Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

  1. Soheili S, Ghafourian S, Sekawi Z, Neela V, Sadeghifard N, Ramli R, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:623174.
    PMID: 25147855 DOI: 10.1155/2014/623174
    Enterococcus, a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic cocci belonging to the lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes, is known to be able to resist a wide range of hostile conditions such as different pH levels, high concentration of NaCl (6.5%), and the extended temperatures between 5(°)C and 65(°)C. Despite being the third most common nosocomial pathogen, our understanding on its virulence factors is still poorly understood. The current study was aimed to determine the prevalence of different virulence genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. For this purpose, 79 clinical isolates of Malaysian enterococci were evaluated for the presence of virulence genes. pilB, fms8, efaAfm, and sgrA genes are prevalent in all clinical isolates. In conclusion, the pathogenicity of E. faecalis and E. faecium could be associated with different virulence factors and these genes are widely distributed among the enterococcal species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecium/pathogenicity
  2. Soheili S, Ghafourian S, Sekawi Z, Neela VK, Sadeghifard N, Taherikalani M, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:2553-61.
    PMID: 26005332 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S77263
    The toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems are potent and sensitive targets in all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecium/pathogenicity
  3. Moreno MR, Leisner JJ, Tee LK, Ley C, Radu S, Rusul G, et al.
    J Appl Microbiol, 2002;92(1):147-57.
    PMID: 11849339
    Isolation of bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the Malaysian mould-fermented product tempeh and characterization of the produced bacteriocin(s).
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/drug effects; Enterococcus faecium/genetics; Enterococcus faecium/growth & development; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification*; Enterococcus faecium/metabolism
  4. Weng PL, Ramli R, Shamsudin MN, Cheah YK, Hamat RA
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:938937.
    PMID: 23819125 DOI: 10.1155/2013/938937
    Little is known on the genetic relatedness and potential dissemination of particular enterococcal clones in Malaysia. We studied the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and subjected them to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). E. faecium and E. faecalis displayed 27 and 30 pulsotypes, respectively, and 10 representative E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates (five each) yielded few different sequence types (STs): ST17 (2 isolates), ST78, ST203, and ST601 for E. faecium, and ST6, ST16, ST28, ST179, and ST399 for E. faecalis. Resistance to tazobactam-piperacillin and ampicillin amongst E. faecium isolates was highly observed as compared to E. faecalis isolates. All of the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The presence of epidemic and nosocomial strains of selected E. faecium STs: 17, 78, and 203 and E. faecalis ST6 as well as high rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics amongst E. faecium isolates is of a particular concern.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/classification*; Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification
  5. Raja NS, Karunakaran R, Ngeow YF, Awang R
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2005 Sep;54(Pt 9):901-903.
    PMID: 16091445 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.46169-0
    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are formidable organisms renowned for their ability to cause infections with limited treatment options and their potential for transferring resistance genes to other Gram-positive bacteria. Usually associated with nosocomial infections, VRE are rarely reported as a cause of community-acquired infection. Presented here is a case of community-acquired infection due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. The patient had been applying herbal leaves topically to his cheek to treat a buccal space abscess, resulting in a burn of the overlying skin. From pus aspirated via the skin a pure culture of E. faecium was grown that was resistant to vancomycin with a MIC of >256 microg ml-1 by the E test and resistant to teicoplanin by disc diffusion, consistent with the VanA phenotype. The organism was suspected of contaminating the leaf and infecting the patient via the burnt skin. This case highlights the need for further studies on the community prevalence of VRE among humans and animals to define unrecognized silent reservoirs for VRE, which may pose a threat to public health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/drug effects*; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification*
  6. Goh HF, Philip K
    J Dairy Sci, 2015 Aug;98(8):5080-90.
    PMID: 26004828 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2014-9240
    Lactic acid bacteria are present in fermented food products and help to improve shelf life and enhance the flavor of the food. They also produce metabolites such as bacteriocins to prevent the growth of undesirable or pathogenic bacteria. In this study, Enterococcus faecium C1 isolated from fermented cow milk was able to produce bacteriocin BacC1 and inhibit the growth of selected food-spoilage bacteria. The bacteriocin was purified through 4 steps: ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction column, a series of centrifugal steps, and finally reversed-phase HPLC. A membrane permeability test using SYTOX green dye (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) showed that the bacteriocin caused significant disruptions to the test bacterial membrane, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. The molecular weight of the BacC1 obtained from SDS-PAGE was around 10kDa, and N-terminal sequencing revealed a partial amino acid sequence of BacC1: GPXGPXGP. The bacterial strain was nonhemolytic and not antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it has high potential for application in the food industry as an antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of food products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/metabolism
  7. Weng PL, Ramli R, Hamat RA
    PMID: 31533204 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16183439
    Enterococci are commonly found in humans, animals and environments. Their highly adaptive mechanisms are related to several virulent determinants and their ability to resist antibiotics. Data on the relationship between the esp gene, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility profiles may differ between countries. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the proportion of esp gene and biofilm formation among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates. We also investigated the possible association between the esp gene with antibiotic susceptibility patterns and biofilm formation. The isolates were collected from clinical samples and identified using biochemical tests and 16SRNA. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and a biofilm assay were conducted according to the established guidelines. Molecular detection by PCR was used to identify the esp gene using established primers. In total, 52 and 28 of E. faecalis and E. faecium were identified, respectively. E. faecium exhibited higher resistance rates compared to E. faecalis as follows: piperacillin/tazobactam (100% versus 1.9%), ampicillin (92.8% versus 1.9%), high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) (89.3% versus 25.0%) and penicillin (82.1% versus 7.7%). E. faecium produced more biofilms than E. faecalis (59.3% versus 49.0%). E. faecium acquired the esp gene more frequently than E. faecalis (78.6% versus 46.2%). Interestingly, the associations between ampicillin and tazobactam/piperacillin resistance with the esp gene were statistically significant (X2 = 4.581, p = 0.027; and X2 = 6.276, p = 0.012, respectively). Our results demonstrate that E. faecium exhibits high rates of antimicrobial resistance, esp gene acquisition and biofilm formation. These peculiar traits of E. faecium may have implications for the management of enterococcal infections in hospitals. Thus, concerted efforts by all parties in establishing appropriate treatment and effective control measures are warranted in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/genetics; Enterococcus faecium/physiology*
  8. Getachew Y, Hassan L, Zakaria Z, Abdul Aziz S
    Appl Environ Microbiol, 2013 Aug;79(15):4528-33.
    PMID: 23666337 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00650-13
    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been reported to be present in humans, chickens, and pigs in Malaysia. In the present study, representative samples of VRE isolated from these populations were examined for similarities and differences by using the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. Housekeeping genes of Enterococcus faecium (n = 14) and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11) isolates were sequenced and analyzed using the MLST databases eBURST and goeBURST. We found five sequence types (STs) of E. faecium and six STs of E. faecalis existing in Malaysia. Enterococcus faecium isolates belonging to ST203, ST17, ST55, ST79, and ST29 were identified, and E. faecium ST203 was the most common among humans. The MLST profiles of E. faecium from humans in this study were similar to the globally reported nosocomial-related strain lineage belonging to clonal complex 17 (CC17). Isolates from chickens and pigs have few similarities to those from humans, except for one isolate from a chicken, which was identified as ST203. E. faecalis isolates were more diverse and were identified as ST4, ST6, ST87, ST108, ST274, and ST244, which were grouped as specific to the three hosts. E. faecalis, belonging to the high-risk CC2 and CC87, were detected among isolates from humans. In conclusion, even though one isolate from a chicken was found clonal to that of humans, the MLST analysis of E. faecium and E. faecalis supports the findings of others who suggest VRE to be predominantly host specific and that clinically important strains are found mainly among humans. The infrequent detection of a human VRE clone in a chicken may in fact suggest a reverse transmission of VRE from humans to animals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/drug effects; Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification
  9. Son R, Nimita F, Rusul G, Nasreldin E, Samuel L, Nishibuchi M
    Lett Appl Microbiol, 1999 Aug;29(2):118-22.
    PMID: 10499300
    Nineteen strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from 10 of 75 (13.3%) tenderloin beef samples were examined for resistance to selected antibiotics, presence of plasmids, and genetic diversity by random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. All strains showed multiple resistant to the antibiotics tested. Multiple antibiotic indexing of the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains showed that all (100%) originated from high risk contamination environments where antibiotics were often used. Plasmids ranging in size from 1.5 to 36 megadalton were detected in 15 of 19 (79%) strains. Thus, three plasmid profiles and eight antibiotypes were observed among the E. faecium strains. A high degree of polymorphism was obtained by combining the results of the two primers used; with the 19 E. faecium strains being differentiated into 19 RAPD-types. These preliminary results suggest that RAPD-PCR has application for epidemiologic studies and that resistance patterns and plasmid profiling could be used as an adjunct to RAPD for the typing of E. faecium in the study area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/drug effects*; Enterococcus faecium/genetics; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification
  10. Poh LW, Rukman AW, Cheah YK, Norital Z, Nazri AM, Mariana NS
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):639-40.
    PMID: 23770967 MyJurnal
    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in human infections mostly belong to the high-risk, epidemic, clonal complex-17 (CC17) group. Treatment limitation and high conjugation frequency makes it dominant in hospitals worldwide. We investigated positive cultures by Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi locus sequence typing (MLST). DNA of two strains (A2 and C) appeared to be clonally related by PFGE. Three strains were of ST 18 type (A1, B and C) and strain A2 is of a new ST 596. This ST 18 type strain found in our study is crucial and is believed to be the first in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium*
  11. Lim SY, Yap KP, Teh CS, Jabar KA, Thong KL
    Infect Genet Evol, 2017 04;49:55-65.
    PMID: 28039075 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.12.029
    Enterococcus faecium is both a commensal of the human intestinal tract and an opportunistic pathogen. The increasing incidence of enterococcal infections is mainly due to the ability of this organism to develop resistance to multiple antibiotics, including vancomycin. The aim of this study was to perform comparative genome analyses on four vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains isolated from two fatal cases in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Two sequence types, ST80 and ST203, were identified which belong to the clinically important clonal complex (CC) 17. This is the first report on the emergence of ST80 strains in Malaysia. Three of the studied strains (VREr5, VREr6, VREr7) were each isolated from different body sites of a single patient (patient Y) and had different PFGE patterns. While VREr6 and VREr7 were phenotypically and genotypically similar, the initial isolate, VREr5, was found to be more similar to VRE2 isolated from another patient (patient X), in terms of the genome contents, sequence types and phylogenomic relationship. Both the clinical records and genome sequence data suggested that patient Y was infected by multiple strains from different clones and the strain that infected patient Y could have derived from the same clone from patient X. These multidrug resistant strains harbored a number of virulence genes such as the epa locus and pilus-associated genes which could enhance their persistence. Apart from that, a homolog of E. faecalis bee locus was identified in VREr5 which might be involved in biofilm formation. Overall, our comparative genomic analyses had provided insight into the genetic relatedness, as well as the virulence potential, of the four clinical strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/classification; Enterococcus faecium/drug effects; Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/pathogenicity*
  12. Yean CY, Yin LS, Lalitha P, Ravichandran M
    BMC Microbiol, 2007;7:112.
    PMID: 18070365
    Enterococci have emerged as a significant cause of nosocomial infections in many parts of the world over the last decade. The most common enterococci strains present in clinical isolates are E. faecalis and E. faecium which have acquired resistant to either gentamicin or vancomycin. The conventional culture test takes 2-5 days to yield complete information of the organism and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Hence our present study was focused on developing a nanoplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of vancomycin and bifunctional aminoglycoside resistant enterococci (V-BiA-RE). This assay simultaneously detects 8 genes namely 16S rRNA of Enterococcus genus, ddl of E. faecalis and E. faecium, aacA-aphD that encodes high level gentamicin resistance (HLGR), multilevel vancomycin resistant genotypes such as vanA, vanB, vanC and vanD and one internal control gene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/classification; Enterococcus faecium/drug effects; Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification
  13. Al-Talib H, Zuraina N, Kamarudin B, Yean CY
    Adv Clin Exp Med, 2015 Jan-Feb;24(1):121-7.
    PMID: 25923096 DOI: 10.17219/acem/38162
    The genus Enterococcus is of increasing significance as a cause of nosocomial infections, and this trend is exacerbated by the development of antibiotic resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/genetics*; Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification; Enterococcus faecium/pathogenicity*
  14. Nolasco-Hipolito C, Zarrabal OC, Kamaldin RM, Teck-Yee L, Lihan S, Bujang KB, et al.
    AMB Express, 2012;2(1):53.
    PMID: 23021076 DOI: 10.1186/2191-0855-2-53
    Enterococcus faecium No. 78 (PNCM-BIOTECH 10375) isolated from puto, a type of fermented rice in the Philippines was used to produce lactic acid in repeated batch fermentation mode. Enzymatically liquefied sago starch was used as the sole carbon source, since sago (Metroxylon spp) is a sustainable crop for industrial exploitation. Liquefied sago starch was inoculated with E. faecium to perform the saccharification and fermentation processes simultaneously. Results demonstrated that E. faecium was reused for 11 fermentation cycles with an average lactic acid yield of 36.3 ± 4.71 g/l. The lactic acid production was superior to that of simple batch mode and continuous fermentation in terms of lactic acid concentration. An un-dissociated lactic acid concentration of 1.15 mM affected the productivity of the cells. Work is in progress to maintain and increase the usability of the cells over higher fermentation cycles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium
  15. Sui, Sien Leong, Lihan, Samuel, Hwa, Chuan Chia
    The abuse of antibiotics usage in bird industry has resulted in the emerging antibiotic resistant Enterococci worldwide which has posed a threat clinically to human health. The present study was to screen and identify the potential virulence agents in antibiotic resistance E. faecalis in bird industry in Borneo. Enterococcus bacteria collected from the birds’ faeces and indoor air inside ten birdhouses were identified to species level and their antibiotic resistance was checked using antibiotic susceptibility discs. Specific primers using PCR assay were intended for the detection of four potential virulence genes (ace, AS, efaA, gelE). Out of the thirty-seven Enterococci faecal bacteria, the prevailing bacteria found were Enterococcus qallinacum (51%), Enterococcus faecalis (35%) and Enterococcus harae (8%). The airborne bacteria were reported as Enterococcus faecalis (5%) and Enterococcus qallinacum (1%). Twenty-seven percent of isolates were reported to have Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index ≥ 0.2 with 9 distinct resistance patterns formed. E. faecalis showed higher resistance to vancomycin. Virulence genes were successfully reported in the 15 E. faecalis isolates. Sixty-seven percent of isolates were detected positive for four virulence genes, 27% possessed three (AS, efaA, gelE) genes and 6% possessed two (ace, AS) genes. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes detection were significantly correlated. These virulence genes or antibiotic resistance genes were important in the pathogenesis of E. faecalis infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium
  16. Mishra RK, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Ismail MF, Majeed AB
    J Mater Sci Mater Med, 2014 Aug;25(8):1925-39.
    PMID: 24831081 DOI: 10.1007/s10856-014-5228-y
    The present study investigates the development of methyl cellulose (MC)-sodium alginate (SA)-montmorillonite (MMT) clay based bionanocomposite films with interesting wound healing properties. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the composite films revealed presence of single glass transition temperature (Tg) confirming the miscible nature of the ternary blended films. The increase in MMT ratio in the composite films reduced the mobility of biopolymer chains (MC/SA) which increased the Tg of the film. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that dispersion of clay (MMT) at nano level significantly delayed the weight loss that correlated with higher thermal stability of the composite films. It was observed that the developed films were able to exhibit antimicrobial activity against four typical pathogenic bacteria found in the presence of wound. The developed films were able to significantly inhibit (10 mg/ml) the growth of Enterococcus faecium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vitro scratch assay indicated potential wound closure activities of MC-2-4 bionanocomposite films at their respective highest subtoxic doses. In conclusion, these ternary bionanocomposite films were found to be promising systems for wound healing applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/drug effects
  17. Lim SY, Teh CSJ, Thong KL
    OMICS, 2017 10;21(10):592-602.
    PMID: 29049010 DOI: 10.1089/omi.2017.0119
    Enterococcus faecium is an opportunistic pathogen with a remarkable ability to acquire resistance toward multiple antibiotics, including those of last-resort drugs such as vancomycin and daptomycin. The occurrence of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium is on the rise and there is a need to understand the virulence of this organism. One of the factors that contributes to the virulence is the ability to form biofilms. Since bacteria in biofilm state are more resistant to antibiotics and host immune response, understanding the molecular mechanism of biofilm development is important to control biofilm-related diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the global gene expression profiles of an E. faecium strain, VREr5, during the early event of sessile growth compared with its planktonic phase through RNA-sequencing approach. The results clearly illustrated distinct expression profiles of the planktonic and biofilm cells. A total of 177 genes were overexpressed in the biofilm cells. Most of them encode for proteins involved in adherence, such as the ebpABCfm locus. Genes associated with plasmid replication, gene exchange, and protein synthesis were also upregulated during the early event of biofilm development. Furthermore, the transcriptome analysis also identified genes such as fsrB, luxS, and spx that might suppress biofilm formation in VREr5. The putative biofilm-related bee locus was found to be downregulated. These new findings could provide caveats for future studies on the regulation and maintenance of biofilm and development of biomarkers for biofilm-related diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium/genetics*
  18. Nami Y, Haghshenas B, Haghshenas M, Yari Khosroushahi A
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:782.
    PMID: 26284059 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00782
    Screening of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from ewe colostrum led to the identification and isolation of Enterococcus faecium CM33 with interesting features like high survival rates under acidic or bile salts condition, high tolerance for the simulated gastrointestinal condition, and high adhesive potential to Caco-2 cells. According the inhibition of pathogen adhesion test results, this strain can reduce more than 50% adhesion capacity of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus to Caco-2 cells. Based on the antibiotic sensitivity test findings, E. faecium CM33 was susceptible to gentamycin, vancomycin, erythromycin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and kanamycin. Upon assessment of the virulence determinants for E. faecium CM33, this strain was negative for all tested virulence genes. Furthermore, the genome of this strain was evaluated for the incidence of the known enterocin genes by specific PCR amplification and discovered the genes encoding enterocins A, 31, X, and Q. Based on this study findings, the strain E. faecium CM33 can be considered as a valuable nutraceutical and can be introduced as a new potential probiotic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium
  19. Tan SC, Chong CW, Teh CSJ, Ooi PT, Thong KL
    PeerJ, 2018;6:e5353.
    PMID: 30123701 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5353
    Background: Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are ubiquitous opportunistic pathogens found in the guts of humans and farmed animals. This study aimed to determine the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance, virulence, biofilm-forming ability and genotypes of E. faecalis and E. faecium from swine farms. Correlations between the genotypes, virulotypes, antibiotic resistance, and the environmental factors such as locality of farms and farm hygiene practice were explored.

    Methods: E. faecalis and E. faecium strains were isolated from the oral, rectal and fecal samples of 140 pigs; nasal, urine and fecal samples of 34 farmers working in the farms and 42 environmental samples collected from seven swine farms located in Peninsular Malaysia. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method, and the antibiotic resistance and virulence genes were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction. Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis were performed to determine the clonality of the strains. Crosstab/Chi-square test and DistLM statistical analyses methods were used to determine the correlations between the genotypes, virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and the environmental factors.

    Results: A total of 211 E. faecalis and 42 E. faecium were recovered from 140 pigs, 34 farmers and 42 environmental samples collected from seven swine farms in Peninsular Malaysia. Ninety-eight percent of the strains were multidrug-resistant (resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin). Fifty-two percent of the strains formed biofilms. Virulence genes efa, asaI, gelE, esp, cyl and ace genes were detected. Virulence genes efa and asaI were most prevalent in E. faecalis (90%) and E. faecium (43%), respectively. Cluster analyses based on REP-PCR and PFGE showed the strains were genetically diverse. Overall, the strains isolated from pigs and farmers were distinct, except for three highly similar strains found in pigs and farmers. The strains were regional- and host-specific.

    Discussion: This study revealed alarming high frequencies of multidrug-resistant enterococci in pigs and swine farmers. The presence of resistance and virulence genes and the ability to form biofilm further enhance the persistence and pathogenicity of the strains. Although the overall clonality of the strains were regionals and host-specific, strains with high similarity were found in different hosts. This study reiterates a need of a more stringent regulation to ensure the proper use of antibiotics in swine husbandry to reduce the wide spread of multidrug-resistant strains.

    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium
  20. Moussa AA, Md Nordin AF, Hamat RA, Jasni AS
    Infect Drug Resist, 2019;12:3269-3274.
    PMID: 31695445 DOI: 10.2147/IDR.S219544
    Background: Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis are among the predominant species causing hospital-acquired infections. Currently, enterococcal infections are treated using combination therapy of an aminoglycoside with cell-wall active agents, which led to high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) and vancomycin resistance (VRE) among enterococci. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HLAR and the distribution of the resistance genes among clinical E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates in Malaysia.

    Materials and methods: Seventy-five enterococci isolates recovered from different clinical sources were re-identified by subculturing on selective medium, Gram staining, biochemical profiling (API 20 Strep), and 16s rRNA sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion, E-test, and broth microdilution methods. PCR amplification was used to detect the presence of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AME) genes [aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia, aph(2")-Ib, aph(2")-Ic, aph(2")-Id, aph(3')-IIIa]. Descriptive data analysis was used to analyze the antibiotic susceptibility profiles and the distribution of HLAR genes.

    Results: The majority of the isolates recovered from the clinical samples are E. faecalis (66.7%), with the highest recovery from the pus. The prevalence of HLGR (51%) is higher when compared to HLSR (45-49%). Analysis of the resistance genes showed that bifunctional genes aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa contributed to the HLAR E. faecalis and E. faecium. The other AME genes [aph(2")-Ib, aph(2")-Ic, aph(2")-Id] were not detected in this study.

    Conclusion: This study provides the first prevalence data on HLAR and the distribution of the AME genes among E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates from Malaysia. These highlight the need for continued antibiotic surveillance to minimize its emergence and further dissemination.

    Matched MeSH terms: Enterococcus faecium
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