Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

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  1. Umar MI, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A, Atangwho IJ, Yam MF, Altaf R, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Jul 23;17(7):8720-34.
    PMID: 22825623 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17078720
    This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of Kaempferia galanga (KG) using an activity-guided approach. KG rhizomes were serially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water. These extracts (2 g/kg each) were tested for their ability to inhibit carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The chloroform extract was found to exert the highest inhibition (42.9%) compared to control (p < 0.001), hence it was further fractionated by washing serially with hexane, hexane-chloroform (1:1) and chloroform. The chloroform fraction (1 g/kg) showed the highest inhibitory effect (51.9%, (p < 0.001), on carrageenan-induced edema. This chloroform fraction was further fractionated with hexane-chloroform (1:3) and chloroform, and of the two fractions, the hexane-chloroform sub-fraction was the most effective in inhibiting edema (53.7%, p < 0.001). GC-MS analysis of the active sub-fraction identified ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) as the major component, which was re-crystallized. EPMC dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced edema with an MIC of 100 mg/kg. Moreover, in an in vitro study, EPMC non-selectively inhibited the activities of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2, with IC₅₀ values of 1.12 µM and 0.83 µM respectively. These results validate the anti-inflammatory activity of KG which may be exerted by the inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. EPMC isolated from this plant may be the active anti-inflammatory agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  2. Nget Hong Tan, Chon Seng Tan
    Toxicon, 1988;26(11):989-96.
    PMID: 3245058
    The toxic and biological activities of four samples of Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus venom were examined. The lethality, protein composition and biological activities of the four venom samples were similar. Three of the venom samples had LD50 (i.v.) values of 0.9 micrograms/g while the fourth had a lower LD50 (i.v.) of 0.45 micrograms/g. All four venom samples exhibited hemorrhagic, edema-inducing, anticoagulant and thrombin-like activities as well as the usual enzymes found in crotalid venoms. DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange chromatographic fractionation of the venom yielded 10 protein fractions. Only two fractions (fractions A and F) were lethal to mice; the major lethal fraction being fraction F. This fraction had an LD50 (i.v.) of 0.2 micrograms/g and exhibited hemorrhagic, edema-inducing and thrombin-like activity. It also exhibited phospholipase A, arginine ester hydrolase, arginine amidase, protease, 5'-nucleotidase, acetylcholinesterase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities. The lethal potency of fraction F is potentiated by fraction G, which exhibited anticoagulant activity as well as hemorrhagic, edema-inducing and enzymatic activities. Fractions F plus G account for almost 100% of the lethal potency of the venom.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  3. Rao J, Das PK
    Malays J Pathol, 1994 Dec;16(2):165-6.
    PMID: 9053567
    Healthy adult male albino rats were subjected to inhalation of increasing doses of detergent (dioctyl sodium sulfo-succinate) aerosol ranging from 100 mg to 500 mg. Administration of 500 mg of detergent aerosol resulted in peribronchial and focal alveolar oedema in 3 out of 5 animals. The lungs of control animals which were subjected to inhalation of vehicle aerosol (ethanol and saline) did not show any abnormality. It is possible that pulmonary oedema observed in detergent aerosol inhalation may be due to the action of detergents on the surfactant system of the lung.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pulmonary Edema/chemically induced*
  4. Azila N, Siao FK, Othman I
    PMID: 1675964
    1. An extract prepared from the tentacle of the jellyfish (CE), Catostylus mosaicus exhibited haemolytic, oedema and haemorrhage-inducing activities. 2. Acetone treatment of the tentacle extract produced an acetone soluble extract (AE) which showed an increase in specific haemolytic and haemorrhagic activities by 25- and 120-fold respectively; the minimum oedema dose was reduced by 30-fold. 3. The AE caused a rapid onset of oedema in the mouse foot pad. The effect was long-lasting, reaching a maximum in about 30 min after injection and sustained up to 4 hr. 4. Fractionation of the AE on Q-Sepharose gave 4 bound fractions which induced oedema and haemorrhage; however only 3 of the fractions exhibited haemolytic activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced*
  5. Tan NH, Saifuddin MN
    PMID: 1982873
    1. The edema-inducing activity of 24 venoms from snakes of the subfamilies of Elapinae, Hydrophiini, Crotalinae and Viperinae was determined. 2. All snake venoms tested are very potent edema inducers. The minimum edema doses of the venoms ranged from 0.16 to 3.41 micrograms per mouse paw. 3. The venoms induced a rapid onset edema which peaked within 1 h of injection and declined thereafter; at low dose, however, some venoms induced a rapid onset edema that sustained over a longer duration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced*
  6. Ayoub R, Jarrar Q, Ali D, Moshawih S, Jarrar Y, Hakim M, et al.
    Eur J Pharm Sci, 2021 Aug 01;163:105865.
    PMID: 33979659 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejps.2021.105865
    BACKGROUND: Mefenamic acid (MFA), a commonly prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), possesses a greater risk of dose-related central nervous system (CNS) toxicity than other NSAIDs. In this study, α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol acetate were selected as prodrug moieties for MFA in an attempt to reduce the CNS toxicity and enhance the therapeutic efficacy.

    METHOD: α-tocopherol monoester of MFA (TMMA) and α-tocopherol di-ester of MFA (TDMA) were synthesized by esterification reaction and were subjected to various in vivo characterizations.

    RESULTS: Masking of the carboxylate group of MFA with the proposed pro-moieties significantly (p<0.05) delayed the onset of tonic-clonic seizure in mice. Besides, the intraperitoneal administration of TMMA and TDMA in mice produced significantly (p<0.05) stronger anti-inflammatory effects in the carrageenan-induced paw edema test and greater anti-nociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced writhing test than MFA at an equimolar dose of 20 mg/kg. Treatment with TMMA and TDMA caused a significant (p<0.05) inhibition of pain at 1st and 2nd phases of formalin-induced licking test in mice, whereas treatment with MFA inhibited the 2nd phase only. Pretreatment with naloxone and flumazenil significantly (p<0.05) reversed the anti-nociceptive effect of MFA, TMMA and TDMA in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. In addition, treatment with TMMA and TDMA caused significantly (p<0.05) a higher inhibition of pain in the glutamate-induced licking response in mice than MFA.

    CONCLUSION: Masking the carboxylate moiety of MFA by α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol acetate has a great potential for reducing CNS toxicity, enhancing the therapeutic efficacy and altering the mode of anti-nociceptive action.

    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  7. Ponnudurai G, Chung MC, Tan NH
    Toxicon, 1993 Aug;31(8):997-1005.
    PMID: 8212052
    The major hemorrhagin (termed rhodostoxin) of the venom of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration followed by high performance ion exchange chromatography. The purified hemorrhagin also yielded a single peak in reversed-phase HPLC. It had an isoelectric point of 5.3 and a mol. wt of 34,000. Rhodostoxin exhibited potent proteolytic, hemorrhagic and edema-inducing activities but was not lethal to mice at a dose of 6 microgram/g (i.v.). Treatment of rhodostoxin with EDTA eliminated both the proteolytic and hemorrhagic activities completely. The N-terminal sequence of rhodostoxin was determined to be NHEIKRHVDIVVVXDSRFCTK.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  8. Yam MF, Lim V, Salman IM, Ameer OZ, Ang LF, Rosidah N, et al.
    Molecules, 2010 Jun 21;15(6):4452-66.
    PMID: 20657453 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15064452
    The aim of the present study was to verify the anti-inflammatory activity of Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extracts and to identify the active compound(s) contributing to its anti-inflammatory activity using a developed HPLC method. Active chloroform extract of O. stamineus was fractionated into three fractions using a dry flash column chromatography method. These three fractions were investigated for anti-peritoneal capillary permeability, in vitro nitric oxide scavenging activity, anti-inflammatory and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema method. The flavonoid rich chloroform extract fraction (CF2) [containing sinensetin (2.86% w/w), eupatorin (5.05% w/w) and 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (1.101% w/w)], significantly reduced rat hind paw edema, NO and decreased dye leakage to peritoneal cavity at p < 0.05. IC(50) of in vitro NO scavenging of CF2 was 0.3 mg/mL. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of these CF2 may possibly be due to the presence of flavonoid compounds capable of affecting the NO pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  9. Yam MF, Ang LF, Ameer OZ, Salman IM, Aziz HA, Asmawi MZ
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud, 2009 Dec;2(4):280-7.
    PMID: 20633503 DOI: 10.1016/S2005-2901(09)60069-8
    Elephantopus tomentosus is widely used in Asia, especially in Malaysia, for the treatment of pain and inflammation. In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a 95% ethanol extract of E. tomentosus were investigated in different experimental models. In the anti-inflammation study, 1000 mg/kg of extract significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw edema (p < 0.05) and inhibited abdominal permeability compared with control (p < 0.01). The analgesic activity was assayed in several experimental models in mice: (1) hot plate, (2) tail flick, (3) writhing test; and rats: carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold test. However, at the doses tested, no significant activity was found in the hot plate test and the tail flick test. E. tomentosus ethanol extract at 1000 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) increased hyperalgesia pain threshold and inhibited writhing activity. The results suggest that E. tomentosus ethanol extract at 1000 mg/kg dose is effective in anti-inflammatory and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug type anti-nociception activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  10. Tan NH, Saifuddin MN
    Int. J. Biochem., 1990;22(5):481-7.
    PMID: 2347427
    1. The two major phospholipase A2 enzymes (OHPLA-DE1 and OHPLA-DE2) of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom have been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. 2. The isoelectric points of OHPLA-DE1 and OHPLA-DE2 were 3.81 and 3.89, respectively and the Mws were 14,000 and 15,000, respectively, as estimated by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography; and 14,000 as estimated by SDS-PAGE. 3. The enzymes were not lethal to mice at a dosage of 10 micrograms/g body wt by i.v. route. Both phospholipase A2 enzymes, however, exhibited moderate edema-inducing and anti-coagulant activities. 4. Bromophenacylation of the enzymes reduced the enzymatic activity drastically but did not affect the edema-inducing activity of the enzymes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  11. Tan NH, Saifuddin MN, Yong WY
    Biochem. Int., 1991 Jan;23(1):175-81.
    PMID: 1863271
    The edema inducing activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes from snake venoms and porcine pancreas was investigated using mouse paw as experimental model. All ten PLA2 enzymes exhibited potent edema inducing activity. PLA2, however, is generally not the major edema inducing component of snake venom. Chemical modification studies indicated that enzymatic activity of PLA2 was required for its edema inducing activity. All PLA2 enzymes examined displayed a rapid onset edema which was suppressed by pretreatment of the mice with antihistamine. Dexamethasone pretreatment also inhibited edemas elicited by some PLA2 enzymes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced*
  12. George P, Vicknasingam B, Thurairajasingam S, Ramasamy P, Mohd Yusof H, Yasin MABM, et al.
    Drug Alcohol Rev, 2018 Jan;37(1):147-151.
    PMID: 27859761 DOI: 10.1111/dar.12456
    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Opioid dependence remains the main type of illicit substance used in Malaysia, which has an estimated 187 771 opiate users. There are currently 333 active methadone maintenance treatment centres nationwide. Although methadone has proven to be an effective maintenance therapy, it has clinical concerns which can have an impact on its effectiveness and safety.

    DESIGN, METHODS AND RESULTS: A case series of seven patients from Malaysian private and public hospital settings who had an adverse reaction with methadone is discussed.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Despite methadone being an effective therapy for opioid dependence, there is a need for other alternative effective therapies, such as naltrexone, buprenorphine and the co-formulation of buprenorphine-naloxone, to be made available to physicians in both public and private sectors. There is need for individual treatment consideration to avoid adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, overdosing and in the presence of co-morbidities. An emphasis on safe storage of takeaway methadone is also needed. [George P, Vicknasingam B, Thurairajasingam S, Ramasamy P, Mohd Yusof H, Yasin MABM, Shah ZUBS. Methadone complications amongst opioid-dependent patients in Malaysia: A case series. Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:147-151].

    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  13. Eid AM, El-Enshasy HA, Aziz R, Elmarzugi NA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:4685-95.
    PMID: 25336948 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S66180
    There is an increasing trend among pharmaceutical industries to use natural bioactive materials as medicinal agents and to use new technologies such as self-nanoemulsifying systems. The solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs can be enhanced by self-nanoemulsifying systems. Swietenia oil is frequently used because of its antimicrobial, antimutagenic, and anticancer bioactive medical properties. This study was conducted to develop self-nanoemulsifying systems for Swietenia oil that will enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of the oil. The self-emulsifying systems developed for Swietenia oil in this study were constructed using ternary phase diagrams and contained the nonionic surfactants Labrasol(®), Tween 20, Capmul(®), and Labrafil(®). The effect of these surfactants on the formulation was examined. The mean droplet size of Swietenia oil as well as their distribution, appearance, viscosity, and spreading times were studied to find the optimum formula, which contained droplets that were less than 200 nm. The next step was to test the anti-inflammatory properties of the optimum formula using a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test. The results from this test were compared to the oil solution. Different oil/surfactants mixtures had various emulsification properties that were related to the size of their droplets. Tween 20 is a good surfactant to use in self-emulsifying systems because it produces droplets of nano-size. Mixtures of Capmul/Labrasol at a ratio of 2:1 and Labrafil/Tween 20 at a ratio of 1:2 were able to produce self-nanoemulsifying formulations containing Swietenia oil concentrations that ranged from 20%-50%. Nanoemulsion occurred when the size of the droplets fell below 200 nm with low size distribution (<0.3) after being gently mixed with water. It was found that the hydrophilic/lipophilic balance value affected the ternary phase diagram behavior of Swietenia oil and surfactants. In addition, the anti-inflammatory properties of Swietenia oil were greater in the self-nanoemulsifying systems than in the oil solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  14. Goh JZ, Tang SN, Chiong HS, Yong YK, Zuraini A, Hakim MN
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:297-303.
    PMID: 25678786 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S75545
    Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic activities. Liposomes have been shown to improve the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated drugs. The present study was conducted to compare the antinociceptive properties between liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac in vivo via different nociceptive assay models. Liposome-encapsulated diclofenac was prepared using the commercialized proliposome method. Antinociceptive effects of liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac were evaluated using formalin test, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, Randall-Selitto paw pressure test, and plantar test. The results of the writhing test showed a significant reduction of abdominal constriction in all treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. The 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac demonstrated the highest antinociceptive effect at 78.97% compared with 55.89% in the free-form group at equivalent dosage. Both liposome-encapsulated and free-form diclofenac produced significant results in the late phase of formalin assay at a dose of 20 mg/kg, with antinociception percentages of 78.84% and 60.71%, respectively. Significant results of antinociception were also observed in both hyperalgesia assays. For Randall-Sellito assay, the highest antinociception effect of 71.38% was achieved with 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac, while the lowest antinociceptive effect of 17.32% was recorded with 0 mg/kg liposome formulation, whereas in the plantar test, the highest antinociceptive effect was achieved at 56.7% with 20 mg/kg liposome-encapsulated diclofenac, and the lowest effect was shown with 0 mg/kg liposome formulation of 8.89%. The present study suggests that liposome-encapsulated diclofenac exhibits higher antinociceptive efficacy in a dose-dependent manner in comparison with free-form diclofenac.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  15. Lee SS, Tan NH, Fung SY, Sim SM, Tan CS, Ng ST
    PMID: 25256382 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-359
    The sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Tiger Milk mushroom) is used as a traditional medicine to relieve cough, asthma and chronic hepatitis. The traditional uses of the sclerotium are presumably related to its anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the sclerotial powder of L. rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Tiger Milk mushroom) cultivar TM02.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  16. George A, Chinnappan S, Chintamaneni M, Kotak C V, Choudhary Y, Kueper T, et al.
    PMID: 25252832 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-355
    The study was aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Polygonum minus (Huds) using in vitro and in vivo approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  17. Zakaria ZA, Somchit MN, Mat Jais AM, Teh LK, Salleh MZ, Long K
    Med Princ Pract, 2011;20(3):231-6.
    PMID: 21454992 DOI: 10.1159/000323756
    The present study was carried out to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of virgin coconut oil (VCO) produced by the Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI) using various in vivo models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  18. Sulaiman MR, Perimal EK, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Khalid MH, Tasrip NA, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2010 Oct;81(7):855-8.
    PMID: 20546845 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2010.05.009
    The anti-inflammatory activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tissue formation test in mice. It was demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of 1 at a dose of 5, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg produced significant dose-dependent inhibition of paw edema induced by carrageenan. It was also demonstrated that 1 at similar doses significantly suppressed granulomatous tissue formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  19. Yam MF, Asmawi MZ, Basir R
    J Med Food, 2008 Jun;11(2):362-8.
    PMID: 18598181 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2006.065
    Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a standardized Orthosiphon stamineus methanol:water (50:50 vol/vol) leaf extract (SEOS) were evaluated in animal models. Oral administration of SEOS at doses of 500 and 1,000 mg/kg significantly reduced the hind paw edema in rats at 3 and 5 hours after carrageenan administration (P < .01 and P < .01; P < .01 and P < .05, respectively). SEOS (1,000 mg/kg, p.o.) also produced significant (P < .05) analgesic activity in both the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the formalin-induced licking test (late phase) in mice and rats, respectively. However, SEOS showed no effect on the tail flick and hot plate tests in mice. The results of the present study support the proposal that O. stamineus has anti-inflammatory and non-narcotic analgesic activities. These findings justify the traditional use of the plant for treating pain and inflammation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
  20. Nget Hong Tan, Chon Seng Tan, Hun Teck Khor
    Int. J. Biochem., 1989;21(12):1421-6.
    PMID: 2612728
    1. The major phospholipase A2 (PLA-DE4) of the venom of Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (shore pit viper) has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. 2. The isoelectric point of the purified enzyme was determined to be 4.20, and the mol. wt was 31,700 as estimated by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography; and 14,000 as estimated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed phosphatidylcholine (PC) faster than phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), whereas phosphatidylserine (PS) was not hydrolyzed at all (PC greater than PE greater than PS =0). However, in reaction system consisted of mixtures of PC and PS, phosphatidylserine was effectively hydrolyzed by the enzyme. 4. The phospholipase A2 exhibited edema-forming activity but not hemolytic, hemorrhagic or anticoagulant activities. It was not lethal to mice at a dosage of 10 micrograms/g by i.v. route.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edema/chemically induced
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