Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

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  1. Crinis V
    J Contemp Asia, 2010;40(4):589-611.
    PMID: 20845568 DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2010.507046
    In the last decade factory owners, in response to brand-name Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) parameters, have joined associations that verify (through a monitoring and audit system) that management does not exploit labour. There have been no reports of violations of codes of conduct concerning Malaysian workers but for foreign workers on contract there are certain areas that have been reported. These areas, including trade union membership, the withholding of workers' passports and unsuitable accommodation, generally escape notice because auditors who monitor factory compliance do not question the terms of contracts as long as they comply with national labour standards. This paper is based on research with foreign workers in Malaysia and argues that despite the success of the anti-sweatshop movement in a global context, the neo-liberal state in Malaysia continues to place certain restrictions on transnational labour migrants which breach garment industry codes of conduct. Available evidence does not support the assumption that CSR practices provide sufficient protection for both citizen and foreign workers on contract in the garment industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants/education; Emigrants and Immigrants/history; Emigrants and Immigrants/legislation & jurisprudence; Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology
  2. Tay CG, Ong LC, Goh KJ, Rahmat K, Fong CY
    J Clin Neurosci, 2015 Dec;22(12):1994-5.
    PMID: 26254091 DOI: 10.1016/j.jocn.2015.07.001
    We report a previously well 10-month-old Somalian girl who acquired asymmetric lower limb weakness in July 2013 in Mogadishu, Banadir, before arriving in Malaysia at 12 months of age. In May 2013, there was a wild poliomyelitis outbreak in that area, as reported by the World Health Organization. Laboratory investigation, including cerebrospinal fluid, was unremarkable, and electrophysiological studies showed active axonal denervation in the left lower limb. The whole spine T2-weighted MRI revealed non-enhancing hyperintensities of the bilateral anterior horn cells, predominantly on the left side at T11-12. The viral isolations from two stool specimens at her presentation to our centre, 2 months after the onset of illness and 2 weeks apart, were negative. Despite lacking the acute virological evidence of poliomyelitis, in view of the girl's clinical, electrophysiological and classical spinal neuroradiological features, together with her temporal relationship with a World Health Organization reported wild poliomyelitis outbreak, we believe these findings are consistent with a diagnosis of imported poliomyelitis. A review at 30 months of age showed persistent left lower limb monoplegia with little recovery. Our patient reiterates the importance of maintaining awareness of wild polio importation, and keeping abreast of the latest news of global poliomyelitis outbreaks when treating patients with flaccid paralysis, even if they arrive from non-endemic poliomyelitis areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants*
  3. William T, Menon J
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Aug;69 Suppl A:82-7.
    PMID: 25417955 MyJurnal
    One hundred and thirteen articles related to Malaria were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Thirty eight articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. The epidemiology of malaria has undergone a significant change over the last decade with P. knowlesi, formerly a relatively unknown simian parasite rapidly becoming the most predominant malaria species to infect humans in Malaysia. The epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic methods and treatment for P. knowlesi infection are described in these studies. In Malaysia, imported malaria from foreigners also poses a challenge. In view of these changes, new strategies on malaria control need to be devised and implemented, and treatment regimens need to be redefined to help Malaysia achieve the goal of malaria elimination by the year 2020.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants
  4. Yap FB
    Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 2009;41(4):320.
    PMID: 19117243 DOI: 10.1080/00365540802680409
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants
  5. Kugan V, Mahadevan DT, Kandasami P
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2016 02;71(1):12-6.
    PMID: 27130737
    BACKGROUND: Perforated peptic ulcers (PPU) present as serious surgical emergencies that carry high mortality and morbidity. Foreigners with PPU are also managed in our hospital setting. Their inclusion significantly alters the trend and pattern of PPU seen in Malaysia.

    AIM: To compare per-operative and post-operative features and outcomes of perforated peptic ulcers between Malaysians and foreigners.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was an analytical crosssectional study. All patients who underwent repair of perforated peptic ulcer disease during a 6-year period were included. 50 consecutive patients' records with perforated peptic ulcer were analysed. Data were collected from operation theatre database and hospital medical records. Chi square and t test were performed using SPSS statistical software.

    RESULTS: Total of 50 patients, of which 30 were Malaysians and 20 were foreigners. The mean age of Malaysian patients was 58.3 ± 15.2 years whereas the mean age for foreign patients was 30.3 ± 6.7 years, with foreign patients being significantly younger than local patients. Foreigners had significantly smaller ulcers with only 5% of them having ulcers more than 1cm while 36.7% of Malaysian patients had ulcers more than 1cm. Post-operative complications are significantly higher in Malaysian patients (p<0.05) with 40% of Malaysian patients and 10% of foreign patients developing post-operative complications.

    CONCLUSION: Foreign patients are younger with significantly smaller perforated ulcers and better post-operative outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants*
  6. Nissapatorn V
    South. Med. J., 2008 Dec;101(12):1201.
    PMID: 19005453 DOI: 10.1097/SMJ.0b013e318185a090
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants*
  7. Goh K, Xiao SD
    J Dig Dis, 2009 Feb;10(1):1-6.
    PMID: 19236540 DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-2980.2008.00355.x
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has long been considered a disease that affects predominantly a Western population. The incidence and prevalence rates from Asian populations are much lower in comparison. More recent data, however, have shown significantly higher rates in Asians and time trend studies have shown an increase in the incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) and a similar but lower rise in Crohn's disease (CD). The epidemiological changes that are taking place mirror that of the Western experience seen 50 years previously and seem to occur in parallel with the rapid socioeconomic development taking place in Asia. It appears that certain racial groups are more prone than others to develop IBD. For instance, Indians in South-East Asia have higher rates compared to Chinese and Malays. While there is host genetic predisposition, environmental factor(s) may be responsible for this difference. Migrant studies of South Asians in the UK, where second-generation immigrants have assumed incidence rates as high as the indigenous whites and Asian Jews who develop high incidence rates comparable to Jews from Europe or North America in Israel point to the role of environmental factors. It is unclear which specific factors are responsible. Studies have suggested a change in diet to a more Westernized one may underlie this epidemiological change in the Asian population. It is likely that there are racial groups amongst Asians who are more susceptible to IBD and who will demonstrate a higher frequency of IBD when exposed to putative environmental factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data
  8. Daher AM, Ibrahim HS, Daher TM, Anbori AK
    BMC Public Health, 2011;11:407.
    PMID: 21624118 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-407
    Migrants everywhere face several demands for health and maintaining good health and quality of life could be challenging. Iraqis are the second largest refugee group that has sought refuge in the recent years, yet little is known about their health related quality of life (HRQOL). The study aims at assessing the HRQOL among Iraqis living in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants*
  9. Swami V, Barron D, Weis L, Furnham A
    Br J Psychol, 2018 Feb;109(1):156-179.
    PMID: 28632335 DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12252
    We used an identities approach to examine voting intentions in the June 2016 UK referendum on membership of the European Union (EU). In April 2016, 303 British adults (58.7% women, age M = 34.73) indicated their voting intentions for the referendum and completed measures of identification with the national in-group, perceived threat from Muslim immigrants, belief in Islamophobic conspiracy narratives, Islamophobia, general conspiracist beliefs, ambiguity tolerance, and belief in a clash of civilizations. Path and mediation analyses indicated that greater belief in Islamophobic conspiracy theories mediated the link between Islamophobia and intention to vote to leave. Islamophobia and Islamophobic conspiracist beliefs also mediated the effects of perceived threat from Muslims on voting intentions. Other variables acted as antecedents of perceived threat or Islamophobic conspiracy narratives. These findings highlight the role that identity-based cognitions may have played in shaping voting intentions for the UK EU referendum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology*
  10. Francis K, Chapman Y, Doolan G, Sellick K, Barnett T
    Aust J Rural Health, 2008 Jun;16(3):164-9.
    PMID: 18471187 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1584.2008.00967.x
    OBJECTIVE:This study sought to identify and evaluate approaches used to attract internationally trained nurses from traditional and non-traditional countries and incentives employed to retain them in small rural hospitals in Gippsland, Victoria.
    DESIGN: An exploratory descriptive design.
    SETTING: Small rural hospitals in Gippsland, Victoria.
    PARTICIPANTS: Hospital staff responsible for recruitment of nurses and overseas trained nurses from traditional and non-traditional sources (e.g. England, Scotland, India, Zimbabwe, Holland, Singapore, Malaysia).
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Recruitment of married overseas trained nurses is more sustainable than that of single registered nurses, however, the process of recruitment for the hospital and potential employees is costly. Rural hospitality diffuses some of these expenses by the employing hospitals providing emergency accommodation and necessary furnishings. Cultural differences and dissonance regarding practice create barriers for some of the overseas trained nurses to move towards a more sanguine position. On the positive side, single overseas registered nurses use the opportunity to work in rural Australian hospitals as an effective working holiday that promotes employment in larger, more specialized hospitals. Overall both the registered nurses and the employees believe the experience to be beneficial rather than detrimental.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology; Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data*
  11. Swami V, Arteche A, Chamorro-Premuzic T, Furnham A
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2010 Jan;45(1):57-65.
    PMID: 19337675 DOI: 10.1007/s00127-009-0042-4
    The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of 249 sojourning Malaysian undergraduates in Britain. One-hundred and ten Malay and 139 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment and socio-demographics. Overall, Malay students reported significantly poorer sociocultural adjustment than Chinese students, as well as more negative outcomes on a range of predictors. Path analysis for the total sample showed that higher family income led to greater sociocultural adjustment, but partially because it led to more contact with host and conationals, better language proficiency, lower perceived cultural differences and less perceived discrimination. Moreover, participants with higher English proficiency were better adapted, but partially because they perceived less cultural differences as well as having more contact with host nationals. Additionally, individuals reporting better sociocultural adjustment also reported better health statuses. The same model was equally useful at predicting sociocultural adjustment for both Malay and Chinese participants. These results are discussed in terms of the role played by income in buffering against the negative aspects of sociocultural adjustment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology*; Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data
  12. Lim RBT, Cheung ONY, Tham DKT, La HH, Win TT, Chan R, et al.
    Global Health, 2018 04 16;14(1):36.
    PMID: 29661249 DOI: 10.1186/s12992-018-0358-5
    BACKGROUND: There is an increasing global movement of foreign female entertainment workers (FEWs), a hard-to-reach population vulnerable to HIV/STIs. This paper described the needs assessment phase before intervention implementation where the socio-organisation, sexual risk behaviours and access to health services of foreign FEWs in Singapore were explored. We also highlighted how qualitative inquiry, census enumeration technique and community-based engagement approaches were used to gain access and to develop a culturally appropriate STI prevention intervention.

    METHODS: In-depth interviews, observations, informal conversational interviews, mystery client and critical incident technique were used. We estimated the size of FEW population using the census enumeration technique. The findings were used to inform intervention development and implementation.

    RESULTS: We estimated 376 Vietnamese and 330 Thai FEWs in 2 geographical sites where they operated in Singapore. Their reasons for non-condom use included misconceptions on the transmission and consequences of STI/HIV, low risk perception of contracting HIV/STI from paid/casual partner, lack of skills to negotiate or to persuade partner to use condom, unavailability of condoms in entertainment establishments and fear of the police using condom as circumstantial evidence. They faced difficulties in accessing health services due to fear of identity exposure, stigmatisation, cost and language differences. To develop the intervention, we involved FEWs and peer educators, and ensured that the intervention was non-stigmatising and met their needs. To foster their participation, we used culturally-responsive recruitment strategies, and ensured that the trial was anonymous and acceptable to the FEWs. These strategies were effective as we achieved a participation rate of 90.3%, a follow-up rate of 70.5% for the comparison and 66.8% for the intervention group. The interventions group reported a significant increase in consistent condom use with a reduction in STI incidence compared to no significant change in the comparison group.

    CONCLUSIONS: The qualitative inquiry approaches to gain access, to foster participation and to develop a culturally appropriate intervention, along with the census enumeration technique application to estimate the FEW population sizes has led to successful intervention implementation as well as safer sexual behaviour and STI incidence reduction.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02780986 . Registered 23 May 2016 (retrospectively registered).

    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology*; Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data
  13. Wan Omar A, Sulaiman O, Yusof S, Ismail G, Fatmah MS, Rahmah N, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2001 Jul;8(2):19-24.
    PMID: 22893756
    We have recently reported that a dipstick colloidal dye immunoassay (DIA) that detect parasite antigens in human serum is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of active infection of lymphatic filariasis. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies (RbBmCAg) labelled with a commercial dye, palanil navy blue was used to detect filarial antigenemia among Indonesian and Bangladeshi immigrant workers (N= 630) at oil palm estates at Hulu Trengganu District, Peninsular Malaysia. Microfilaremia with Brugia malayi were detected in 51 (8.10 %) individuals, of which 42 (6.67 %) were among the Indonesians and 9 (1.98 %) among the Bangladeshis. Microfilaremia with Wuchereria bancrofti were detected in 33 (5.24 %) individuals of which 15 (2.38 %) were among the Indonesians and 18 (2.86 %) among the Bangladeshis workers. The DIA detected 96 (15.24 %) antigenemic cases which comprise of all the microfilaremic cases and 15 (2.38 %) amicrofilaremic cases. The amicrofilaremic cases with filarial antigenemia consisted of 9 (1. 43 %) Indonesians and 6 (0.95%) Bangladeshis. We have used 6 ul of the RbBmCAg and diluted (1:10) patients' sera per dipstick which make the DIA reagent conservative. The DIA is a rapid test and can be read in approximate 2 hours.. Additionally, coloured dots developed in the DIA can be qualitatively assessed visually for intensity. The DIA does not require sophisticated equipment or radioactivity, and therefore suitable for field application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants
  14. Khairul, A.J., Anwar, A., Ramelah, M.
    MyJurnal
    Background: (13) C – urea breath test (UBT) is sensitive and specific for detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Gastric biopsy culture for H. pylori confirms the diagnosis. Here, we analyzed data of all patients who were investigated for H. pylori infection using both tests throughout the year 2005. Materials and Methods : Retrospective data of 377 patients between the ages of 17 – 88 were identified through endoscopy records from January to December 2005. Upper endoscopy, UBT and gastric biopsy culture were performed on all patients simultaneously during each endoscopy session. Patients who had positive UBT and biopsy culture for H. pylori were treated with triple therapy of PPI, amoxicillin and clarithromycin for one week. A repeat of UBT was done at one-month post therapy. Results and Analysis: Twenty-eight patients on the list had no available data on UBT and were omitted from the analysis. Ethnic group Chinese comprised of 45.4% (n=163), followed by Malay, 37.3% (n=134), Indian, 10.6% (n=38) and others, 3.9% (n=14). UBT was positive in 23.7% (n=85)(figure1). H. pylori culture was positive in 19.2% (n=69)(figure1). Sixteen patients with UBT positive had H. pylori culture negative, 18.8% (n=16/85)(figure2). Five patients with H. pylori culture positive had UBT negative, 7.2% (n=5/69)(figure3). Ethnic group Indian had the highest incidence of UBT positive, 47.4% (n=18/38), followed by Others (Sikhs and foreigners) 42.8% (n=6/14), the Chinese 27.6% (n=45/163) and the Malays 11.6% (n= 16/138). UBT positive was the highest in the age group of 50 and above, 64.7% (n=55/85), followed by the age group between 30 to 49, 21.2% (n=18/85) and the age group of 29 and below, 14.5% (n=12/85). Out of the 85 UBT positive patients 91.8% (n=78/85)(figure4) of them responded to the conventional one week of triple therapy (PPI, amoxicillin, clarithromycin) with negative UBT at one-month post therapy compared to only 8.2% (n=7/85)(figure4) who failed with positive UBT at one-month post therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants
  15. O'Connor MP
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants
  16. Lemoh C, Ryan CE, Sekawi Z, Hearps AC, Aleksic E, Chibo D, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(12):e84008.
    PMID: 24391866 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084008
    African-born Australians are a recognised "priority population" in Australia's Sixth National HIV/AIDS Strategy. We compared exposure location and route for African-born people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Victoria, Australia, with HIV-1 pol subtype from drug resistance assays and geographical origin suggested by phylogenetic analysis of env gene. Twenty adult HIV positive African-born Victorian residents were recruited via treating doctors. HIV exposure details were obtained from interviews and case notes. Viral RNA was extracted from participant stored plasma or whole blood. The env V3 region was sequenced and compared to globally representative reference HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Library HIV Database. Twelve participants reported exposure via heterosexual sex and two via iatrogenic blood exposures; four were men having sex with men (MSM); two were exposed via unknown routes. Eight participants reported exposure in their countries of birth, seven in Australia, three in other countries and two in unknown locations. Genotype results (pol) were available for ten participants. HIV env amplification was successful in eighteen cases. HIV-1 subtype was identified in all participants: eight both pol and env; ten env alone and two pol alone. Twelve were subtype C, four subtype B, three subtype A and one subtype CRF02_AG. Reported exposure location was consistent with the phylogenetic clustering of env sequences. African Australians are members of multiple transnational social and sexual networks influencing their exposure to HIV. Phylogenetic analysis may complement traditional surveillance to discern patterns of HIV exposure, providing focus for HIV prevention programs in mobile populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data*
  17. Chang KH
    Contemp Nurse, 2010 Feb-Mar;34(2):134-5.
    PMID: 20690223
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology
  18. Swami V
    Int J Psychol, 2009 Aug;44(4):266-73.
    PMID: 22029555 DOI: 10.1080/00207590801888745
    The process of cross-cultural migration may be particularly difficult for students travelling overseas for further or higher education, especially where qualitative differences exist between the home and host nations. The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning Malaysian students in Britain. Eighty-one Malay and 110 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment. A series of one-way analyses of variance showed that Malay participants experienced poorer sociocultural adjustment in comparison with their Chinese counterparts. They were also less likely than Chinese students to have contact with co-nationals and host nationals, more likely to perceive their actual experience in Britain as worse than they had expected, and more likely to perceive greater cultural distance and greater discrimination. The results of regression analyses showed that, for Malay participants, perceived discrimination accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in sociocultural adjustment (73%), followed by English language proficiency (10%) and contact with host nationals (4%). For Chinese participants, English language proficiency was the strongest predictor of sociocultural adjustment (54%), followed by expectations of life in Britain (18%) and contact with host nationals (3%). By contrast, participants' sex, age, and length of residence failed to emerge as significant predictors for either ethnic group. Possible explanations for this pattern of findings are discussed, including the effects of Islamophobia on Malay-Muslims in Britain, possible socioeconomic differences between Malay and Chinese students, and personality differences between the two ethnic groups. The results are further discussed in relation to practical steps that can be taken to improve the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning students in Britain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology*
  19. Ab Rahman N, Sivasampu S, Mohamad Noh K, Khoo EM
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2016 06 14;16:197.
    PMID: 27301972 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-016-1444-0
    BACKGROUND: The world population has become more globalised with increasing number of people residing in another country for work or other reasons. Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Data were derived from the 2012 National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a cross sectional survey of primary care encounters from public and private primary care clinics sampled from five regions in Malaysia. Patients with foreign nationality were identified and analysed for demographic profiles, reasons for encounter (RFEs), diagnosis, and provision of care.

    RESULTS: Foreigners accounted for 7.7 % (10,830) of all patient encounters from NMCS. Most encounters were from private clinics (90.2 %). Median age was 28 years (IQR: 24.0, 34.8) and 69.9 % were male. Most visits to the primary care clinics were for symptom-based complaints (69.5 %), followed by procedures (23.0 %) and follow-up visit (7.4 %). The commonest diagnosis in public clinics was antenatal care (21.8 %), followed by high risk pregnancies (7.5 %) and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (6.8 %). Private clinics had more cases for general medical examination (13.5 %), URTI (13.1 %) and fever (3.9 %). Medications were prescribed to 76.5 % of these encounters.

    CONCLUSIONS: More foreigners were seeking primary medical care from private clinics and the encounters were for general medical examinations and acute minor ailments. Those who sought care from public clinics were for obstetric problems and chronic diseases. Medications were prescribed to two-thirds of the encounters while other interventions: laboratory investigations, medical procedures and follow-up appointment had lower rates in private clinics. Foreigners are generally of young working group and are expected to have mandatory medical checks. The preponderance of obstetrics seen in public clinics suggests a need for improved access to maternal care and pregnancy related care. This has implication on policy and health care provision and access for foreigners and future studies are needed to look into strategies to solve these problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emigrants and Immigrants*
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