Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 100 in total

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  1. Soheili S, Ghafourian S, Sekawi Z, Neela V, Sadeghifard N, Ramli R, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:623174.
    PMID: 25147855 DOI: 10.1155/2014/623174
    Enterococcus, a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic cocci belonging to the lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes, is known to be able to resist a wide range of hostile conditions such as different pH levels, high concentration of NaCl (6.5%), and the extended temperatures between 5(°)C and 65(°)C. Despite being the third most common nosocomial pathogen, our understanding on its virulence factors is still poorly understood. The current study was aimed to determine the prevalence of different virulence genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. For this purpose, 79 clinical isolates of Malaysian enterococci were evaluated for the presence of virulence genes. pilB, fms8, efaAfm, and sgrA genes are prevalent in all clinical isolates. In conclusion, the pathogenicity of E. faecalis and E. faecium could be associated with different virulence factors and these genes are widely distributed among the enterococcal species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecalis/genetics*; Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecalis/pathogenicity; Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecium/pathogenicity
  2. Soheili S, Ghafourian S, Sekawi Z, Neela VK, Sadeghifard N, Taherikalani M, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:2553-61.
    PMID: 26005332 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S77263
    The toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems are potent and sensitive targets in all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecalis/genetics*; Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecalis/pathogenicity; Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecium/pathogenicity
  3. Gould IM, Wang GQ, Wu JJ, Lim VK, Hutchinson J, Walsh T, et al.
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 2014 Mar;2(1):7-9.
    PMID: 27873642 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2013.10.005
    The International Society of Chemotherapy's Working Groups on Antibiotic Resistance and Antibiotic Stewardship convened a half-day workshop on the burden of multidrug-resistant organisms in the Asia-Pacific. This short review is a summary of their discussion and conclusions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus
  4. Weng PL, Ramli R, Shamsudin MN, Cheah YK, Hamat RA
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:938937.
    PMID: 23819125 DOI: 10.1155/2013/938937
    Little is known on the genetic relatedness and potential dissemination of particular enterococcal clones in Malaysia. We studied the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and subjected them to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). E. faecium and E. faecalis displayed 27 and 30 pulsotypes, respectively, and 10 representative E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates (five each) yielded few different sequence types (STs): ST17 (2 isolates), ST78, ST203, and ST601 for E. faecium, and ST6, ST16, ST28, ST179, and ST399 for E. faecalis. Resistance to tazobactam-piperacillin and ampicillin amongst E. faecium isolates was highly observed as compared to E. faecalis isolates. All of the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The presence of epidemic and nosocomial strains of selected E. faecium STs: 17, 78, and 203 and E. faecalis ST6 as well as high rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics amongst E. faecium isolates is of a particular concern.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecalis/classification*; Enterococcus faecalis/genetics*; Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecium/classification*; Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification
  5. Dada AC, Ahmad A, Usup G, Heng LY
    Environ Monit Assess, 2013 Feb;185(2):1583-99.
    PMID: 22592782 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-012-2653-6
    We report the first study on the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in coastal bathing waters in Malaysia. One hundred and sixty-five enterococci isolates recovered from two popular recreational beaches in Malaysia were speciated and screened for antibiotic resistance to a total of eight antibiotics. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium was highest in both beaches. E. faecalis/E. faecium ratio was 0.384:1 and 0.375:1, respectively, for isolates from Port Dickson (PD) and Bagan Lalang (BL). Analysis of Fisher's exact test showed that association of prevalence of E. faecalis and E. faecium with considered locations was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Chi-square test revealed significant differences (χ(2) = 82.630, df = 20, p < 0.001) in the frequency of occurrence of enterococci isolates from the considered sites. Resistance was highest to nalidixic acid (94.84 %) and least for chloramphenicol (8.38 %). One-way ANOVA using Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test showed that resistance to ampicillin was higher in PD beach isolates than BL isolates and the difference was extremely statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Frequency of occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) isolates were higher for PD beach water (64.29 %) as compared to BL beach water (13.51 %), while MAR indices ranged between 0.198 and 0.48. The results suggest that samples from Port Dickson may contain MAR bacteria and that this could be due to high-risk faecal contamination from sewage discharge pipes that drain into the sea water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus/classification; Enterococcus/drug effects; Enterococcus/genetics*; Enterococcus/isolation & purification
  6. Daniel DS, Lee SM, Gan HM, Dykes GA, Rahman S
    J Infect Public Health, 2017 02 21;10(5):617-623.
    PMID: 28254461 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2017.02.006
    Enterococcus faecalis ranks as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. A strong epidemiological link has been reported between E. faecalis inhabiting animals and environmental sources. This study investigates the genetic diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants in E. faecalis from three sources in Malaysia. A total of 250 E. faecalis isolates were obtained consisting of 120 isolates from farm animals, 100 isolates from water sources and 30 isolates from hospitalized patients. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis-typing yielded 63 pulsotypes, with high diversity observed in all sources (D=≥0.901). No pulsotype was common to all the three sources. Each patient room had its own unique PFGE pattern which persisted after six months. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of Vancomycin, Gentamicin, Penicillin, Tetracycline, Nitrofurantoin, Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Fosfomycin were evaluated. Resistance to Tetracycline was most prevalent in isolates from farm animals (62%) and water sources (49%). Water isolates (86%) had a higher prevalence of the asa1 gene, which encodes for aggregation substance, whereas clinical (78%) and farm animal isolates (87%) had a higher prevalence of the esp gene, encoding a surface exposed protein. This study generates knowledge on the genetic diversity of E. faecalis with antibiotic resistance and virulence characteristics from various sources in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects; Enterococcus faecalis/genetics*; Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecalis/pathogenicity
  7. Sui, Sien Leong, Lihan, Samuel, Hwa, Chuan Chia
    MyJurnal
    The abuse of antibiotics usage in bird industry has resulted in the emerging antibiotic resistant Enterococci worldwide which has posed a threat clinically to human health. The present study was to screen and identify the potential virulence agents in antibiotic resistance E. faecalis in bird industry in Borneo. Enterococcus bacteria collected from the birds’ faeces and indoor air inside ten birdhouses were identified to species level and their antibiotic resistance was checked using antibiotic susceptibility discs. Specific primers using PCR assay were intended for the detection of four potential virulence genes (ace, AS, efaA, gelE). Out of the thirty-seven Enterococci faecal bacteria, the prevailing bacteria found were Enterococcus qallinacum (51%), Enterococcus faecalis (35%) and Enterococcus harae (8%). The airborne bacteria were reported as Enterococcus faecalis (5%) and Enterococcus qallinacum (1%). Twenty-seven percent of isolates were reported to have Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index ≥ 0.2 with 9 distinct resistance patterns formed. E. faecalis showed higher resistance to vancomycin. Virulence genes were successfully reported in the 15 E. faecalis isolates. Sixty-seven percent of isolates were detected positive for four virulence genes, 27% possessed three (AS, efaA, gelE) genes and 6% possessed two (ace, AS) genes. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes detection were significantly correlated. These virulence genes or antibiotic resistance genes were important in the pathogenesis of E. faecalis infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecalis; Enterococcus; Enterococcus faecium
  8. Weng PL, Ramli R, Hamat RA
    PMID: 31533204 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16183439
    Enterococci are commonly found in humans, animals and environments. Their highly adaptive mechanisms are related to several virulent determinants and their ability to resist antibiotics. Data on the relationship between the esp gene, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility profiles may differ between countries. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the proportion of esp gene and biofilm formation among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates. We also investigated the possible association between the esp gene with antibiotic susceptibility patterns and biofilm formation. The isolates were collected from clinical samples and identified using biochemical tests and 16SRNA. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and a biofilm assay were conducted according to the established guidelines. Molecular detection by PCR was used to identify the esp gene using established primers. In total, 52 and 28 of E. faecalis and E. faecium were identified, respectively. E. faecium exhibited higher resistance rates compared to E. faecalis as follows: piperacillin/tazobactam (100% versus 1.9%), ampicillin (92.8% versus 1.9%), high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) (89.3% versus 25.0%) and penicillin (82.1% versus 7.7%). E. faecium produced more biofilms than E. faecalis (59.3% versus 49.0%). E. faecium acquired the esp gene more frequently than E. faecalis (78.6% versus 46.2%). Interestingly, the associations between ampicillin and tazobactam/piperacillin resistance with the esp gene were statistically significant (X2 = 4.581, p = 0.027; and X2 = 6.276, p = 0.012, respectively). Our results demonstrate that E. faecium exhibits high rates of antimicrobial resistance, esp gene acquisition and biofilm formation. These peculiar traits of E. faecium may have implications for the management of enterococcal infections in hospitals. Thus, concerted efforts by all parties in establishing appropriate treatment and effective control measures are warranted in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecalis/genetics; Enterococcus faecalis/physiology*; Enterococcus faecium/genetics; Enterococcus faecium/physiology*
  9. Getachew Y, Hassan L, Zakaria Z, Abdul Aziz S
    Appl Environ Microbiol, 2013 Aug;79(15):4528-33.
    PMID: 23666337 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00650-13
    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been reported to be present in humans, chickens, and pigs in Malaysia. In the present study, representative samples of VRE isolated from these populations were examined for similarities and differences by using the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. Housekeeping genes of Enterococcus faecium (n = 14) and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11) isolates were sequenced and analyzed using the MLST databases eBURST and goeBURST. We found five sequence types (STs) of E. faecium and six STs of E. faecalis existing in Malaysia. Enterococcus faecium isolates belonging to ST203, ST17, ST55, ST79, and ST29 were identified, and E. faecium ST203 was the most common among humans. The MLST profiles of E. faecium from humans in this study were similar to the globally reported nosocomial-related strain lineage belonging to clonal complex 17 (CC17). Isolates from chickens and pigs have few similarities to those from humans, except for one isolate from a chicken, which was identified as ST203. E. faecalis isolates were more diverse and were identified as ST4, ST6, ST87, ST108, ST274, and ST244, which were grouped as specific to the three hosts. E. faecalis, belonging to the high-risk CC2 and CC87, were detected among isolates from humans. In conclusion, even though one isolate from a chicken was found clonal to that of humans, the MLST analysis of E. faecium and E. faecalis supports the findings of others who suggest VRE to be predominantly host specific and that clinically important strains are found mainly among humans. The infrequent detection of a human VRE clone in a chicken may in fact suggest a reverse transmission of VRE from humans to animals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects; Enterococcus faecalis/genetics*; Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecium/drug effects; Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification
  10. Nami Y, Abdullah N, Haghshenas B, Radiah D, Rosli R, Khosroushahi AY
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2014 Aug;63(Pt 8):1044-1051.
    PMID: 24913559 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.074161-0
    Forty-five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the vaginal specimens of healthy fertile women, and the identities of the bacteria were confirmed by sequencing of their 16S rDNA genes. Among these bacteria, only four isolates were able to resist and survive in low pH, bile salts and simulated in vitro digestion conditions. Lactococcus lactis 2HL, Enterococcus durans 6HL, Lactobacillus acidophilus 36YL and Lactobacillus plantarum 5BL showed the best resistance to these conditions. These strains were evaluated further to assess their ability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Lactococcus lactis 2HL and E. durans 6HL were the most adherent strains. In vitro tests under neutralized pH proved the antimicrobial activity of both strains. Results revealed that the growth of Escherichia coli O26, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri was suppressed by both LAB strains. The antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that these strains were sensitive to all nine antibiotics: vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. These data suggest that E. durans 6HL and Lactococcus lactis 2HL could be examined further for their useful properties and could be developed as new probiotics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus/classification*; Enterococcus/drug effects; Enterococcus/physiology
  11. Shah-Majid M, Azlina AM, Ana Maria AR, Zaharah B, Norhaliza AH
    Vet. Rec., 2004 Nov 20;155(21):680-1.
    PMID: 15581146
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus/classification; Enterococcus/drug effects*; Enterococcus/isolation & purification*
  12. Yean CY, Yin LS, Lalitha P, Ravichandran M
    BMC Microbiol, 2007;7:112.
    PMID: 18070365
    Enterococci have emerged as a significant cause of nosocomial infections in many parts of the world over the last decade. The most common enterococci strains present in clinical isolates are E. faecalis and E. faecium which have acquired resistant to either gentamicin or vancomycin. The conventional culture test takes 2-5 days to yield complete information of the organism and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Hence our present study was focused on developing a nanoplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of vancomycin and bifunctional aminoglycoside resistant enterococci (V-BiA-RE). This assay simultaneously detects 8 genes namely 16S rRNA of Enterococcus genus, ddl of E. faecalis and E. faecium, aacA-aphD that encodes high level gentamicin resistance (HLGR), multilevel vancomycin resistant genotypes such as vanA, vanB, vanC and vanD and one internal control gene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecalis/classification; Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects; Enterococcus faecalis/genetics*; Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecium/classification; Enterococcus faecium/drug effects; Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification
  13. Getachew YM, Hassan L, Zakaria Z, Saleha AA, Kamaruddin MI, Che Zalina MZ
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Dec;26(3):280-8.
    PMID: 20237442 MyJurnal
    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is an emerging nosocomial pathogen in humans. The use of antibiotics in human therapy and in the production of food animals has been incriminated in the emergence of this organism. The present study describes the distribution of VRE species, the vancomycin-resistant genes detected, the vancomycin resistance pattern observed, and the genetic diversity of the isolates found in live broiler chickens in Malaysia. Overall 140 VRE were isolated with species comprising Enterococcus faecalis (48%), Enterococcus faecium (25.7%), Enterococcus gallinarum (12.1%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (1.4%) and other Enterococcus species (12.8%). Vancomycin resistance gene vanA and intrinsic genes vanC1 and vanC2/3 were detected in the study population. VanA was detected in 15 (63.9%) of E. faecium, 23 (22.4%) of E. faecalis and in 3 (17.6%) E. gallinarum isolates. E-test was conducted on randomly selected 41 of the isolates and the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of vancomycin for five (11.9%) of tested isolates is more than 256 μg/ml. Genotypic analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) showed genetic diversity within the Enterococcus species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus/classification; Enterococcus/drug effects*; Enterococcus/genetics*; Enterococcus/isolation & purification
  14. Moreno MR, Leisner JJ, Tee LK, Ley C, Radu S, Rusul G, et al.
    J Appl Microbiol, 2002;92(1):147-57.
    PMID: 11849339
    Isolation of bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the Malaysian mould-fermented product tempeh and characterization of the produced bacteriocin(s).
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/drug effects; Enterococcus faecium/genetics; Enterococcus faecium/growth & development; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification*; Enterococcus faecium/metabolism
  15. Al-Talib H, Zuraina N, Kamarudin B, Yean CY
    Adv Clin Exp Med, 2015 Jan-Feb;24(1):121-7.
    PMID: 25923096 DOI: 10.17219/acem/38162
    The genus Enterococcus is of increasing significance as a cause of nosocomial infections, and this trend is exacerbated by the development of antibiotic resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecalis/genetics*; Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecalis/pathogenicity*; Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecium/pathogenicity*
  16. Thomas AR, Mani R, Reddy TV, Ravichandran A, Sivakumar M, Krishnakumar S
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2019 Sep 01;20(9):1090-1094.
    PMID: 31797835
    AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial efficiency of a combination of 1% alexidine (ALX) and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against E. faecalis biofilm using a confocal scanning electron microscopy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: An estimated 120 human root dentin disks were prepared, sterilized, and inoculated with E. faecalis strain (ATCC 29212) to develop a 3-weeks-old biofilm. The dentin discs were exposed to group I-control group: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (n = 20); group II-1% ALX + 5.25% NaOCl (n = 40); group III-1% alexidine (ALX) (n = 40) (Sigma-Aldrich, Mumbai, India); group IV-negative control: saline (n = 20). After exposure, the dentin disks were stained with the fluorescent live/dead dye and evaluated with a confocal scanning electron microscope to calculate the proportion of dead cells. Statistical analysis was done using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05).

    RESULTS: The maximum proportion of dead cells were seen in the groups treated with the combination of 1% ALX + 5.25% NaOCl (94.89%) and in the control group 5.25% NaOCl (93.14%). The proportion of dead cells presented in the 1% ALX group (51.79%) and negative control group saline (15.10%) were comparatively less.

    CONCLUSION: The antibacterial efficiency of a combination of 1% ALX and 5.25% NaOCl was more effective when compared with 1% ALX alone.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Alexidine at 1% could be used as an alternative endodontic irrigant to chlorhexidine, as alexidine does not form any toxic precipitates with sodium hypochlorite. The disinfection regimen comprising a combination of 1% ALX and 5.25% NaOCl is effective in eliminating E. faecalis biofilms.

    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecalis*
  17. Nami Y, Abdullah N, Haghshenas B, Radiah D, Rosli R, Yari Khosroushahi A
    J Appl Microbiol, 2014 Aug;117(2):498-508.
    PMID: 24775273 DOI: 10.1111/jam.12531
    This study aimed to describe probiotic properties and bio-therapeutic effects of newly isolated Enterococcus faecalis from the human vaginal tract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects; Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecalis/metabolism*
  18. Chan GF, Gan HM, Rashid NA
    J. Bacteriol., 2012 Oct;194(20):5716-7.
    PMID: 23012290
    Enterococcus sp. strain C1 is a facultative anaerobe which was coisolated with Citrobacter sp. strain A1 from a sewage oxidation pond. Strain C1 could degrade azo dyes very efficiently via azo reduction and desulfonation in a microaerophilic environment. Here the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus sp. C1 is reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus/genetics*; Enterococcus/isolation & purification; Enterococcus/physiology
  19. Dada AC, Ahmad A, Usup G, Heng LY, Hamid R
    Environ Monit Assess, 2013 Sep;185(9):7427-43.
    PMID: 23417753 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-013-3110-x
    We report the first study on the occurrence of high-level aminoglycoside-resistant (HLAR) Enterococci in coastal bathing waters and beach sand in Malaysia. None of the encountered isolates were resistant to high levels of gentamicin (500 μg/mL). However, high-level resistance to kanamycin (2,000 μg/mL) was observed in 14.2 % of tested isolates, the highest proportions observed being among beach sand isolates. High-level resistance to kanamycin was higher among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium than Enterococcus spp. Chi-square analysis showed no significant association between responses to tested antibiotics and the species allocation or source of isolation of all tested Enterococci. The species classification of encountered Enterococci resistance to vancomycin was highest among Enterococcus spp. (5.89 %) followed by E. faecium (4.785) and least among E. faecalis. A total of 160 isolates were also tested for virulence characteristics. On the whole, caseinase production was profoundly highest (15.01 %) while the least prevalent virulence characteristic observed among tested beach Enterococci was haemolysis of rabbit blood (3.65 %). A strong association was observed between the source of isolation and responses for each of caseinase (C = 0.47, V = 0.53) and slime (C = 0.50, V = 0.58) assays. Analysis of obtained spearman's coefficient showed a strong correlation between caseinase and each of the slime production (p = 0.04), gelatinase (p = 0.0035) and haemolytic activity on horse blood (p = 0.004), respectively. Suggestively, these are the main virulent characteristics of the studied beach Enterococci. Our findings suggest that recreational beaches may contribute to the dissemination of Enterococci with HLAR and virulence characteristics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus/isolation & purification; Enterococcus/pathogenicity; Enterococcus/physiology*
  20. Lau CP, Abdul-Wahab MF, Jaafar J, Chan GF, Abdul Rashid NA
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2017 Aug;50(4):427-434.
    PMID: 26427880 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2015.08.004
    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Currently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have gained importance in various industrial applications. However, their impact upon release into the environment on microorganisms remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped AgNPs synthesized in this laboratory on two bacterial strains isolated from the environment, Gram-negative Citrobacter sp. A1 and Gram-positive Enterococcus sp. C1.

    METHODS: Polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped AgNPs were synthesized by ultrasound-assisted chemical reduction. Characterization of the AgNPs involved UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Citrobacter sp. A1 and Enterococcus sp. C1 were exposed to varying concentrations of AgNPs, and cell viability was determined. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate the morphological alteration of both species upon exposure to AgNPs at 1000 mg/L.

    RESULTS: The synthesized AgNPs were spherical in shape, with an average particle size of 15 nm. The AgNPs had different but prominent effects on either Citrobacter sp. A1 or Enterococcus sp. C1. At an AgNP concentration of 1000 mg/L, Citrobacter sp. A1 retained viability for 6 hours, while Enterococcus sp. C1 retained viability only for 3 hours. Citrobacter sp. A1 appeared to be more resistant to AgNPs than Enterococcus sp. C1. The cell wall of both strains was found to be morphologically altered at that concentration.

    CONCLUSION: Minute and spherical AgNPs significantly affected the viability of the two bacterial strains selected from the environment. Enterococcus sp. C1 was more vulnerable to AgNPs, probably due to its cell wall architecture and the absence of silver resistance-related genes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus/drug effects*; Enterococcus/isolation & purification; Enterococcus/physiology
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