AIM: To compare per-operative and post-operative features and outcomes of perforated peptic ulcers between Malaysians and foreigners.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was an analytical crosssectional study. All patients who underwent repair of perforated peptic ulcer disease during a 6-year period were included. 50 consecutive patients' records with perforated peptic ulcer were analysed. Data were collected from operation theatre database and hospital medical records. Chi square and t test were performed using SPSS statistical software.
RESULTS: Total of 50 patients, of which 30 were Malaysians and 20 were foreigners. The mean age of Malaysian patients was 58.3 ± 15.2 years whereas the mean age for foreign patients was 30.3 ± 6.7 years, with foreign patients being significantly younger than local patients. Foreigners had significantly smaller ulcers with only 5% of them having ulcers more than 1cm while 36.7% of Malaysian patients had ulcers more than 1cm. Post-operative complications are significantly higher in Malaysian patients (p<0.05) with 40% of Malaysian patients and 10% of foreign patients developing post-operative complications.
CONCLUSION: Foreign patients are younger with significantly smaller perforated ulcers and better post-operative outcomes.
METHODS: In-depth interviews, observations, informal conversational interviews, mystery client and critical incident technique were used. We estimated the size of FEW population using the census enumeration technique. The findings were used to inform intervention development and implementation.
RESULTS: We estimated 376 Vietnamese and 330 Thai FEWs in 2 geographical sites where they operated in Singapore. Their reasons for non-condom use included misconceptions on the transmission and consequences of STI/HIV, low risk perception of contracting HIV/STI from paid/casual partner, lack of skills to negotiate or to persuade partner to use condom, unavailability of condoms in entertainment establishments and fear of the police using condom as circumstantial evidence. They faced difficulties in accessing health services due to fear of identity exposure, stigmatisation, cost and language differences. To develop the intervention, we involved FEWs and peer educators, and ensured that the intervention was non-stigmatising and met their needs. To foster their participation, we used culturally-responsive recruitment strategies, and ensured that the trial was anonymous and acceptable to the FEWs. These strategies were effective as we achieved a participation rate of 90.3%, a follow-up rate of 70.5% for the comparison and 66.8% for the intervention group. The interventions group reported a significant increase in consistent condom use with a reduction in STI incidence compared to no significant change in the comparison group.
CONCLUSIONS: The qualitative inquiry approaches to gain access, to foster participation and to develop a culturally appropriate intervention, along with the census enumeration technique application to estimate the FEW population sizes has led to successful intervention implementation as well as safer sexual behaviour and STI incidence reduction.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02780986 . Registered 23 May 2016 (retrospectively registered).