METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the use of FloSeal with a hemostatic delivery system in transnasal endoscopic and microscopic skull base procedures performed at the authors' institution from January 1, 2015, to June 30, 2015. In all cases the number of aliquots was noted for the entire operation, and the total number of FloSeal ampules of 5 mL was also recorded.
RESULTS: Our device allowed controlled application of small amounts (0.5-1 mL) of FloSeal to the site of bleeding. This controlled application resulted not only in increased visibility during its application, but it also reduced the amount of FloSeal required during the procedure. We were able to use 5-10 applications per 5-mL ampule of FloSeal within an individual procedure. No procedure required more than one 5-mL ampule of FloSeal. Therefore, the use of our device results in a reduction of costs. Prior to the use of our device, we were often only able to use 1 vial of 5 ml of material for 1 or 2 applications, especially in transnasal endoscopic procedures when working along a deep corridor.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that our delivery device of FlowSeal can effectively control hemostasis by applying small amounts of FlowSeal to the site of bleeding. This results in increased visibility during hemostasis and a reduction of cost.
RECENT FINDINGS: Transpetrygoid is the most utilized approach with modifications suggested to limit bone removal, exposure and preservation of the neurovascular structures as dictated by the extent of the lateral recess. As more experience is gained, extended transphenoidal techniques were also successfully used for access. Lateral transorbital is a new approach to the lateral recess investigated in cadavers. IIH treatment is still controversial in the setting of SSLRE, but it appears rationale to evaluate, monitor and treat if necessary.
SUMMARY: SSLRE management should be tailored to the specific anatomical variances and cause. Modifications of techniques have been described giving different options to access the lateral recess. Successful repair for spontaneous SSLRE may require treatment of IIH if present, but the long-term outcome is still unclear.
METHODS: Sixteen patients were recruited for voice analysis during pre-operative, within two weeks and at least three months post-operatively. Subjective questionnaire was used to assess perception of voice changes.
RESULTS: There were no statistically significant changes in the acoustic parameters of patients with nasal polyposis. In patients with CRS without polyps, there was a statistically significant increase in fundamental frequency (F0) in nasal sound during early follow up. The changes in soft phonation index (SPI) values between the two groups were statistically significant during early follow-ups. Only patients with nasal polyposis perceived a subjective change in their voice post-operatively.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should inform all patients, especially voice professionals about the possible effects of endoscopic sinus surgeries on their voice quality.
METHOD: The Delphi method was used to develop consensus statements through identification of clinical questions on diagnostic endoscopy. Three consensus meetings were conducted to consolidate the statements and voting. We conducted a systematic literature search on evidence for each statement. The statements were presented in the second consensus meeting and revised according to comments. The final voting was conducted at the third consensus meeting on the level of evidence and agreement.
RESULTS: Risk stratification should be conducted before endoscopy and high risk endoscopic findings should raise an index of suspicion. The presence of premalignant mucosal changes should be documented and use of sedation is recommended to enhance detection of superficial upper GI neoplasms. The use of antispasmodics and mucolytics enhanced visualisation of the upper GI tract, and systematic endoscopic mapping should be conducted to improve detection. Sufficient examination time and structured training on diagnosis improves detection. Image enhanced endoscopy in addition to white light imaging improves detection of superficial upper GI cancer. Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging is recommended for characterisation of upper GI superficial neoplasms. Endoscopic characterisation can avoid unnecessary biopsy.
CONCLUSION: This consensus provides guidance for the performance of endoscopic diagnosis and characterisation for early gastric and oesophageal neoplasia based on the evidence. This will enhance the quality of endoscopic diagnosis and improve detection of early upper GI cancers.