Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Singh N, Banerjee T, Murari V, Deboudt K, Khan MF, Singh RS, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 Jan;263:128030.
    PMID: 33297051 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128030
    Size-segregated airborne fine (PM2.1) and coarse (PM>2.1) particulates were measured in an urban environment over central Indo-Gangetic plain in between 2015 and 2018 to get insights into its nature, chemistry and sources. Mean (±1σ) concentration of PM2.1 was 98 (±76) μgm-3 with a seasonal high during winter (DJF, 162 ± 71 μgm-3) compared to pre-monsoon specific high in PM>2.1 (MAMJ, 177 ± 84 μgm-3) with an annual mean of 170 (±69) μgm-3. PM2.1 was secondary in nature with abundant secondary inorganic aerosols (20% of particulate mass) and water-soluble organic carbon (19%) against metal enriched (25%) PM>2.1, having robust signature of resuspensions from Earth's crust and road dust. Ammonium-based neutralization of particulate acidity was essentially in PM2.1 with an indication of predominant H2SO4 neutralization in bisulfate form compared to Ca2+ and Mg2+-based neutralization in PM>2.1. Molecular distribution of n-alkanes homologues (C17-C35) showed Cmax at C23 (PM2.1) and C18 (PM>2.1) with weak dominance of odd-numbered n-alkanes. Carbon preference index of n-alkanes was close to unity (PM2.1: 1.4 ± 0.3; PM>2.1: 1.3 ± 0.4). Fatty acids (C12-C26) were characterized with predominance of even carbon with Cmax at n-hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Low to high molecular weight fatty acid ratio ranged from 2.0 (PM>2.1) to 5.6 (PM2.1) with vital signature of anthropogenic emissions. Levoglucosan was abundant in PM2.1 (758 ± 481 ngm-3) with a high ratio (11.6) against galactosan, emphasizing robust contribution from burning of hardwood and agricultural residues. Receptor model resolves secondary aerosols and biomass burning emissions (45%) as the most influential sources of PM2.1 whereas, crustal (29%) and secondary aerosols (29%) were found responsible for PM>2.1; with significant variations among the seasons.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
  2. Othman M, Latif MT
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Apr;27(10):11227-11245.
    PMID: 31956949 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-07633-7
    Urban road dust contains anthropogenic components at toxic concentrations which can be hazardous to human health. A total of 36 road dust samples from five different urban areas, a commercial (CM), a high traffic (HT), a park (GR), a rail station (LRT), and a residential area (RD), were collected in Kuala Lumpur City followed by investigation into compositions, sources, and human health risks. The concentrations of trace metals in road dust and the bioaccessible fraction were determined using inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) while ion concentrations were determined using ion chromatography (IC). The trace metal concentrations were dominated by Fe and Al with contributions of 53% and 21% to the total trace metal and ion concentrations in road dust. Another dominant metal was Zn while the dominant ion was Ca2+ with average concentrations of 314 ± 190 μg g-1 and 3470 ± 1693 μg g-1, respectively. The most bioaccessible fraction was Zn followed by the sequence Sr > Cd > Cr > Cu > Ni > Co > Mn > As > V > Pb > Fe > Al > U. The results revealed that the highest trace metal and ion concentrations in road dust and in the bioaccessible fraction were found at the LRT area. Based on the source apportionment analysis, the major source of road dust was vehicle emissions/traffic activity (47%), and for the bioaccessible fraction, the major source was soil dust (50%). For the health risk assessments, hazard quotient (HQ) and cancer risk (CR) values for each element were
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis*
  3. Fu X, Norbäck D, Yuan Q, Li Y, Zhu X, Hashim JH, et al.
    Environ Int, 2020 05;138:105664.
    PMID: 32200316 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105664
    Indoor microbial diversity and composition are suggested to affect the prevalence and severity of asthma by previous home microbiome studies, but no microbiome-health association study has been conducted in a school environment, especially in tropical countries. In this study, we collected floor dust and environmental characteristics from 21 classrooms, and health data related to asthma symptoms from 309 students, in junior high schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The bacterial and fungal composition was characterized by sequencing 16s rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and the absolute microbial concentration was quantified by qPCR. In total, 326 bacterial and 255 fungal genera were characterized. Five bacterial (Sphingobium, Rhodomicrobium, Shimwellia, Solirubrobacter, Pleurocapsa) and two fungal (Torulaspora and Leptosphaeriaceae) taxa were protective for asthma severity. Two bacterial taxa, Izhakiella and Robinsoniella, were positively associated with asthma severity. Several protective bacterial taxa including Rhodomicrobium, Shimwellia and Sphingobium have been reported as protective microbes in previous studies, whereas other taxa were first time reported. Environmental characteristics, such as age of building, size of textile curtain per room volume, occurrence of cockroaches, concentration of house dust mite allergens transferred from homes by the occupants, were involved in shaping the overall microbial community but not asthma-associated taxa; whereas visible dampness and mold, which did not change the overall microbial community for floor dust, was negatively associated with the concentration of protective bacteria Rhodomicrobium (β = -2.86, p = 0.021) of asthma. The result indicates complex interactions between microbes, environmental characteristics and asthma symptoms. Overall, this is the first indoor microbiome study to characterize the asthma-associated microbes and their environmental determinant in the tropical area, promoting the understanding of microbial exposure and respiratory health in this region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
  4. Fu X, Yuan Q, Zhu X, Li Y, Meng Y, Hashim JH, et al.
    Environ Sci Process Impacts, 2021 Aug 01;23(8):1171-1181.
    PMID: 34278392 DOI: 10.1039/d1em00115a
    Pathogens are commonly present in the human respiratory tract, but symptoms are varied among individuals. The interactions between pathogens, commensal microorganisms and host immune systems are important in shaping the susceptibility, development and severity of respiratory diseases. Compared to the extensive studies on the human microbiota, few studies reported the association between indoor microbiome exposure and respiratory infections. In this study, 308 students from 21 classrooms were randomly selected to survey the occurrence of respiratory infections in junior high schools of Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Vacuum dust was collected from the floor, chairs and desks of these classrooms, and high-throughput amplicon sequencing (16S rRNA and ITS) and quantitative PCR were conducted to characterize the absolute concentration of the indoor microorganisms. Fifteen bacterial genera in the classes Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were protectively associated with respiratory infections (p < 0.01), and these bacteria were mainly derived from the outdoor environment. Previous studies also reported that outdoor environmental bacteria were protectively associated with chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma, but the genera identified were different between acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Four fungal genera from Ascomycota, including Devriesia, Endocarpon, Sarcinomyces and an unclassified genus from Herpotrichillaceae, were protectively associated with respiratory infections (p < 0.01). House dust mite (HDM) allergens and outdoor NO2 concentration were associated with respiratory infections and infection-related microorganisms. A causal mediation analysis revealed that the health effects of HDM and NO2 were partially or fully mediated by the indoor microorganisms. This is the first study to explore the association between environmental characteristics, microbiome exposure and respiratory infections in a public indoor environment, expanding our understanding of the complex interactions among these factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
  5. Alahmad B, Al-Hemoud A, Kang CM, Almarri F, Kommula V, Wolfson JM, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Aug 01;282:117016.
    PMID: 33848912 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117016
    BACKGROUND: Kuwait and the Gulf region have a desert, hyper-arid and hot climate that makes outdoor air sampling challenging. The region is also affected by intense dust storms. Monitoring challenges from the harsh climate have limited data needed to inform appropriate regulatory actions to address air pollution in the region.

    OBJECTIVES: To compare gravimetric measurements with existing networks that rely on beta-attenuation measurements in a desert climate; determine the annual levels of PM2.5 and PM10 over a two-year period in Kuwait; assess compliance with air quality standards; and identify and quantify PM2.5 sources.

    METHODS: We custom-designed particle samplers that can withstand large quantities of dust without their inlet becoming overloaded. The samplers were placed in two populated residential locations, one in Kuwait City and another near industrial and petrochemical facilities in Ali Sabah Al-Salem (ASAS) to collect PM2.5 and PM10 samples for mass and elemental analysis. We used positive matrix factorization to identify PM2.5 sources and apportion their contributions.

    RESULTS: We collected 2339 samples during the period October 2017 through October 2019. The beta-attenuation method in measuring PM2.5 consistently exceeded gravimetric measurements, especially during dust events. The annual levels for PM2.5 in Kuwait City and ASAS were 41.6 ± 29.0 and 47.5 ± 27.6 μg/m3, respectively. Annual PM2.5 levels in Kuwait were nearly four times higher than the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Regional pollution was a major contributor to PM2.5 levels in both locations accounting for 44% in Kuwait City and 46% in ASAS. Dust storms and re-suspended road dust were the second and third largest contributors to PM2.5, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The premise that frequent and extreme dust storms make air quality regulation futile is dubious. In this comprehensive particulate pollution analysis, we show that the sizeable regional anthropogenic particulate sources warrant national and regional mitigation strategies to ensure compliance with air quality standards.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
  6. Latif MT, Ngah SA, Dominick D, Razak IS, Guo X, Srithawirat T, et al.
    J Environ Sci (China), 2015 Jul 1;33:143-55.
    PMID: 26141887 DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2015.02.002
    The aim of this study was to determine the source apportionment of dust fall around Lake Chini, Malaysia. Samples were collected monthly between December 2012 and March 2013 at seven sampling stations located around Lake Chini. The samples were filtered to separate the dissolved and undissolved solids. The ionic compositions (NO3-, SO4(2-), Cl- and NH4+) were determined using ion chromatography (IC) while major elements (K, Na, Ca and Mg) and trace metals (Zn, Fe, Al, Ni, Mn, Cr, Pb and Cd) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that the average concentration of total solids around Lake Chini was 93.49±16.16 mg/(m2·day). SO4(2-), Na and Zn dominated the dissolved portion of the dust fall. The enrichment factors (EF) revealed that the source of the trace metals and major elements in the rain water was anthropogenic, except for Fe. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified the seven monitoring stations and 16 variables into five groups and three groups respectively. A coupled receptor model, principal component analysis multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR), revealed that the sources of dust fall in Lake Chini were dominated by agricultural and biomass burning (42%), followed by the earth's crust (28%), sea spray (16%) and a mixture of soil dust and vehicle emissions (14%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis*
  7. Nakao A, Tomita M, Wagai R, Tanaka R, Yanai J, Kosaki T
    J Environ Radioact, 2019 Aug;204:86-94.
    PMID: 30986719 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2019.03.028
    Radiocesium (RCs) is selectively adsorbed on interlayer sites of weathered micaceous minerals, which can reduce the mobility of RCs in soil. Therefore, soils developed from mica-deficient materials (e.g. serpentine soils) may have a higher risk of soil-to-plant transfer of RCs. Soils were collected from three serpentine soil profiles; Udepts in Oeyama, Japan, and Udepts and Udox in Kinabalu, Malaysia. Soil was sampled every 3 cm from 0 to 30 cm depth and sieved to isolate soil particles of ≤20 μm diameter for the assessment of radiocesium interception potential (RIP) after a series of pretreatments. One subset was treated with H2O2 to remove organic matter (OM). Another subset was further treated with hot sodium citrate to remove hydroxy-Al polymers (Al(OH)x). RIPuntreated was <0.4 mol kg-1 whereas mica-K content was <0.02% by weight for ≤20-μm soil particles from Udepts and Udox in Kinabalu, Malaysia, values as low as those of non-micaceous minerals (e.g. kaolinite and smectite). Neither OM nor Al(OH)x removal resulted in a large increase in RIP value for these soils. These results clearly indicated that serpentine soils in Malaysia have very few RCs selective adsorption sites due to the absence of micaceous minerals. In contrast, soil from Udepts in Oeyama, Japan showed average RIPuntreated of 5.6 mol kg-1 and mica-K content of 0.72% by weight for the ≤20-μm particles. Furthermore, the RIP value was significantly increased to an average of 22.5 mol kg-1 after removing both OM and Al(OH)x. These results strongly suggest that weathered micaceous minerals primarily control the ability to retain RCs. These micaceous minerals cannot originate from serpentine minerals, and are probably incorporated as an exotic material, such as Asian dust. This hypothesis is supported by the δ18O value of quartz isolated from the ≤20-μm soil particles from Oeyama, Japan (+16.13‰±0.11‰), very similar to that of Asian dust. In conclusion, serpentine soils in Japan may exhibit a reduced risk of soil-to-plant transfer of RCs due to the historical deposition of Asian dust.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis*
  8. Mohamad N, Latif MT, Khan MF
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2016 Feb;124:351-362.
    PMID: 26590697 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.11.002
    This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and potential sources of PM10 as well as assess the potential health hazards it posed to school children. PM10 samples were taken from classrooms at a school in Kuala Lumpur's city centre (S1) and one in the suburban city of Putrajaya (S2) over a period of eight hours using a low volume sampler (LVS). The composition of the major ions and trace metals in PM10 were then analysed using ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. The results showed that the average PM10 concentration inside the classroom at the city centre school (82µg/m(3)) was higher than that from the suburban school (77µg/m(3)). Principal component analysis-absolute principal component scores (PCA-APCS) revealed that road dust was the major source of indoor PM10 at both school in the city centre (36%) and the suburban location (55%). The total hazard quotient (HQ) calculated, based on the formula suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), was found to be slightly higher than the acceptable level of 1, indicating that inhalation exposure to particle-bound non-carcinogenic metals of PM10, particularly Cr exposure by children and adults occupying the school environment, was far from negligible.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
  9. Razak IS, Latif MT, Jaafar SA, Khan MF, Mushrifah I
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Apr;22(8):6024-33.
    PMID: 25382497 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-3781-z
    This study was conducted to determine the composition of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols and rainwater in the vicinity of Lake Chini, Malaysia. Samples of atmospheric aerosol and rainwater were collected between March and September 2011 using a high volume air sampler (HVAS) and glass bottles equipped with funnel. Colorimetric analysis was undertaken to determine the concentration of anionic surfactants as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and cationic surfactants as disulphine blue active substances (DBAS). The water-soluble ionic compositions were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for cations (Na, K, Mg and Ca) and ion chromatography equipped with a conductivity detector for anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3(-), and SO4(2-)) and the Nessler Method was used to obtain the NH4(+) concentrations. The source apportionment of MBAS and DBAS in atmospheric aerosols was identified using a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR). The results revealed that the concentrations of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols and rainwater were dominated by anionic surfactants as MBAS. The concentration of surfactants as MBAS and DBAS was dominated in fine mode compared to coarse mode aerosols. Using PCA/MLR analysis, two major sources of atmospheric surfactants to Lake Chini were identified as soil dust (75 to 93%) and biomass burning (2 to 22%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
  10. Hameed BH, El-Khaiary MI
    J Hazard Mater, 2008 Nov 30;159(2-3):574-9.
    PMID: 18387735 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.02.054
    In this work, the adsorption of malachite green (MG) on rattan sawdust (RSD) was studied at 30 degrees C. The results indicated that RSD can be used as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG dye from aqueous solutions. Equilibrium data were analyzed by two isotherms, namely the Freundlich isotherm and the Langmuir isotherm. The best fit to the data was obtained with the Langmuir isotherm. The monolayer adsorption capacity of RSD was found to be 62.71 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics can be predicted by the pseudo-first-order model. The mechanism of adsorption was also studied. It was found that for a short time period the rate of adsorption is controlled by film diffusion. However, at longer adsorption times, pore-diffusion controls the rate of adsorption. The amount adsorbed on the outer surface was estimated from the time where film-diffusion stops controlling the adsorption rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
  11. Omar M, Sulaiman I, Hassan A, Wood AK
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry, 2007;124(4):400-6.
    PMID: 17510205
    Measurements of external radiation level, radon/thoron daughters concentrations in air and uranium/thorium concentrations in airborne mineral dust at 16 amang plants in Malaysia were carried out for three consecutive months to assess radiation dose to workers. Estimated occupational dose was within the range of 1.7-10.9 mSv y(-1). The mean total dose at the amang plants was 4.1 mSv y(-1). Overall, it was found that the major dose contribution of 80% came from external radiation. Radon/thoron daughters and airborne mineral dust contributed to only 11 and 9% of the total dose, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
  12. Mariana A, Ho TM, Sofian-Azirun M, Wong AL
    PMID: 11414418
    Allergy to house dust mites (HDM) is an important cause of asthma and rhinitis in Malaysia. This study was carried out to evaluate the dust mite fauna in the Klang Valley. Dust samples were collected from 20 houses from March 1994 to February 1995. Thirty-three dust samples from mattresses were examined monthly for the occurrence of HDM. A total of 22 species in 9 families of HDM was identified. The most common and densely populated species was Blomia tropicalis with an average density of 8,934 mites/g of dust. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the next in abundance, followed by Malayoglyphus intermedius. All houses surveyed were found to be infested with HDM and every house had at least 6 species of HDM. B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus were found in all mattresses. HDM in the Klang Valley were found to be highly prevalent and present in high densities. In this study, counts of D. pteronyssinus was found to exceed the proposed exposure threshold of 500 mites/g dust, for triggering acute asthma. Although counts of B. tropicalis exceeded D. pteronyssinus, no conclusion could be made because there is currently no exposure threshold for triggering acute asthma, for this species. Monthly distribution of B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus showed 2 peaks and 4 peaks, respectively. The major peak for D. pteronysinus was in January 1995 whereas for B. tropicalis, the major peak was more variable and occurred between November 1994 to January 1995. Both the species showed minor peak in April 1994.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis*
  13. Cui J, Zhou F, Gao M, Zhang L, Zhang L, Du K, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2018 Oct;241:810-820.
    PMID: 29909307 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.06.028
    Six different approaches are applied in the present study to apportion the sources of precipitation nitrogen making use of precipitation data of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, including NO3- and NH4+), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and δ15N signatures of DIN collected at six sampling sites in the mountain region of Southwest China. These approaches include one quantitative approach running a Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR model) and five qualitative approaches based on in-situ survey (ISS), ratio of NH4+/NO3- (RN), principal component analysis (PCA), canonical-correlation analysis (CCA) and stable isotope approach (SIA). Biomass burning, coal combustion and mobile exhausts in the mountain region are identified as major sources for precipitation DIN while biomass burning and volatilization sources such as animal husbandries are major ones for DON. SIAR model results suggest that mobile exhausts, biomass burning and coal combustion contributed 25.1 ± 14.0%, 26.0 ± 14.1% and 27.0 ± 12.6%, respectively, to NO3- on the regional scale. Higher contributions of both biomass burning and coal combustion appeared at rural and urban sites with a significant difference between Houba (rural) and the wetland site (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
  14. Shaharom S, Latif MT, Khan MF, Yusof SNM, Sulong NA, Wahid NBA, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Sep;25(27):27074-27089.
    PMID: 30019134 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-2745-0
    This study aims to determine the concentrations of surfactants in the surface microlayer (SML), subsurface water (SSW) and fine mode aerosol (diameter size dust (23%) and sulphate/fresh sea salt (8%). During the southwest monsoon, the three main sources of atmospheric aerosol were biomass burning (71%), secondary inorganic aerosol (23%) and sea spray (6%). This study suggests anthropogenic sources are main contributors to the concentrations of surfactants in SML, SSW and fine aerosols.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
  15. Othman M, Latif MT, Mohamed AF
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2018 Feb;148:293-302.
    PMID: 29080527 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.10.034
    This study intends to determine the health impacts from two office life cycles (St.1 and St.2) using life cycle assessment (LCA) and health risk assessment of indoor metals in coarse particulates (particulate matter with diameters of less than 10µm). The first building (St.1) is located in the city centre and the second building (St.2) is located within a new development 7km away from the city centre. All life cycle stages are considered and was analysed using SimaPro software. The trace metal concentrations were determined by inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Particle deposition in the human lung was estimated using the multiple-path particle dosimetry model (MPPD). The results showed that the total human health impact for St.1 (0.027 DALY m-2) was higher than St.2 (0.005 DALY m-2) for a 50-year lifespan, with the highest contribution from the operational phase. The potential health risk to indoor workers was quantified as a hazard quotient (HQ) for non-carcinogenic elements, where the total values for ingestion contact were 4.38E-08 (St.1) and 2.59E-08 (St.2) while for dermal contact the values were 5.12E-09 (St.1) and 2.58E-09 (St.2). For the carcinogenic risk, the values for dermal and ingestion routes for both St.1 and St.2 were lower than the acceptable limit which indicated no carcinogenic risk. Particle deposition for coarse particles in indoor workers was concentrated in the head, followed by the pulmonary region and tracheobronchial tract deposition. The results from this study showed that human health can be significantly affected by all the processes in office building life cycle, thus the minimisation of energy consumption and pollutant exposures are crucially required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
  16. Praveena SM, Aris AZ
    Environ Geochem Health, 2018 Apr;40(2):749-762.
    PMID: 28929262 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-017-0021-8
    This study aims to determine the status of potentially toxic element concentrations of road dust in a medium-sized city (Rawang, Malaysia). This study adopts source identification via enrichment factor, Pearson correlation analysis, and Fourier spectral analysis to identify sources of potentially toxic element concentrations in road dust in Rawang City, Malaysia. Health risk assessment was conducted to determine potential health risks (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks) among adults and children via multiple pathways (i.e., ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation). Mean of potentially toxic element concentrations were found in the order of Pb > Zn > Cr(IV) > Cu > Ni > Cd > As > Co. Source identification revealed that Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cr(IV) are associated with anthropogenic sources in industrial and highly populated areas in northern and southern Rawang, cement factories in southern Rawang, as well as the rapid development and population growth in northwestern Rawang, which have resulted in high traffic congestion. Cobalt, Fe, and As are related to geological background and lithologies in Rawang. Pathway orders for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks are ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation, involving adults and children. Non-carcinogenic health risks in adults were attributed to Cr(IV), Pb, and Cd, whereas Cu, Cd, Cr(IV), Pb, and Zn were found to have non-carcinogenic health risks for children. Cd, Cr(IV), Pb, and As may induce carcinogenic risks in adults and children, and the total lifetime cancer risk values exceeded incremental lifetime.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis*
  17. Othman M, Latif MT, Matsumi Y
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2019 Apr 15;170:739-749.
    PMID: 30583285 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.12.042
    It is important to assess indoor air quality in school classrooms where the air quality may significantly influence school children's health and performance. This study aims to determine the concentrations of PM2.5 and dust chemical compositions in indoor and outdoor school classroom located in Kuala Lumpur City Centre. The PM2.5 concentration was measured from 19th September 2017-16th February 2018 using an optical PM2.5 sensor. Indoor and outdoor dust was also collected from the school classrooms and ion and trace metal concentrations were analysed using ion chromatography (IC) and inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) respectively. This study showed that the average indoor and outdoor 24 h PM2.5 was 11.2 ± 0.45 µg m-3 and 11.4 ± 0.44 µg m-3 respectively. The 8 h PM2.5 concentration ranged between 3.2 and 28 µg m-3 for indoor and 3.2 and 19 µg m-3 for outdoor classrooms. The highest ion concentration in indoor dust was Ca2+ with an average concentration of 38.5 ± 35.0 µg g-1 while for outdoor dust SO42- recorded the highest ion concentration with an average concentration of 30.6 ± 9.37 µg g-1. Dominant trace metals in both indoor and outdoor dust were Al, Fe and Zn. Principle component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) demonstrated that the major source of indoor dust was road dust (69%), while soil dominated the outdoor dust (74%). Health risk assessment showed that the hazard quotient (HQ) value for non-carcinogenic trace metals was dust through dermal and inhalation pathways, but not the ingestion pathway. This study suggests indoor contributions of PM2.5 concentrations are due to the activities of the school children while the compositions of indoor and outdoor dust are greatly influenced by the soil/earth source plus industrial and traffic contribution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis*
  18. Vinjamuri KS, Mhawish A, Banerjee T, Sorek-Hamer M, Broday DM, Mall RK, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Feb;257:113377.
    PMID: 31672363 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113377
    Attenuated backscatter profiles retrieved by the space borne active lidar CALIOP on-board CALIPSO satellite were used to measure the vertical distribution of smoke aerosols and to compare it against the ECMWF planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) over the smoke dominated region of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), South Asia. Initially, the relative abundance of smoke aerosols was investigated considering multiple satellite retrieved aerosol optical properties. Only the upper IGP was selectively considered for CALIPSO retrieval based on prevalence of smoke aerosols. Smoke extinction was found to contribute 2-50% of the total aerosol extinction, with strong seasonal and altitudinal attributes. During winter (DJF), smoke aerosols contribute almost 50% of total aerosol extinction only near to the surface while in post-monsoon (ON) and monsoon (JJAS), relative contribution of smoke aerosols to total extinction was highest at about 8 km height. There was strong diurnal variation in smoke extinction, evident throughout the year, with frequent abundance of smoke particles at lower height (<4 km) during daytime compared to higher height during night (>4 km). Smoke injection height also varied considerably during rice (ON: 0.71 ± 0.65 km) and wheat (AM: 2.34 ± 1.34 km) residue burning period having a significant positive correlation with prevailing PBLH. Partitioning smoke AOD against PBLH into the free troposphere (FT) and boundary layer (BL) yield interesting results. BL contribute 36% (16%) of smoke AOD during daytime (nighttime) and the BL-FT distinction increased particularly at night. There was evidence that despite travelling efficiently to FT, major proportion of smoke AOD (50-80%) continue to remain close to the surface (<3 km) thereby, may have greater implications on regional climate, air quality, smoke transport and AOD-particulate modelling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
  19. Ee-Ling O, Mustaffa NI, Amil N, Khan MF, Latif MT
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2015 Apr;94(4):537-42.
    PMID: 25652682 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-015-1477-9
    This study determined the source contribution of PM2.5 (particulate matter <2.5 μm) in air at three locations on the Malaysian Peninsula. PM2.5 samples were collected using a high volume sampler equipped with quartz filters. Ion chromatography was used to determine the ionic composition of the samples and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of heavy metals. Principal component analysis with multilinear regressions were used to identify the possible sources of PM2.5. The range of PM2.5 was between 10 ± 3 and 30 ± 7 µg m(-3). Sulfate (SO4 (2-)) was the major ionic compound detected and zinc was found to dominate the heavy metals. Source apportionment analysis revealed that motor vehicle and soil dust dominated the composition of PM2.5 in the urban area. Domestic waste combustion dominated in the suburban area, while biomass burning dominated in the rural area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
  20. Wahid NB, Latif MT, Suratman S
    Chemosphere, 2013 Jun;91(11):1508-16.
    PMID: 23336924 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.12.029
    This study was conducted to determine the composition and source apportionment of surfactant in atmospheric aerosols around urban and semi-urban areas in Malaysia based on ionic compositions. Colorimetric analysis was undertaken to determine the concentrations of anionic surfactants as Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and cationic surfactants as Disulphine Blue Active Substances (DBAS) using a UV spectrophotometer. Ionic compositions were determined using ion chromatography for cations (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) and anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-)). Principle component analysis (PCA) combined with multiple linear regression (MLR) were used to identify the source apportionment of MBAS and DBAS. Results indicated that the concentrations of surfactants at both sampling sites were dominated by MBAS rather than DBAS especially in fine mode aerosols during the southwest monsoon. Three main sources of surfactants were identified from PCA-MLR analysis for MBAS in fine mode samples particularly in Kuala Lumpur, dominated by motor vehicles, followed by soil/road dust and sea spray. Besides, for MBAS in coarse mode, biomass burning/sea spray were the dominant source followed by motor vehicles/road dust and building material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dust/analysis
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