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  1. Nur Hanani ZA, Aelma Husna AB
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Jul 15;114:710-716.
    PMID: 29601881 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.163
    κ-Carrageenan films derived from Euchema cottoni containing different types and concentrations of emulsifier were developed. Film formation without the addition of emulsifier was used as a control. The physical, mechanical, optical and microstructural properties of these films were determined. Different types of emulsifiers (Tween 20, Tween 40 and Tween 80) exerted significant effects (P≤0.05) on the thickness, moisture content and opacity of the films. Additionally, Tween 20 and Tween 40 with concentrations from 0.1 to 0.5% (v/v) significantly (P≤0.05) improved the tensile strength of the films, ranging from 7.35 to 13.83MPa. The water vapor permeability of the carrageenan films was significantly (P≤0.05) affected by both factors. Increasing the emulsifier concentration also caused an increment in the number of lipid droplets contributing to a smooth surface. Therefore, this study suggests that different types and concentrations of emulsifiers play essential roles in determining the physical properties of carrageenan films.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry*
  2. Lee YY, Tang TK, Phuah ET, Alitheen NB, Tan CP, Lai OM
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Mar;97(5):1379-1385.
    PMID: 27801514 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8124
    Non-enzymatic browning has been a wide and interesting research area in the food industry, ranging from the complexity of the reaction to its applications in the food industry as well as its ever-debatable health effects. This review provides a new perspective to the Maillard reaction apart from its ubiquitous function in enhancing food flavour, taste and appearance. It focuses on the recent application of Maillard reaction products as an inexpensive and excellent source of emulsifiers as well as superior encapsulating matrices for the entrapment of bioactive compounds. Additionally, it will also discuss the latest approaches employed to perform the Maillard reaction as well as several important reaction parameters that need to be taken into consideration when conducting the Maillard reaction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry*
  3. Sekeri SH, Ibrahim MNM, Umar K, Yaqoob AA, Azmi MN, Hussin MH, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Dec 01;164:3114-3124.
    PMID: 32853611 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.181
    A study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of lignin, extracted from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) biomass as water-in-oil (W/O) emulsifying agent. To achieve this goal, soda lignin (SL) was extracted via soda pulping process and a series of nanosized soda lignin (NSL) were prepared using homogenizer at three different speed i.e. 10,400 rpm (NSL 10), 11,400 rpm (NSL 11) and 12,400 rpm (NSL 12) for one hour. All prepared samples were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), zeta potential analyser, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Extreme High Resolution Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (XHR-FESEM). The result of FTIR showed that there is no prominent change occurred in spectra of all samples while a good stability was reflected by TGA curves. The percentage of creaming index and visual observations of all samples demonstrated that NSL 12 and dosage 2 g (out of 1 g, 1.5 g and 2 g) were found to be the best among all samples. Furthermore, the results of IFT indicate that NSL 12 was proven to be more stable than the commercial product. Therefore, NSL 12 is selected for toxicological studies and was found safe in both, in vitro and in vivo studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry*
  4. Surjit Singh CK, Lim HP, Tey BT, Chan ES
    Carbohydr Polym, 2021 Jan 01;251:117110.
    PMID: 33142647 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117110
    The commercial application of liquid-state Pickering emulsions in food systems remains a major challenge. In this study, we developed a spray-dried Pickering emulsion powder using chitosan as a Pickering emulsifier and alginate as a coating material. The functionality of the powder was evaluated in terms of its oxidative stability, pH-responsiveness, mucoadhesivity, and lipid digestibility. The Pickering emulsion powder was oxidatively more stable than the conventional emulsion powder stabilized by gum Arabic. The powder exhibited pH-responsiveness, whereby it remained intact in acidic pH, but dissolved to release the emulsion in 'Pickering form' at near-neutral pH. The Pickering emulsion powder was also mucoadhesive and could be digested by lipase in a controlled manner. These findings suggested that the multi-functional Pickering emulsion powder could be a potential delivery system for applications in the food industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry*
  5. Li S, Li C, Yang Y, He X, Zhang B, Fu X, et al.
    Food Chem, 2019 Jun 15;283:437-444.
    PMID: 30722895 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.01.020
    The present study aimed at investigating the effects of octenylsuccinylation and particle size on the emulsifying properties of starch granules as Pickering emulsifiers. Starch spherulites (1-5 μm), native rice starch (5-10 μm), waxy maize starch (10-20 μm) and waxy potato starch (20-30 μm) were modified with octenylsuccinic anhydride. Results showed that octenylsuccinylation caused a significant increase in the contact angle, and there was a weak positive linear correlation with the emulsifying capacity of the starch granules. After octenylsuccinylation, smaller particles of octenylsuccinate-starch granules exhibited better emulsifying properties with smaller droplet size and lower creaming index. Overall, both octenylsuccinylation and particle size have important effects on the emulsifying properties of starch granules as Pickering stabilizers. This study could be useful in the design and development of starch-based Pickering emulsifiers, and provide potential applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry*
  6. Cheong KW, Mirhosseini H, Hamid NS, Osman A, Basri M, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 24;19(6):8691-706.
    PMID: 24962400 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19068691
    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of main emulsion components namely, modified starch, propylene glycol alginate (PGA), sucrose laurate and sucrose stearate on creaming index, cloudiness, average droplet size and conductivity of soursop beverage emulsions. Generally, the use of different emulsifiers or a mixture of emulsifiers has a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the response variables studied. The addition of PGA had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the creaming index at 55 °C, while PGA-stabilized (PGA1) emulsions showed low creaming stability at both 25 °C and 55 °C. Conversely, the utilization of PGA either as a mixture or sole emulsifier, showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher cloudiness, as larger average droplet size will affect the refractive index of the oil and aqueous phases. Additionally, the cloudiness was directly proportional to the mean droplet size of the dispersed phase. The inclusion of PGA into the formulation could have disrupted the properties of the interfacial film, thus resulting in larger droplet size. While unadsorbed ionized PGA could have contributed to higher conductivity of emulsions prepared at low pH. Generally, emulsions prepared using sucrose monoesters or as a mixture with modified starch emulsions have significantly (p < 0.05) lower creaming index and conductivity values, but higher cloudiness and average droplet size.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry*
  7. Gannasin SP, Ramakrishnan Y, Adzahan NM, Muhammad K
    Molecules, 2012 Jun 05;17(6):6869-85.
    PMID: 22669042 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17066869
    Hydrocolloid from tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) puree was extracted using water and characterised for the first time. Proximate compositions of the extracted hydrocolloid were also determined. Functional characteristics such as water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability, foaming capacity and stability of the hydrocolloid were evaluated in comparison to that of commercial hydrocolloids. Its functional groups and degree of esterification were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Monosaccharide profiling was done using reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Screening of various fruits for high hydrocolloid yield after water extraction resulted in tamarillo giving the highest yield. The yield on dry weight basis was 8.30%. The hydrocolloid constituted of 0.83% starch, 21.18% protein and 66.48% dietary fibre with 49.47% degree of esterification and the monosaccharides identified were mannose, ribose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose. Higher oil-holding capacity, emulsifying activity and emulsion stability compared to commercial hydrocolloids propose its possible application as a food emulsifier and bile acid binder. Foaming capacity of 32.19% and good foam stabilisation (79.36% of initial foam volume after 2 h of foam formation) suggest its promising application in frothy beverages and other foam based food products. These findings suggest that water-extracted tamarillo hydrocolloid can be utilised as an alternative to low methoxyl pectin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry
  8. Saadi S, Ariffin AA, Ghazali HM, Miskandar MS, Abdulkarim SM, Boo HC
    J Food Sci, 2011 Jan-Feb;76(1):C21-30.
    PMID: 21535649 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01922.x
    The ability of palm oil (PO) to crystallize as beta prime polymorph has made it an attractive option for the production of margarine fat (MF). Palm stearin (PS) expresses similar crystallization behavior and is considered one of the best substitutes of hydrogenated oils due to its capability to impart the required level of plasticity and body to the finished product. Normally, PS is blended with PO to reduce the melting point at body temperature (37 °C). Lipid phase, formulated by PO and PS in different ratios were subjected to an emulsification process and the following analyses were done: triacylglycerols, solid fat content (SFC), and thermal behavior. In addition, the microstructure properties, including size and number of crystals, were determined for experimental MFs (EMFs) and commercial MFs (CMFs). Results showed that blending and emulsification at PS levels over 40 wt% significantly changed the physicochemical and microstructure properties of EMF as compared to CMF, resulting in a desirable dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol content of less than 36.1%. SFC at 37 °C, crystal size, crystal number, crystallization, and melting enthalpies (ΔH) were 15%, 5.37 μm, 1425 crystal/μm(2), 17.25 J/g, and 57.69J/g, respectively. All data reported indicate that the formation of granular crystals in MFs was dominated by high-melting triacylglycerol namely dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol, while the small dose of monoacylglycerol that is used as emulsifier slowed crystallization rate. Practical Application: Most of the past studies were focused on thermal behavior of edible oils and some blends of oils and fats. The crystallization of oils and fats are well documented but there is scarce information concerning some mechanism related to crystallization and emulsification. Therefore, this study will help to gather information on the behavior of emulsifier on crystallization regime; also the dominating TAG responsible for primary granular crystal formations, as well as to determine the best level of stearin to impart the required microstructure properties and body to the finished products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry*
  9. Kuan YH, Bhat R, Senan C, Williams PA, Karim AA
    J Agric Food Chem, 2009 Oct 14;57(19):9154-9.
    PMID: 19757813 DOI: 10.1021/jf9015625
    The impact of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the physicochemical and functional properties of gum arabic was investigated. Gum arabic samples were exposed to UV irradiation for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min; gum arabic was also treated with formaldehyde for comparison. Molecular weight analysis using gel permeation chromatography indicated that no significant changes occurred on the molecular structure on the samples exposed to UV irradiation. Free amino group analysis indicated that mild UV irradiation (30 min) could induce cross-linking on gum arabic; this result was comparable with that of samples treated with formaldehyde. However, viscosity break down was observed for samples exposed to UV irradiation for longer times (90 and 120 min). All irradiated and formaldehyde-treated samples exhibited better emulsification properties than unirradiated samples. These results indicate that UV-irradiated gum arabic could be a better emulsifier than the native (unmodified) gum arabic and could be exploited commercially.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry
  10. Anarjan N, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2013 Jan 09;18(1):768-77.
    PMID: 23303336 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18010768
    The effects of selected nonionic emulsifiers on the physicochemical characteristics of astaxanthin nanodispersions produced by an emulsification/evaporation technique were studied. The emulsifiers used were polysorbates (Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 40, Polysorbate 60 and Polysorbate 80) and sucrose esters of fatty acids (sucrose laurate, palmitate, stearate and oleate). The mean particle diameters of the nanodispersions ranged from 70 nm to 150 nm, depending on the emulsifier used. In the prepared nanodispersions, the astaxanthin particle diameter decreased with increasing emulsifier hydrophilicity and decreasing carbon number of the fatty acid in the emulsifier structure. Astaxanthin nanodispersions with the smallest particle diameters were produced with Polysorbate 20 and sucrose laurate among the polysorbates and the sucrose esters, respectively. We also found that the Polysorbate 80- and sucrose oleate-stabilized nanodispersions had the highest astaxanthin losses (i.e., the lowest astaxanthin contents in the final products) among the nanodispersions. This work demonstrated the importance of emulsifier type in determining the physicochemical characteristics of astaxanthin nano-dispersions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry*
  11. Tan TB, Yussof NS, Abas F, Mirhosseini H, Nehdi IA, Tan CP
    Food Chem, 2016 Mar 1;194:416-23.
    PMID: 26471574 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.08.045
    A solvent displacement method was used to prepare lutein nanodispersions. The effects of processing parameters (addition method, addition rate, stirring time and stirring speed) and emulsifiers with different stabilizing mechanisms (steric, electrostatic, electrosteric and combined electrostatic-steric) on the particle size and particle size distribution (PSD) of the nanodispersions were investigated. Among the processing parameters, only the addition method and stirring time had significant effects (p<0.05) on the particle size and PSD. For steric emulsifiers, Tween 20, 40, 60 and 80 were used to produce nanodispersions successfully with particle sizes below 100nm. Tween 80 (steric) was then chosen for further comparison against sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (electrostatic), sodium caseinate (electrosteric) and SDS-Tween 80 (combined electrostatic-steric) emulsifiers. At the lowest emulsifier concentration of 0.1%, all the emulsifiers invariably produced stable nanodispersions with small particle sizes (72.88-142.85nm) and narrow PSDs (polydispersity index<0.40).
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry*
  12. Wan Mohamad WAF, McNaughton D, Augustin MA, Buckow R
    Food Chem, 2018 Aug 15;257:361-367.
    PMID: 29622223 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.03.027
    Understanding the bioactive partitioning between the phases of an emulsion system underpins strategies for improving the efficiency of bioactive protection against degradation. We analysed partitioning of β-carotene in emulsions with various formulations in-situ using confocal Raman microscopy (CRM). The partitioning of β-carotene into the aqueous phase of emulsions increased when whey protein isolate (WPI) was heat or high pressure-treated prior to emulsion formation. However, increasing the concentration of high pressure-treated WPI reduced the β-carotene partitioning into the aqueous phase. Increasing the solid fat content in the carrier oil favoured the migration of β-carotene into the aqueous phase. The use of WPI as the emulsifier resulted in a greater partitioning of β-carotene into the aqueous phase compared to when Tween 40 was the emulsifier. This study demonstrates that partitioning of β-carotene between the aqueous and oil phase is dependent on the characteristics of the oil phase, emulsifier type and processing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry*
  13. Cheong AM, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2018 Oct;83(10):2457-2465.
    PMID: 30178877 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14332
    Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions (NANO) stabilized by sodium caseinate (SC), beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD), and Tween 20 (T20) have been optimized and shown to improve in vitro bioaccessibility and physicochemical stability in the previous study. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidants in the NANO during storage at different temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C). An evaluation of the antioxidant activities of each emulsifier showed that SC had good scavenging capability with 97.6% ABTS radical scavenging activity. Therefore, SC which was used as one of the main emulsifiers could further enhanced the antioxidant activity of NANO. At week 8 of storage, NANO that stored at 4 °C had maintained the best bioactive compounds stability and antioxidant activities with 90% retention of vitamin E and 65% retention of phytosterols. These results suggested that 4 °C would be the most suitable storage temperature for NANO containing naturally present vitamin E and phytosterols. From the accelerated storage results at 40 °C, NANO containing vitamin E and phytosterols had maintained half of its initial concentration until week 4 and week 2 of storage, which is equivalent to 16 weeks and 8 weeks of storage at room temperature, respectively.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results of this study provide a better understanding on the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities in oil-in-water nanoemulsions that stabilized by similar ternary emulsifiers during storage at different temperatures. In addition, this study could be used as a predictive model to estimate the shelf life of bioactive compounds encapsulated in the form of nanoemulsions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry
  14. Akit H, Collins CL, Fahri FT, Hung AT, D'Souza DN, Leury BJ, et al.
    Meat Sci, 2014 Mar;96(3):1147-51.
    PMID: 24334033 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.10.028
    The influence of dietary lecithin at doses of 0, 4, 20 or 80 g/kg fed to finisher gilts for six weeks prior to slaughter on growth performance, carcass quality and pork quality was investigated. M. longissimus lumborum (loin) was removed from 36 pig carcasses at 24h post-mortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, collagen content and colour analyses. Dietary lecithin increased dressing percentage (P=0.009). Pork chewiness and collagen content were decreased by dietary lecithin (P<0.05, respectively), suggesting that improved chewiness may be due to decreased collagen content. However, dietary lecithin had no effect on shear force, cohesiveness or hardness (P>0.05, respectively). Dietary lecithin reduced loin muscle L* values and increased a* values (P<0.05, respectively) but no changes on b* values (P=0.56). The data showed that dietary lecithin improved dressing percentage and resulted in less chewy and less pale pork.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry
  15. Soo YN, Tan CP, Tan PY, Khalid N, Tan TB
    J Sci Food Agric, 2021 Apr;101(6):2455-2462.
    PMID: 33034060 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10871
    BACKGROUND: The popularity of coffee, the second most consumed beverage in the world, contributes to the high demand for liquid non-dairy creamer (LNDC). In this study, palm olein emulsions (as LNDCs) were investigated as alternatives to the more common soybean oil-based LNDCs. LNDCs were prepared via different homogenization pressures (100-300 bar) using different types of oil (palm olein and soybean oil) and concentrations of DATEM emulsifier (5-20 g kg-1 ).

    RESULTS: Increases in homogenization pressure and emulsifier concentration were observed to have significant (P  0.05) differences between the prepared and commercial LNDCs in terms of their color, appearance, and overall acceptability.

    CONCLUSION: Shelf-stable LNDCs with qualities comparable to commercial LNDC were successfully fabricated. Valuable insights into the effects of homogenization pressure, oil type, and emulsifier concentration, as well as functionality and consumer acceptance of the LNDCs when added into black coffee, were obtained. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry
  16. Venkatesh G, Majid MI, Mansor SM, Nair NK, Croft SL, Navaratnam V
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2010 Jun;36(6):735-45.
    PMID: 20136493 DOI: 10.3109/03639040903460446
    The aim of this study was to prepare a lipid-based self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) to increase the solubility and oral bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble compound, buparvaquone (BPQ).
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry*
  17. Hamidon NH, Abang Zaidel DN, Mohd Jusoh YM
    Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric, 2020;11(3):202-210.
    PMID: 32031081 DOI: 10.2174/2212798411666200207102051
    BACKGROUND: Pectin is a natural polysaccharide that has been used widely as a stabilizer in food emulsion system.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to optimize the yield of pectin extracted from sweet potato residue and investigate its emulsifying properties.

    METHODS: Response surface methodology (RSM) has been utilized to investigate the pectin extracted from sweet potato peels using citric acid as the extracting solvent. Investigation of the effect of different extraction conditions namely temperature (°C), time (min) and solution pH on pectin yield (%) were conducted. A Box-Benhken design with three levels of variation was used to optimize the extraction conditions.

    RESULTS: The optimal conditions determined were temperature 76°C, time 64 min and pH 1.2 with 65.2% yield of pectin. The degree of esterification (DE) of the sweet potato pectin was determined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The pectin is high-methoxyl pectin with DE of 58.5%. Emulsifying properties of sweet potato pectin were investigated by measuring the zeta-potential, particle size and creaming index with addition of 0.4 and 1.0 wt % pectin to the emulsion.

    CONCLUSION: Extraction using citric acid could improve the pectin yield. Improved emulsion stability was observed with the addition of the sweet potato pectin.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry*
  18. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Pandey M, Chatterjee LA, Sengupta P, Das A, et al.
    J Pharm Sci, 2017 07;106(7):1736-1751.
    PMID: 28412398 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2017.03.042
    Being an emerging transdermal delivery tool, nanoemulgel, has proved to show surprising upshots for the lipophilic drugs over other formulations. This lipophilic nature of majority of the newer drugs developed in this modern era resulting in poor oral bioavailability, erratic absorption, and pharmacokinetic variations. Therefore, this novel transdermal delivery system has been proved to be advantageous over other oral and topical drug delivery to avoid such disturbances. These nanoemulgels are basically oil-in-water nanoemulsions gelled with the use of some gelling agent in it. This gel phase in the formulation is nongreasy, which favors user compliance and stabilizes the formulation through reduction in surface as well as interfacial tension. Simultaneously, it can be targeted more specifically to the site of action and can avoid first-pass metabolism and relieve the user from gastric/systemic incompatibilities. This brief review is focused on nanoemulgel as a better topical drug delivery system including its components screening, formulation method, and recent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advancement in research studies carried out by the scientists all over the world. Therefore, at the end of this survey it could be inferred that nanoemulgel can be a better and effective drug delivery tool for the topical system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry
  19. Al-Edresi S, Baie S
    Int J Pharm, 2009 May 21;373(1-2):174-8.
    PMID: 19429303 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.02.011
    Virgin coconut oil (VCO)-in-water, nano-emulsion in the form of cream stabilized by Emulium Kappa as an emulsifier, was prepared by using the Emulsion Inversion Point method. A nano-emulsion with droplet size <300 nm was then obtained. VCO has recently become a more popular new material in the cosmetic industries. Emulium Kappa is an ionic emulsifier that contains sodium stearoyl lactylate, the active whitening ingredient was Kojic Dipalmitate. Ostwald ripening is the main destabilizing factor for the nano-emulsion. This decline can be reduced by adding non-soluble oil, namely squalene, to the virgin coconut oil. We tested VCO:squalene in the ratios of 10:0, 9.8:0.2, 9.6:0.4, 9.4:0.6, 9.2:0.8, 9:1 and 8:2 and discovered that squalene's higher molecular weight (above critical molecular weight) resulted in low polarity and insolubility in the continuous phase. The continuous partitioning between the droplets results in the decline of Ostwald ripening. Furthermore, flocculation may occur due to the instability of nano-emulsion, especially for the preparations with little or no squalene at all. The stability of the nano-emulsion was evaluated by the electrophoretic properties of the emulsion droplets. The zeta potential values for the emulsion increased as the percentage of squalene oil increased.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry
  20. Chee KL, Ayob MK
    Food Sci Technol Int, 2013 Apr;19(2):109-22.
    PMID: 23520324 DOI: 10.1177/1082013212442185
    Response surface methodology was applied to study the optimization of palm kernel cake protein (PKCP) hexametaphosphate-assisted extraction. The optimum PKCP yield (28.37%) when extracted using 1.50% sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) of pH 10, at 50 °C, and the 1:70 (w/v) ratio of cake-to-solvent was significantly (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsifying Agents/chemistry
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