Objective: This case control study evaluates the performance of Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis Score (MEDS), Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS), Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS), and Rapid Acute Physiology Score (RAPS) in predicting risk of mortality in ED adult patients with renal abscess. This will help emergency physicians, surgeons, and intensivists expedite the time-sensitive decision-making process.
Methods: Data from 152 adult patients admitted to the EDs of two training and research hospitals who had undergone a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen and was diagnosed with renal abscess from January 2011 to December 2015 were analyzed, with the corresponding MEDS, MEWS, REMS, RAPS, and mortality risks calculated. Ability to predict patient mortality was assessed via receiver operating curve analysis and calibration analysis.
Results: MEDS was found to be the best performing physiologic scoring system, with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 87.50%, 88.89%, and 88.82%, respectively. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) value was 0.9440, and negative predictive value was 99.22% with a cutoff of 9 points.
Conclusion: Our study is the largest of its kind in examining ED patients with renal abscess. MEDS has been demonstrated to be superior to MEWS, REMS, and RAPS in predicting mortality for this patient population. We recommend its use for evaluation of disease severity and risk stratification in these patients, to expedite identification of critically ill patients requiring urgent intervention.
STUDY DESIGN: A sub-analysis of data from a prevalence study of medication-related visits among patients at the ED of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia was conducted. The study took place over a period of six weeks from December 2014 to January 2015 involving 434 eligible patients. Data on demography, conventional medication, and TCM uses were collected from patient interview and the medical folders.
RESULTS: Among this cohort, 66 patients (15.2%, 95%CI 12.0, 19.0) reported concurrent TCM use. Sixteen (24.2%) of the TCM users were using more than one (1) type of TCM, and 17 (25.8%) came to the ED for medication-related reasons. Traditional Malay Medicine (TMM) was the most frequently used TCM by the patients. Five patients (7.6%) sought treatment at the ED for medical problems related to use of TCM.
CONCLUSION: Patients seeking medical care at the ED may be currently using TCM. ED-physicians should be aware of these therapies and should always ask patients about the TCM use.