Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 211 in total

  1. Sharma JN
    Gen. Pharmacol., 1990;21(4):451-7.
    PMID: 2199299
    The lack of kinin formation in systemic circulation and in the renal system may lead to the pathogenesis of high blood pressure (hypertension). Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are able to protect the kinin inactivation by kininase II, therefore, causing an accumulation of kinin. Although the concentrations of kinin in plasma after oral administration of ACE inhibitors are conflicting this is mainly due to methodological difficulties. Kinin receptor antagonists are becoming most reliable pharmacological probes for defining the molecular actions of kinin in several physiopathological states, and in the mechanism of actions of drugs which are dependent on the kinin system. The blood pressure lowering effect of ACE inhibitors can be antagonized by the pretreatment with kinin receptor antagonists. I have therefore proposed that the hypotensive action of ACE inhibitors may reflect the activation of kinin receptor. It is suggested that the development of compounds having protective properties on the kallikrein-kinin system might be therapeutically applicable as anti-hypertensive drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  2. Gao X, Xue Z, Ma Q, Guo Q, Xing L, Santhanam RK, et al.
    J Food Biochem, 2020 02;44(2):e13126.
    PMID: 31877235 DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.13126
    Garlic protein (GP) was enzymatically hydrolyzed using pepsin and trypsin followed by the evaluation of antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of GP and its hydrolysates. The antihypertensive effects of GP and its hydrolysates were determined in vivo. The results showed that GP and its hydrolysates namely GPH-P (pepsin) and GPH-T (trypsin) possessed appreciable antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities. The ACE inhibitory activity of GP, GPH-T, and GPH-P was in consistent with their antioxidant activities. GP and its hydrolysates offered significant protective effects against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damage (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology
  3. Khan KM, Naz F, Taha M, Khan A, Perveen S, Choudhary MI, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Mar 3;74:314-23.
    PMID: 24486414 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.01.001
    Thiourea derivatives (1-38) were synthesized and evaluated for their urease inhibition potential. The synthetic compounds showed a varying degree of in vitro urease inhibition with IC50 values 5.53 ± 0.02-91.50 ± 0.08 μM, most of which are superior to the standard thiourea (IC₅₀ = 21.00 ± 0.11 μM). In order to ensure the mode of inhibition of these compounds, the kinetic study of the most active compounds has been carried out. Most of these inhibitors were found to be mixed-type of inhibitors, except compounds 13 and 30 which were competitive, while compound 19 was identified as non-competitive inhibitor with Ki values between 8.6 and 19.29 μM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  4. Hadibarata T, Kristanti RA
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2014 Apr;37(4):593-600.
    PMID: 23943046 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-013-1025-0
    The effects of structure and concentration of surfactants on the biodegradation of fluoranthene, a three rings polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the aqueous phase, as well as their effects on the biodegradation and enzyme activity were investigated. The toxicity ranking of studied surfactants is: non-ionic Tween 80 4,500 mg/L) was showed by Tween 80 (10 mg/L) culture, manifesting that the non-ionic surfactant present in the culture were beneficial to the fungal growth. Laccase showed the highest enzymes activity in all surfactants culture. Non-ionic Tween 80 showed a significant result for laccase activity (1,902 U/L) in the Armillaria sp. F022 culture. The increased enzymes cumulative activity may stem directly from the rising fluoranthene biodegradability as addition of appropriate surfactants. The biotransformation of fluoranthene was greatly improved by Tween 80, and totally fluoranthene degradation was obtained as Tween 80 was 10 mg/L. Two fluoranthene metabolites were isolated from the culture medium and analyzed by a thin layer chromatography, UV visible spectrometer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oxidation of fluoranthene is initiated by oxygenation at the C-2,3 positions resulting 9-fluorenone. At the end of experiment, one metabolite was detected in the culture extract and identified as phthalic acid. Evidently, Armillaria sp. F022 seems efficient, high effective and deserves further application on the enhanced bioremediation technologies for the treatment of fluoranthene-contaminated soil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology
  5. Lee CH, Kuo CN, Chen HL, Chen CY
    Nat Prod Res, 2013;27(11):988-91.
    PMID: 22691063 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2012.695369
    This review describes the morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Cinnamomum subavenium (Lauraceae). The plant grows wild in southern Mainland China, Burma, Cambodia, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia. This plant is recorded as having long been used to treat carcinomatous swelling, stomach ache, chest pain, abdominal pain, hernia, diarrhoea, rheumatism, nausea and vomiting. This article enumerates an overview of phytochemical and pharmacological aspects that is useful to researchers for further exploration for the necessary development of this potential herb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology
  6. Ali JS, Saleem H, Mannan A, Zengin G, Mahomoodally MF, Locatelli M, et al.
    BMC Complement Med Ther, 2020 Oct 16;20(1):313.
    PMID: 33066787 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-020-03093-1
    BACKGROUND: Ethnobotanical and plant-based products allow for the isolation of active constituents against a number of maladies. Monotheca buxifolia is used by local communities due to its digestive and laxative properties, as well as its ability to cure liver, kidney, and urinary diseases. There is a need to explore the biological activities and chemical constituents of this medicinal plant.

    METHODS: In this work, the biochemical potential of M. buxifolia (Falc.) A. DC was explored and linked with its biological activities. Methanol and chloroform extracts from leaves and stems were investigated for total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) was used to determine secondary-metabolite composition, while high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) was used for polyphenolic quantification. In addition, we carried out in vitro assays to determine antioxidant potential and the enzyme-inhibitory response of M. buxifolia extracts.

    RESULTS: Phenolics (91 mg gallic-acid equivalent (GAE)/g) and flavonoids (48.86 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g) exhibited their highest concentration in the methanol extract of stems and the chloroform extract of leaves, respectively. UHPLC-MS analysis identified a number of important phytochemicals, belonging to the flavonoid, phenolic, alkaloid, and terpenoid classes of secondary metabolites. The methanol extract of leaves contained a diosgenin derivative and polygalacin D, while kaempferol and robinin were most abundant in the chloroform extract. The methanol extract of stems contained a greater peak area for diosgenin and kaempferol, whereas this was true for lucidumol A and 3-O-cis-coumaroyl maslinic acid in the chloroform extract. Rutin, epicatechin, and catechin were the main phenolics identified by HPLC-PDA analysis. The methanol extract of stems exhibited significant 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical-scavenging activities (145.18 and 279.04 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g, respectively). The maximum cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) (361.4 mg TE/g), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (247.19 mg TE/g), and total antioxidant potential (2.75 mmol TE/g) were depicted by the methanol extract of stems. The methanol extract of leaves exhibited stronger inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucosidase, while the chloroform extract of stems was most active against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (4.27 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g). Similarly, the highest tyrosinase (140 mg kojic-acid equivalent (KAE)/g) and amylase (0.67 mmol acarbose equivalent (ACAE)/g) inhibition was observed for the methanol extract of stems.

    CONCLUSIONS: UHPLC-MS analysis and HPLC-PDA quantification identified a number of bioactive secondary metabolites of M. buxifolia, which may be responsible for its antioxidant potential and enzyme-inhibitory response. M. buxifolia can be further explored for the isolation of its active components to be used as a drug.

    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  7. Kumar D, Sarkar N, Roy KK, Bisht D, Kumar D, Mandal B, et al.
    Curr Drug Targets, 2023;24(8):627-647.
    PMID: 37291783 DOI: 10.2174/1389450124666230608150759
    The extensive development in the strains of resistant bacteria is a potential hazard to public health worldwide. This necessitates the development of newer agents with the antibacterial property having new mechanisms of action. Mur enzymes catalyze the steps related to the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, which constitutes a major part of the cell wall in bacteria. Peptidoglycan increases the stiffness of the cell wall, helping it to survive in unfavorable conditions. Therefore, the inhibition of Mur enzymes may lead to novel antibacterial agents that may help in controlling or overcoming bacterial resistance. Mur enzymes are classified into MurA, MurB, MurC, MurD, MurE, and MurF. Until-date, multiple inhibitors are reported for each class of the Mur enzymes. In this review, we have summarized the development of Mur enzyme inhibitors as antibacterial agents in the last few decades.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology
  8. Abbasi MA, Raza H, Aziz-Ur-Rehman, Siddiqui SZ, Muhammad S, Khan FM, et al.
    Chem Biodivers, 2023 Sep;20(9):e202300257.
    PMID: 37578300 DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.202300257
    In the presented work, a new series of three different 4-((3,5-dichloro-2-[(2/4-halobenzyl)oxy]phenyl)sulfonyl)morpholines was synthesized and the structure of these compounds were corroborated by 1 H-NMR & 13 C-NMR studies. The in vitro results established all the three compounds as potent tyrosinase inhibitors relative to the standard. The Kinetics mechanism plots established that compound 8 inhibited the enzyme non-competitively. The inhibition constants Ki calculated from Dixon plots for this compound was 0.0025 μM. Additionally, computational techniques were used to explore electronic structures of synthesized compounds. Fully optimized geometries were further docked with tyrosinase enzyme for inhibition studies. Reasonably good binding/interaction energies and intermolecular interactions were obtained. Finally, drug likeness was also predicted using the rule of five (RO5) and Chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) characteristics. It is anticipated that current experimental and computational investigations will evoke the scientific interest of the research community for the above-entitled compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology
  9. Lim FP, Dolzhenko AV
    Eur J Med Chem, 2014 Oct 6;85:371-90.
    PMID: 25105925 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.07.112
    Purines can be considered as the most ubiquitous and functional N-heterocyclic compounds in nature. Structural modifications of natural purines, particularly using isosteric ring systems, have been in the focus of many drug discovery programs. Fusion of 1,3,5-triazine ring with pyrrole, pyrazole, imidazole, 1,2,3-triazole or 1,2,4-triazole results in seven bicyclic heterocyclic systems isosteric to purine. Application of the isosterism concept for the development of new compounds with therapeutic potential in areas involving purinergic regulation or purine metabolism led to significant advances in medicinal chemistry of the azolo[1,3,5]triazines. These 1,3,5-triazine-based purine-like scaffolds significantly increase level of molecular diversity and allow covering chemical space in the important areas of medicinal chemistry. Some of these azolo[1,3,5]triazine systems have become privileged scaffolds in the development of inhibitors of various kinases, phosphodiesterase, xanthine oxidase, and thymidine phosphorylase, antagonists of adenosine and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors, anticancer and antiviral agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology
  10. Khan KM, Saad SM, Shaikh NN, Hussain S, Fakhri MI, Perveen S, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2014 Jul 1;22(13):3449-54.
    PMID: 24844756 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2014.04.039
    2-Arylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones 1-25 were synthesized by reacting anthranilamide with various benzaldehydes using CuCl2·2H2O as a catalyst in ethanol under reflux. Synthetic 2-arylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones 1-25 were evaluated for their β-glucuronidase inhibitory potential. A trend of inhibition IC50 against the enzyme in the range of 0.6-198.2μM, was observed and compared with the standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50=45.75±2.16μM). Compounds 13, 19, 4, 12, 14, 22, 23, 25, 15, 8, 17, 11, 21, 1, 3, 18, 9, 2, and 24 with the IC50 values within the range of 0.6-44.0μM, indicated that the compounds have superior activity than the standard. The compounds showed no cytotoxic effects against PC-3 cells. A structure-activity relationship is established.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  11. Cheah HL, Lim V, Sandai D
    PLoS One, 2014;9(4):e95951.
    PMID: 24781056 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095951
    Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that causes candidiasis in humans. In recent years, metabolic pathways in C. albicans have been explored as potential antifungal targets to treat candidiasis. The glyoxylate cycle, which enables C. albicans to survive in nutrient-limited host niches and its. Key enzymes (e.g., isocitrate lyase (ICL1), are particularly attractive antifungal targets for C. albicans. In this study, we used a new screening approach that better reflects the physiological environment that C. albicans cells experience during infection to identify potential inhibitors of ICL. Three compounds (caffeic acid (CAFF), rosmarinic acid (ROS), and apigenin (API)) were found to have antifungal activity against C. albicans when tested under glucose-depleted conditions. We further confirmed the inhibitory potential of these compounds against ICL using the ICL enzyme assay. Lastly, we assessed the bioavailability and toxicity of these compounds using Lipinski's rule-of-five and ADMET analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  12. Shori AB, Baba AS, Keow JN
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2012 Dec 15;15(24):1160-7.
    PMID: 23755406
    There is an increasing demand of functional foods in developed countries. Yogurt plays an important role in the management of blood pressure. Several bioactive peptides isolated from Allium sativum or fish collagen have shown antihypertensive activity. Thus, in the present study the effects of A. sativum and/or Fish Collagen (FC) on proteolysis and ACE inhibitory activity in yogurt (0, 7 and 14 day) and cheese (0, 14 and 28 day) were investigated. Proteolytic activities were the highest on day 7 of refrigerated storage in A. sativum-FC-yogurt (337.0 +/- 5.3 microg g(-1)) followed by FC-yogurt (275.3 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1)), A. sativum-yogurt (245.8 +/- 4.2 microg g(-1)) and plain-yogurt (40.4 +/- 1.2 microg g(-1)). On the other hand, proteolytic activities in cheese ripening were the highest (p < 0.05) on day 14 of storage for plain and A. sativum-cheeses (411.4 +/- 4.3 and 528.7 +/- 1.6 microg g(-1), respectively). However, the presence of FC increased the proteolysis to the highest level on day 28 of storage for FC- and A. sativum-FC cheeses (641.2 +/- 0.1 and 1128.4 +/- 4.5 microg g(-1), respectively). In addition, plain- and A. sativum-yogurts with or without FC showed maximal inhibition of ACE on day 7 of storage. Fresh plain- and A. sativum-cheeses showed ACE inhibition (72.3 +/- 7.8 and 50.4 +/- 1.6 % respectively), the presence of FC in both type of cheeses reduced the ACE inhibition to 62.9 +/- 0.8 and 44.5 +/- 5.0%, respectively. However, refrigerated storage increased ACE inhibition in cheeses (p < 0.05 on day 28) in the presence of FC more than in the absence. In conclusion, the presence of FC in A. sativum-yogurt or cheese enhanced the proteolytic activity. Thus, it has potential in the development of an effective dietary strategy for hypertension associated cardiovascular diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  13. Manaharan T, Palanisamy UD, Ming CH
    Molecules, 2012;17(5):5915-23.
    PMID: 22609782 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17055915
    Preliminary investigations on 14 plant extracts (obtained by ethanolic and aqueous extraction) identified those having high antioxidant and a significant total phenolic content. Antihyperglycemic, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities were also observed. A correlation between the antihyperglycemic activity, total phenolic content and antioxidant (DPPH scavenging) activity was established. To further substantiate these findings, the possibility of tannins binding non-specifically to enzymes and thus contributing to the antihyperglycemic activity was also investigated. Our study clearly indicated that the antihyperglycemic activity observed in the plant extracts was indeed not due to non-specific tannin absorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology
  14. Mohtar M, Johari SA, Li AR, Isa MM, Mustafa S, Ali AM, et al.
    Curr Microbiol, 2009 Aug;59(2):181-6.
    PMID: 19475447 DOI: 10.1007/s00284-009-9416-9
    Increased prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major threat to the health sector worldwide due to their virulence, limited therapeutic options and their distribution in both hospital and community settings. Discovery and development of new anti-MRSA agents as alternatives to the very few antibiotics left in the armamentarium are, thus, urgently required. Recently, an efflux mechanism in MRSA has been identified as one of the main contributors of resistance towards various structurally unrelated antibiotics. The potential of reserpine (a phytoalkaloid) as efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) against various microbes remains limited as the concentration needed for inhibition is toxic to humans. This study therefore aimed to evaluate 13 alkaloid compounds as potential inhibitory agents and/or potential EPIs against a panel of three MRSA isolates which not only differ in their susceptibility to vancomycin (amongst the last drugs available to treat serious MRSA infection), but also exhibited active efflux activity. Results indicated berberine's moderate inhibitiory activity against two MRSA isolates scoring a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 125 microg/ml. Notable efflux inhibitory activity (ranging from two- to eightfold Ethidium Bromide MIC reduction) meanwhile was detected from quinine, piperine and harmaline using reserpine as the positive control. Findings from this study support the opinion that a vast number of potential phytocompounds with pharmacological potential await discovery. Therapeutic application of these compounds, however, warrants further investigation to ascertain their pharmacodynamics and safety aspects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  15. Pak-Dek MS, Abdul-Hamid A, Osman A, Soh CS
    J Food Sci, 2008 Oct;73(8):C595-8.
    PMID: 19019102 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00929.x
    Efficacy of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (MLE) and fruit extracts (MFE) in inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was determined in vitro. The result of the study showed that the highest inhibition on the LPL activity was exhibited by MLE (66%+/- 2.1%), which is significantly higher than that demonstrated by MFE (54.5%+/- 2.5%), green tea extract (GTE) (54.5%+/- 2.6%), and catechin (43.6%+/- 6.1%). Percent of LPL inhibition increase with concentration of the extracts. Quantitative analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of high levels of (+)-catechin at 63.5 +/- 17 and 53.7 +/- 5.7 mg/g in MLE and MFE, respectively, although not as high as that found in GTE (530.6 +/- 42 mg/g). Appreciable amount of epicatechin was found in all extracts tested, while rutin was only found in MLE and MFE. The study suggested that both leaf and fruit of M. citrifolia may be used as antiobesity agents in body weight management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  16. Hoe SZ, Kamaruddin MY, Lam SK
    Med Princ Pract, 2007;16(3):203-8.
    PMID: 17409755
    To investigate the hypotensive and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of a partially purified fraction (FA-I) of the leaves of Gynura procumbens and to qualitatively analyse the putative compounds present in the fraction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  17. Taha M, Ismail NH, Imran S, Wadood A, Rahim F, Khan KM, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2016 Jun;66:80-7.
    PMID: 27038849 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2016.03.010
    Benzothiazole analogs (1-20) have been synthesized, characterized by EI-MS and (1)H NMR, and evaluated for urease inhibition activity. All compounds showed excellent urease inhibitory potential varying from 1.4±0.10 to 34.43±2.10μM when compared with standard thiourea (IC50 19.46±1.20μM). Among the series seventeen (17) analogs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, and 18 showed outstanding urease inhibitory potential. Analogs 15 and 19 also showed good urease inhibition activity. When we compare the activity of N-phenylthiourea 20 with all substituted phenyl derivatives (1-18) we found that compound 15 showed less activity than compound 20 having 3-methoxy substituent. The binding interactions of these active analogs were confirmed through molecular docking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  18. Abdullah I, Chee CF, Lee YK, Thunuguntla SSR, Satish Reddy K, Nellore K, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2015 Aug 01;23(15):4669-4680.
    PMID: 26088338 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2015.05.051
    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) play diverse roles in various cellular processes that involve DNA repair and programmed cell death. Amongst these polymerases is PARP-1 which is the key DNA damage-sensing enzyme that acts as an initiator for the DNA repair mechanism. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is an enzyme in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway which is an important target for anti-hyperproliferative and anti-inflammatory drug design. Since these enzymes share a common role in the DNA replication and repair mechanisms, it may be beneficial to target both PARP-1 and DHODH in attempts to design new anti-cancer agents. Benzimidazole derivatives have shown a wide variety of pharmacological activities including PARP and DHODH inhibition. We hereby report the design, synthesis and bioactivities of a series of benzimidazole derivatives as inhibitors of both the PARP-1 and DHODH enzymes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  19. Sharma JN
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 1989;247A:197-205.
    PMID: 2690588
    Matched MeSH terms: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  20. Zaman K, Rahim F, Taha M, Ullah H, Wadood A, Nawaz M, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2019 08;89:103024.
    PMID: 31176853 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103024
    Despite of many diverse biological activities exhibited by benzimidazole scaffold, it is rarely explored for the urease inhibitory potential. For that purpose, benzimidazole analogues 1-19 were synthesized and screened for in vitro urease inhibitory potential. Structures of all synthetic analogues were deduced by different spectroscopic techniques. All analogues revealed inhibition potential with IC50 values of 0.90 ± 0.01 to 35.20 ± 1.10 μM, when compared with the standard thiourea (IC50 = 21.40 ± 0.21 μM). Limited SAR suggested that the variations in the inhibitory potentials of the analogues are the result of different substitutions on phenyl ring. In order to rationalize the binding interactions of most active compounds with the active site of urease enzyme, molecular docking study was conducted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*
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