, there was no difference between FDC and formoterol for hospital admissions, all-cause mortality and non-fatal SAEs.FDC versus placeboCompared with placebo, FDC demonstrated no evidence of a difference in exacerbations requiring steroids or antibiotics, or both (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.12; 2 trials, 1960 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) or hospital admissions due to severe exacerbations (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.18; 2 trials, 1960 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), although estimates were uncertain. Quality of life measure by SGRQ total score was significantly better with FDC compared to placebo (MD -2.91, 95% CI -4.33 to -1.50; 2 trials, 1823 participants) resulting in a corresponding increase in SGRQ responders who achieved at least four units decrease in SGRQ total score (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.13; high-certainty evidence) with an NNTB of 7 (95% CI 5 to 12). FDC also improved symptoms measured by TDI focal score (MD 1.32, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.69; 2 studies, 1832 participants) with more participants attaining at least one unit improvement in TDI focal score (OR 2.51, 95% CI 2.02 to 3.11; high-certainty evidence; NNTB 4). There were no differences in non-fatal SAEs, adverse events and all-cause mortality between FDC and placebo.Combination therapy significantly improved trough FEV1 compared to aclidinium, formoterol or placebo.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: FDC improved dyspnoea and lung function compared to aclidinium, formoterol or placebo, and this translated into an increase in the number of responders on combination treatment. Quality of life was better with combination compared to formoterol or placebo. There was no evidence of a difference between FDC and monotherapy or placebo for exacerbations, hospital admissions, mortality, non-fatal SAEs or adverse events. Studies reported a lower risk of moderate exacerbations and adverse events with FDC compared to formoterol; however, larger studies would yield a more precise estimate for these outcomes.
Methods: Here, we investigated the impact of the CYP2C19 genotype polymorphism and the success of triple therapy (fluoroquinolones/metronidazole/clarithromycin) on antibiotic-resistant strains in eradicating H. pylori in human subjects with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), in human subjects with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and in asymptomatic human subjects (positive and negative for H. pylori infection).
Results: Based on the CYP2C19 genotypes, determined by Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) analysis, we found 11.2%, 62.5% and 26.3% corresponding to rapid metabolizers, intermediate metabolizers and poor metabolizers, respectively. However, we did not find any significant effect for homozygous ABCB1 or CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 alleles. We detected several participants heterozygous for both ABCB1 and CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*17 loci. The participants heterozygous for both ABCB1 and CYP2C19*2 and *3 loci should be defined as intermediate and poor metabolizers according to the haplotype analysis in the NUD, PUD and asymptomatic subjects.
Conclusions: Consequently, fluoroquinolones/metronidazole/clarithromycin-based triple therapies can be used to eradicate H. pylori infection, if one does not know the CYP2C19 genotype of the patient.