Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 56 in total

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  1. Lee YF, Merican H, Nallusamy R, Ong LM, Mohamed Nazir P, Hamzah HB, et al.
    Am J Infect Control, 2016 06 01;44(6):e95-7.
    PMID: 26897697 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2015.12.031
    Hand hygiene auditing is mandatory for all Malaysian public hospitals; nonetheless, the burden of auditing is impacting the support and sustainability of the program. We report an alternative method to routinely measure hand hygiene compliance with the aim to test whether alcohol-based handrub purchase data could be used as a proxy for usage because human auditing has decreased validity and reliability inherent in the methodology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization*
  2. Hassali MA, Al-Tamimi SK, Dawood OT
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2016 07 14;13(1):261-265.
    PMID: 27496382 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.06.011
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization/standards*
  3. Al-lela OQ, Bahari MB, Al-abbassi MG, Salih MR, Basher AY
    Vaccine, 2012 Jun 6;30(26):3862-6.
    PMID: 22521848 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.04.014
    The immunization status of children is improved by interventions that increase community demand for compulsory and non-compulsory vaccines, one of the most important interventions related to immunization providers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activities of immunization providers in terms of activities time and cost, to calculate the immunization doses cost, and to determine the immunization dose errors cost. Time-motion and cost analysis study design was used. Five public health clinics in Mosul-Iraq participated in the study. Fifty (50) vaccine doses were required to estimate activities time and cost. Micro-costing method was used; time and cost data were collected for each immunization-related activity performed by the clinic staff. A stopwatch was used to measure the duration of activity interactions between the parents and clinic staff. The immunization service cost was calculated by multiplying the average salary/min by activity time per minute. 528 immunization cards of Iraqi children were scanned to determine the number and the cost of immunization doses errors (extraimmunization doses and invalid doses). The average time for child registration was 6.7 min per each immunization dose, and the physician spent more than 10 min per dose. Nurses needed more than 5 min to complete child vaccination. The total cost of immunization activities was 1.67 US$ per each immunization dose. Measles vaccine (fifth dose) has a lower price (0.42 US$) than all other immunization doses. The cost of a total of 288 invalid doses was 744.55 US$ and the cost of a total of 195 extra immunization doses was 503.85 US$. The time spent on physicians' activities was longer than that spent on registrars' and nurses' activities. Physician total cost was higher than registrar cost and nurse cost. The total immunization cost will increase by about 13.3% owing to dose errors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization/economics*; Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data*
  4. Oh AL, Hassali MA, Al-Haddad MS, Syed Sulaiman SA, Shafie AA, Awaisu A
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2011 May;5(5):338-47.
    PMID: 21628809
    INTRODUCTION: Public knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotics play a vital role in the success of the treatment process. This study aimed to assess public knowledge and attitudes toward antibiotic usage which could serve as baseline data for future studies within a government hospital setting in Malaysia.
    METHODOLOGY: A self-administered cross-sectional survey involving 408 respondents was conducted using a validated questionnaire at an outpatient pharmacy department in Penang Hospital, Malaysia, from February to March 2009.
    RESULTS: Nearly 55% of the respondents had a moderate level of knowledge. Three quarters of the respondents (76.7%) could correctly identify that antibiotics are indicated for the treatment of bacterial infections. However, 67.2% incorrectly thought that antibiotics are also used to treat viral infections. About 59.1% of the respondents were aware of antibiotic resistance phenomena in relation to overuse of antibiotics. With regard to attitudes, 38% believed that taking antibiotics when having cold symptoms could help them to recover faster, while 47.3% expected antibiotics to be prescribed for common cold symptoms. Age, race and educational level were among the demographic characteristics significantly associated with knowledge and attitudes toward antibiotic use. Poor level of knowledge was found in less than one-third of the respondents whereas more than one-third of the respondents wrongly self-medicate themselves with antibiotics once they have a cold.
    CONCLUSION: Educational interventions are needed to promote prudent use of antibiotics among the public.
    Study site: outpatient pharmacy, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization/standards*; Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data*
  5. Lee SW, Chong CS, Chong DW
    Int. J. Clin. Pract., 2016 Jun;70(6):512.
    PMID: 27238965 DOI: 10.1111/ijcp.12826
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data*
  6. Hatah E, Braund R, Tordoff J, Duffull SB
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2014 Jan;77(1):102-15.
    PMID: 23594037 DOI: 10.1111/bcp.12140
    The aim was to examine the impact of fee-for-service pharmacist-led medication review on patient outcomes and quantify this according to the type of review undertaken, e.g. adherence support and clinical medication review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization Review/statistics & numerical data*
  7. Loh LC, Wong PS
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2005 Mar;23(1):7-17.
    PMID: 15997869
    A self-answered, anonymously completed questionnaire survey was performed between June 2002 and May 2003 where doctors from government and private sectors in Malaysia were invited to participate by post or during medical meetings. One hundred and sixteen government doctors and 110 private doctors provided satisfactorily completed questionnaires (effective respondent rate: 30.1%). The most preferred medications for 'first-line', 'second-line' and 'third-line' treatment were for government doctors: inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist (SABA) (98%), inhaled corticosteroids (CS) (75%), and leukotriene antagonist (52%); and for private doctors: oral SABA (81%), inhaled CS (68%), and oral CS (58%). The first choice inhaler device for most government and private doctors were metered dose inhalers, with cost and personal preferences (for private doctors), and technical ability (for government doctors) as the key considerations when deciding on the choice of device. This benchmark data on the asthma prescribing practices of a healthcare delivery system fully dichotomized into government and private sector, provides evidence for practice differences affected by the nature of the healthcare system, and might have implications on healthcare systems of other countries that share similarities with that of Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data
  8. Hughes AJ, Ariffin N, Huat TL, Abdul Molok H, Hashim S, Sarijo J, et al.
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2005 Jan;26(1):100-4.
    PMID: 15693416
    Most reports of nosocomial infection (NI) prevalence have come from developed countries with established infection control programs. In developing countries, infection control is often not as well established due to lack of staff and resources. We examined the rate of NI in our institution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization Review/statistics & numerical data*
  9. Zaidi ST, Hassan Y, Postma MJ, Ng SH
    Pharm World Sci, 2003 Dec;25(6):299-302.
    PMID: 14689820
    To analyse clinical pharmacists interventions in the ICU of the Penang General Hospital (Penang, Malaysia) and to assess the pharmaco-economic impact of these interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization Review/economics*
  10. Oei PL, Ratnam SS
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 1998 May;38(2):141-4.
    PMID: 9653846
    The sales data of oestrogen replacement products for 8 developing countries from 1993 to 1995 were analyzed. The data from Malaysia, Pakistan, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines and South Korea showed the increasing use of oestrogen replacement products. The total usage however varied widely, from only US$11,153 (Philippines in 1993) to as much as US$6,306,717 (Taiwan in 1995). In Singapore, where oestrogen replacement is an accepted and established form of therapy for the postmenopausal woman, there has been an increase in the usage of the nonoestrogen replacement products. There are multiple reasons for the increasing sales of hormone replacement products in the developing countries and these are explored in this article. In some of the developing countries, for example China and India, hormone replacement therapy has just been introduced. However, in those developing countries in which hormone replacement therapy is already available, sales figures show increasing usage. The future augurs well for hormone replacement therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization/trends
  11. Lee D, Balasubramaniam K, Ali HM
    WHO Reg Publ Eur Ser, 1993;45:193-218.
    PMID: 8442847
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data*
  12. Sarojini S, Faridah A, Lim CM, Sameerah SA, Lim TO, Lai LS, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Aug;63(3):203-6.
    PMID: 19248690 MyJurnal
    The National Medicines Use Survey (NMUS) which started in 2004 and is still ongoing was conducted with the intent to continuously and systematically collect data on the use of medicines, to provide an overview on the use of medicines in Malaysia. The objective of the NMUS is therefore to quantify the present state and time trends of medicines utilization at various levels of our health care system whether national, regional, local or institutional. From the data available, for the Year 2005, the most commonly used medicine in Malaysia were anti-diabetic medications, of which glibenclamide is the most common followed by metformin, were the top 2 of the list of drugs utilized in DDD/1000 population/day. Collectively, however, taking into account the various antihypertensives by therapeutic groups, anti-hypertensive medicines were more commonly used than anti-diabetics. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are the two most prevalent chronic disorders in the country and thus, such high medicines utilization rates for these conditions are to be expected. From the general practice prescription data, it was estimated that a patient with hypertension was prescribed a median of only one (1) anti-hypertensive medication. This means, the vast majority of patients (81%) were on monotherapy, which is hardly sufficient to achieve treatment target. Clearly then, given the prevalence of hypertension, many patients were not on drug treatment at all, and of those treated, their drug treatment are likely to be inadequate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data*
  13. Ansari M, Humagain B, Hassali MA
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2017 02 01;13(3):658-659.
    PMID: 28162993 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.01.004
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data*
  14. Lim CJ, Stuart RL, Kong DC
    Aust Fam Physician, 2015 Apr;44(4):192-6.
    PMID: 25901402
    BACKGROUND: High infection burden among the residential aged care facility (RACF) population has long been recognised; however, existing infection prevention effort is often limited to infection surveillance activity. There is a scarcity of evidence to guide antimicrobial stewardship in the Australian RACF setting.
    OBJECTIVE: This review summarises the current trends in antibiotic use and multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms, challenges related to antibiotic prescribing and areas of suboptimal antibiotic prescribing for further improvement, particularly in the Australian RACF setting.
    DISCUSSION: There is widespread antibiotic prescribing in RACF, which may lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Accordingly, there is an immediate need for judicious antibiotic use in this high-risk population to curb the rapid emergence of MDR organisms and other adverse consequences associated with inappropriate antibiotic use, as well as to reduce healthcare costs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization Review*
  15. Chen LL, Tangiisuran B, Shafie AA, Hassali MA
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2012 Aug;34(4):596-603.
    PMID: 22622593 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-012-9651-1
    BACKGROUND: There is an increasing evidence of medicines related issues such as inappropriate prescribing among older people. Inappropriate prescribing is an important risk factor for adverse drug reactions and hospitalizations in the older people.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess and characterize the prevalence of Potentially Inappropriate Medications (PIMs) in nursing home care in Malaysia as defined by Screening Tool of Older Peoples Prescriptions (STOPP) and Beers criteria.

    SETTING: Four Nursing Homes situated in Penang, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A multicenter and cross-sectional study was conducted over 2 months period at four large non-governmental organizations nursing homes in Penang, Malaysia. The study population included older residents (≥65 years old) taking at least one medication. Residents who had been diagnosed with dementia or taking anti dementia drugs, delirium, too frail or refused to give consent were excluded. Demographic, clinical data and concurrent medications were collected through direct interview and also by reviewing medical records. STOPP and Beers criteria were applied in the medical review to screen for PIMs.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Potentially Inappropriate Medication using STOPP and Beers criteria.

    RESULTS: Two hundred eleven residents were included in the study with the median age of 77 (inter quartile range (IQR) 72-82) years. Median number of prescription medicines was 4 (IQR 1-14). STOPP identified less residents (50 residents, 23.7 %) being prescribed on PIMs compared with Beers criteria (69 residents, 32.7 %) (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the number of residents with PIMs detected by STOPP (23.7 %) and by Beers criteria (32.7 %), p < 0.001. The common identified PIMs by Beers criteria included nifedipine short acting, chlorpheniramine and diphenhydramine. The STOPP identified first generation antihistamines, duplication of drug classes, glibenclamide and anticholinergic agents. Higher number of medications (OR = 1.405 [1.193-1.654]; OR = 1.447 [1.215-1.723]) and longer stay at nursing home (OR = 1.132 [1.045-1.226]; OR = 1.133 [1.034-1.241]) were identified as predictors for both Beers and STOPP PIMs.

    CONCLUSION: Potentially inappropriate medications are highly prevalent among older residents living in the nursing homes and are associated with number of medications and longer nursing home stay. Further research is warranted to study the impact of PIMs towards health related outcomes in these elderly.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data*
  16. Abdul Aziz AM, Manan MM, Bahri S, Md Yusof FA, Kamarruddin Z, Said S, et al.
    ISBN: 978-967-5570-45-2
    Citation: Abdul Aziz AM, et al. Drug Utilization in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus in the Ministry of Health Facilities. Petaling Jaya: Pharmaceutical Services Division, Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2013

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a costly disease to manage because of its chronic nature and severity of complications. Treatment of DM incurred high healthcare cost in both developed and developing countries. In Malaysia, treatment of DM is provided by all Ministry of Health (MOH) healthcare facilities and treatment may vary according to types of facilities. These differences may be associated with the utilization pattern and patient’s adherence to therapy and it is important to link actual medication therapy and the direct medical cost in the management of Malaysian DM patients. Thus, this study is to describe the utilization of medications in the treatment of DM in the MOH healthcare facilities and DM patient’s adherence towards their medication. This is a cross-sectional study in 94 MOH health facilities from November 2010 to December 2011. The healthcare facilities were categorized as National Referral Hospital, State Hospitals, Hospitals with Specialist, Hospitals without Specialist and Health Clinics. Patients were selected by the method of systematic random sampling and screened based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Face-to-face interview and retrospective data retrieval of patients’ medical record were conducted. The questionnaire and Morisky’s four questions adherence scale were utilized during the interview. A total of 2,509 (88.2%) patients were included in the study. The findings showed that variables for age, gender, race, marital status, household income, and occupation were essential components in examining its impact towards DM care. Most of the patients were between 45 to 55 years old and were burdened with co-morbidities. The observed trend in disease status showed that DM is closely related to co-morbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and hyperlipidaemia; more commonly in patients with more than 5 disease years. A total of 14.6% of DM patients have yet to be initiated with insulin while 84% and 78.9% of patients had poor control of HbA1c and fasting blood glucose. In terms of drug utilization and medication cost, there was no significant difference in the pattern of medication used for the first-line treatment of DM among type of facilities. Biguanides, sulphonamides, urea derivatives, and insulin are the top three DM medications. Insulin usage ranges from 25.6% at Hospitals without Specialist to 57.8% at State Hospitals and this corresponds to 2.5 to 7.0 times increment from National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) III. Use of non-antidiabetic agents (ADA) corresponds with the top 10 co-morbidities. These include platelet aggregating inhibitors, ACE-inhibitors and statins. The pattern of treatment for co-morbidities showed significant differences among facilities and may be due to the degree of severity of DM patients. Also, the policies of categorizing A*/A/KK has led to these medications being less commonly prescribed in Hospitals without Specialist and Health Clinics. Adherence is an issue that DM patients need to improve. This study found that race, household income, and age were significant indicators for poor adherence. The odds ratio (OR) for age showed it contributed to almost one time lower in adherence. The OR for inter-racial differences found that both Chinese and Indian patients were about 0.7 times more likely to be non-adherence than Malays. Household income of less than RM1,000 per month similarly showed a 0.8 times less adherence compared to households earning between RM1,000 to RM3,000 per month.  Pharmacists had been giving counselling to patients and the personalized approach by pharmacist had shown positive impact on Diabetic Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (DMTAC) patients. The study findings, however, showed no improvement in adherence between those who attended DMTAC and those who have not. These findings might not be generalizable since most facilities had a very small percentage of DM patients and they are usually the problematic or difficult patients; this could have led to the rather uneventful findings. Finally, this study showed that there is no significant difference in the utilization of medication among health facilities in the treatment of DM. Adherence is still an area of concern and collaboration between healthcare professionals is vital for better treatment outcome. 
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization
  17. Segasothy M
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Dec;38(4):282-8.
    PMID: 6599983
    A survey was conducted on three different groups of population viz. inpatients in the medical wards of General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, the people of Kampong Pandan and two rubber estates as to their analgesic consuming habits. It is found that 0.5 to 2.0% of the people surveyed had consumed more than 2 kg of analgesics and 4.6 to 9.6% of the people surveyed had consumed more than 250g of analgesics. The commonest analgesic consumed is paracetamol followed by Chap Kaki Tiga and Chap Harimau. The commonest reason for consuming analgesic is headache. The implications of the above findings are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization
  18. Lim MK, Lai PSM, Ponnampalavanar SS, Syed Omar SF, Taib NA, Yusof MY, et al.
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2015 Nov 30;9(11):1264-71.
    PMID: 26623636 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.6731
    INTRODUCTION: Studies exploring the appropriateness of therapeutic antibiotic use among surgical patients are limited, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the appropriateness of antibiotics prescribed in a surgical setting in Malaysia.
    METHODOLOGY: A prospective observational study was conducted in two surgical wards at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from November 2012-July 2013. Data was collected using a case report form. The appropriateness of antibiotic therapy was based on compliance with either the Malaysian National Antibiotic Guidelines 2008 or International Clinical Practice Guidelines and determined by an expert panel (consisting of two infectious disease consultants and a pharmacist).
    RESULTS: Over the study period, a total of 593 antibiotic courses were prescribed for 129 patients (4.6±3.4 antibiotics/patient). Only 34 (26.4%) patients received appropriate antibiotic therapy, whilst 95 (73.6%) patients received at least one course of inappropriate antibiotic therapy. The prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic use was 214 (66.3%) and 55 (42.0%) for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes, respectively. The most common causes of inappropriate prophylactic antibiotics were inappropriate timing 20 (36.4%) and inappropriate duration of prophylaxis 19 (34.5%). In cases of inappropriate timing, 9 (45%) were administered too late while 6 (30%) were too early. In contrast, inappropriate choice of antibiotics (42.1%) and inappropriate indication (40.7%) were the most common reasons encountered for inappropriate therapeutic antibiotics.
    CONCLUSION: Our study suggests considerable inappropriate use of both prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotics in the surgical wards; highlighting an urgent need for antibiotic stewardship initiatives in this setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization/standards*
  19. Fatokun O
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2014 Jun;36(3):564-9.
    PMID: 24700341 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-014-9937-6
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, antibacterial agents are among the most utilized drugs. There has been an increase in their use in recent years, contributing to an increase of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

    OBJECTIVES: This study explores the pattern of antibiotic use and practices in a Malaysian community and identifies the variables associated with a likelihood of non-compliance with a course of antibiotic treatment.

    SETTING: The study was conducted in Cheras, a community located to the south-east of Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 250 individuals, using an interviewer-administered questionnaire in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of antibiotic use, sources of antibiotics, use of antibiotics without prescription, discontinuation of antibiotic treatment, antibiotic resistance awareness, handling of unused antibiotics, and association between respondents characteristics and compliance with a course of antibiotic treatment.

    RESULTS: Approximately 36 % of the participants (n = 91) had taken antibiotics in the year of the study. The majority (66.8 %) obtained antibiotics from clinics. Almost 80 % of the participants had never obtained antibiotics without a doctor's prescription. Nearly 55 % discontinued the course of antibiotics once symptoms disappeared. The most common method of disposing leftover antibiotics was throwing them into the household rubbish bin (78.8 %). Only 6.4 % of participants returned leftover antibiotics to the pharmacist or doctor. Univariate analysis revealed that male gender (p = 0.04), lack of knowledge of antibiotic functions (p < 0.0001), and lack of awareness of antibiotic resistance (p < 0.0001) were all significantly associated with a greater likelihood of non-compliance with a full course of prescribed antibiotic treatment.

    CONCLUSION: Most individuals in the Malaysian community obtained antibiotics through prescription. Non-completion of a course of antibiotic treatment and improper disposal of unused antibiotics need to be addressed to prevent AMR. Male gender, lack of knowledge and awareness of antibiotics and resistance were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of non-compliance with a full course of prescribed antibiotic treatment. Therefore, patient education and counselling about antibiotics and antibacterial resistance is very important to enhance compliance to antibiotic therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data*
  20. Zaman Huri H, Hui Xin C, Sulaiman CZ
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(1):e86215.
    PMID: 24475089 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086215
    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) patients are at risk of acquiring drug-related problems (DRPs), as it is present in the majority of aging men. To date, DRPs among BPH patients have not been well studied. We conducted this retrospective study in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from January 2009 to June 2012 with the aim of identifying the factors associated with DRPs among BPH patients. The Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Classification Version (PCNE) 5.01 was used as a tool to classify DRPs. We enrolled 203 patients from 259 hospital admissions. A total of 390 DRPs were found and there was an average of 1.5±1.3 problems per hospitalization. 76.1% of hospital admissions included at least one DRP. The most common DRP categories encountered were drug choice problems (45.9%), drug interactions (24.9%), and dosing problems (13.3%). Factors such as advanced age (p = 0.005), a hospital stay of more than 6 days (p = 0.001), polydrug treatments (p<0.001), multiple comorbidities (p<0.001), and comorbid cardiovascular disease (p = 0.011), diabetes mellitus(p = 0.001), hypertension (p<0.001) and renal impairment (p = 0.011) were significantly associated with the occurrence of DRPs. These data indicated that the prevalence of DRPs is high among BPH patients. The identification of different subtypes of DRPs and the factors associated with DRPs may facilitate risk reduction for BPH patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Utilization Review/statistics & numerical data*
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