Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

  1. Lee YK, Lay LK, Mahsufi MS, Guan TS, Elumalai S, Thong OM
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):645-50.
    PMID: 22713955
    The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) extracts are becoming increasingly visible in pharmaceutical and therapeutical research. The present study is aimed at examining the specific anti-proliferation property of H. brasiliensis latex B-serum sub-fractions against human breast cancer epithelial cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB231. The results showed that the latex whole B-serum and DBP sub-fraction exerted a specific anti-proliferation activity against cancer-origin cells MDA-MB231 but had little effect on non-cancer-origin cells. On the other hand, the anti-proliferative activity was diminished in the pre-heated B-serum fractions. With the low toxicity that the B-serum demonstrated previously in Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT), the present results suggest the potential use of the B-serum sub-fractions in cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects*
  2. D'Souza UJ
    Asian J. Androl., 2004 Sep;6(3):223-6.
    PMID: 15273871
    To observe the effect of tamoxifen citrate on spermatogenesis and tubular morphology in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects
  3. Zulkifli I, Fauziah O, Omar AR, Shaipullizan S, Siti Selina AH
    Vet. Res. Commun., 1999 Mar;23(2):91-9.
    PMID: 10359153
    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of formaldehyde vaporization of a hatcher on the tracheal epithelium of chick embryos, and on the production performance and behaviour of commercial broiler chicks. In experiment 1, chick embryos were exposed to 23.5 ppm of formaldehyde vapour during the last 3 days of incubation. Tracheal samples were taken at 0, 6, 30 and 54 h after exposure to formaldehyde and examined by scanning electron microscopy for pathological changes. Observable lesions included excessive accumulation of mucus, matted cilia, loss of cilia and sloughing of the epithelium. The lesions were more severe in chicks exposed for 54 h as compared to those exposed for 6 or 30 h. In experiment 2, 60 chicks that had been exposed to formaldehyde vapour as above and 60 control chicks were used to investigate the effect of formaldehyde fumigation on production performance and behaviour. Formaldehyde vaporization resulted in higher weekly (days 0-6 and 21-27) and total (days 0-41) feed intake and poorer weekly (days 0-6, 7-13, 21-27 and 28-34) and overall (days 0-41) feed conversion ratios. Body weight, mortality and behaviour (eating, drinking, sitting and standing activities) were not affected by formaldehyde fumigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects
  4. Fatimah SS, Tan GC, Chua K, Tan AE, Nur Azurah AG, Hayati AR
    Burns, 2013 Aug;39(5):905-15.
    PMID: 23273814 DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2012.10.019
    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of KGF on the differentiation of cultured human amnion epithelial cells (HAECs) towards skin keratinocyte. HAECs at passage 1 were cultured in medium HAM's F12: Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (1:1) supplemented with different concentrations of KGF (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 ng/ml KGF). Dose-response of KGF on HAECs was determined by morphological assessment; growth kinetic evaluation; immunocytochemical analysis; stemness and epithelial gene expression quantification with two step real time RT-PCR. KGF promotes the proliferation of HAECs with maximal effect observed at 10 ng/ml KGF. However, KGF decreased the stemness genes expression: Oct-3/4, Sox-2, Nanog3, Rex-1, FGF-4, FZD-9 and BST-1. KGF also down-regulates epithelial genes expression: CK3, CK18, CK19, Integrin-β1, p63 and involucrin in cultured HAECs. No significant difference on the gene expression was detected for each Nestin, ABCG-2, CK1 and CK14 in KGF-treated HAECs. Immunocytochemical analysis for both control and KGF-treated HAECs demonstrated positive staining against CK14 and CK18 but negative staining against involucrin. The results suggested that KGF stimulates an early differentiation of HAECs towards epidermal cells. Differentiation of KGF-treated HAECs to corneal lineage is unfavourable. Therefore, further studies are needed to elucidate the roles of KGF in the differentiation of HAECs towards skin keratinocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects*
  5. Kardia E, Halim NSSA, Yahaya BH
    Methods Mol. Biol., 2016;1516:243-255.
    PMID: 27062596 DOI: 10.1007/7651_2016_327
    Aerosol-based cell delivery technique via intratracheal is an effective route for delivering transplant cells directly into the lungs. An aerosol device known as the MicroSprayer(®) Aerosolizer is invented to transform liquid into an aerosol form, which then can be applied via intratracheal administration for drug delivery. The device produces a uniform and concentrated distribution of aerosolized liquid. Using the capability of MicroSprayer(®) Aerosolizer to transform liquid into aerosol form, our group has designed a novel method of cell delivery using an aerosol-based technique. We have successfully delivered skin-derived fibroblast cells and airway epithelial cells into the airway of a rabbit with minimum risk of cell loss and have uniformly distributed the cells into the airway. This chapter illustrates the application of aerosol device to deliver any type of cells for future treatment of lung diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects*
  6. Bukhari SN, Jantan I, Unsal Tan O, Sher M, Naeem-Ul-Hassan M, Qin HL
    J. Agric. Food Chem., 2014 Jun 18;62(24):5538-47.
    PMID: 24901506 DOI: 10.1021/jf501145b
    Hyperpigmentation in human skin and enzymatic browning in fruits, which are caused by tyrosinase enzyme, are not desirable. Investigations in the discovery of tyrosinase enzyme inhibitors and search for improved cytotoxic agents continue to be an important line in drug discovery and development. In present work, a new series of 30 compounds bearing α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety was designed and synthesized following curcumin as model. All compounds were evaluated for their effects on human cancer cell lines and mushroom tyrosinase enzyme. Moreover, the structure-activity relationships of these compounds are also explained. Molecular modeling studies of these new compounds were carried out to explore interactions with tyrosinase enzyme. Synthetic curcumin-like compounds (2a-b) were identified as potent anticancer agents with 81-82% cytotoxicity. Five of these newly synthesized compounds (1a, 8a-b, 10a-b) emerged to be the potent inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase, providing further insight into designing compounds useful in fields of food, health, and agriculture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects
  7. Sweeney S, Leo BF, Chen S, Abraham-Thomas N, Thorley AJ, Gow A, et al.
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2016 Sep 01;145:167-75.
    PMID: 27182651 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2016.04.040
    Accompanying increased commercial applications and production of silver nanomaterials is an increased probability of human exposure, with inhalation a key route. Nanomaterials that deposit in the pulmonary alveolar region following inhalation will interact firstly with pulmonary surfactant before they interact with the alveolar epithelium. It is therefore critical to understand the effects of human pulmonary surfactant when evaluating the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of AgNPs on human alveolar type-I-like epithelial (TT1) cells in the absence and presence of Curosurf(®) (a natural pulmonary surfactant substitute), hypothesising that the pulmonary surfactant would act to modify toxicity. We demonstrated that 20nm citrate-capped AgNPs induce toxicity in human alveolar type I-like epithelial cells and, in agreement with our hypothesis, that pulmonary surfactant acts to mitigate this toxicity, possibly through reducing AgNP dissolution into cytotoxic Ag(+) ions. For example, IL-6 and IL-8 release by TT1 cells significantly increased 10.7- and 35-fold, respectively (P<0.01), 24h after treatment with 25μg/ml AgNPs. In contrast, following pre-incubation of AgNPs with Curosurf(®), this effect was almost completely abolished. We further determined that the mechanism of this toxicity is likely associated with Ag(+) ion release and lysosomal disruption, but not with increased reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides a critical understanding of the toxicity of AgNPs in target human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells and the role of pulmonary surfactant in mitigating this toxicity. The observations reported have important implications for the manufacture and application of AgNPs, in particular for applications involving use of aerosolised AgNPs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects
  8. Tan SN, Sim SP
    BMC Med Genomics, 2019 01 15;12(1):9.
    PMID: 30646906 DOI: 10.1186/s12920-018-0465-4
    BACKGROUND: It has been found that chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) increases the risk of developing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). CRS can be caused by gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) that may reach nasopharynx. The major component of refluxate, bile acid (BA) has been found to be carcinogenic and genotoxic. BA-induced apoptosis has been associated with various cancers. We have previously demonstrated that BA induced apoptosis and gene cleavages in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Chromosomal cleavage occurs at the early stage of both apoptosis and chromosome rearrangement. It was suggested that chromosome breaks tend to cluster in the region containing matrix association region/scaffold attachment region (MAR/SAR). This study hypothesised that BA may cause chromosome breaks at MAR/SAR leading to chromosome aberrations in NPC. This study targeted the AF9 gene located at 9p22 because 9p22 is a deletion hotspot in NPC.

    METHODS: Potential MAR/SAR sites were predicted in the AF9 gene by using MAR/SAR prediction tools. Normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69) and NPC cells (TWO4) were treated with BA at neutral and acidic pH. Inverse-PCR (IPCR) was used to identify chromosome breaks in SAR region (contains MAR/SAR) and non-SAR region (does not contain MAR/SAR). To map the chromosomal breakpoints within the AF9 SAR and non-SAR regions, DNA sequencing was performed.

    RESULTS: In the AF9 SAR region, the gene cleavage frequencies of BA-treated NP69 and TWO4 cells were significantly higher than those of untreated control. As for the AF9 non-SAR region, no significant difference in cleavage frequency was detected between untreated and BA-treated cells. A few breakpoints detected in the SAR region were mapped within the AF9 region that was previously reported to translocate with the mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL) gene in an acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) patient.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that MAR/SAR may be involved in defining the positions of chromosomal breakages induced by BA. Our report here, for the first time, unravelled the relation of these BA-induced chromosomal breakages to the AF9 chromatin structure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects*
  9. Rasouli M, Ahmad Z, Omar AR, Allaudin ZN
    BMC Biotechnol., 2011 Nov 03;11:99.
    PMID: 22047106 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-11-99
    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a complicated disease with a pathophysiology that includes hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and other metabolic impairments leading to many clinical complications. It is necessary to develop appropriate treatments to manage the disease and reduce possible acute and chronic side effects. The advent of gene therapy has generated excitement in the medical world for the possible application of gene therapy in the treatment of diabetes. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) promoter, which is recognised by gut L-cells, is an appealing candidate for gene therapy purposes. The specific properties of L-cells suggest that L-cells and the GLP-1 promoter would be useful for diabetes therapy approaches.

    RESULTS: In this study, L-cells were isolated from a primary intestinal cell line to create suitable target cells for insulin expression studies. The isolated cells displayed L-cell properties and were therefore used as an L-cell surrogate. Next, the isolated L-cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmid consisting of an insulin gene located downstream of the GLP-1 promoter. The secretion tests revealed that an increase in glucose concentration from 5 mM to 25 mM induced insulin gene expression in the L-cells by 2.7-fold. Furthermore, L-cells quickly responded to the glucose stimulation; the amount of insulin protein increased 2-fold in the first 30 minutes and then reached a plateau after 90 minutes.

    CONCLUSION: Our data showed that L-cells efficiently produced the mature insulin protein. In addition, the insulin protein secretion was positively regulated with glucose induction. In conclusion, GLP-1 promoter and L-cell could be potential candidates for diabetes gene therapy agents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects
  10. Ruszymah BH, Chowdhury SR, Manan NA, Fong OS, Adenan MI, Saim AB
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2012 Mar 27;140(2):333-8.
    PMID: 22301444 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.023
    Centella asiatica is a traditional herbal medicine that has been shown to have pharmacological effect on skin wound healing, and could be potential therapeutic agent for corneal epithelial wound healing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects*
  11. Fatimah SS, Tan GC, Chua KH, Tan AE, Hayati AR
    J. Biosci. Bioeng., 2012 Aug;114(2):220-7.
    PMID: 22578596 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2012.03.021
    Human amnion epithelial cells (HAECs) hold great promise in tissue engineering for regenerative medicine. Large numbers of HAECs are required for this purpose. Hence, exogenous growth factor is added to the culture medium to improve epithelial cells proliferation. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the proliferation and cell cycle regulation of cultured HAECs. HAECs at P1 were cultured for 7 days in medium containing an equal volume mix of HAM's F12: Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (1:1) supplemented with different concentrations of EGF (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 ng/ml EGF) in reduced serum. Morphology, growth kinetics and cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry were assessed. Quantitative gene expression for cell cycle control genes, pluripotent transcription factors, epithelial genes and neuronal genes were also determined. EGF enhanced HAECs proliferation with optimal concentration at 10 ng/ml EGF. EGF significantly increased the proportion of HAECs at S- and G2/M-phase of the cell cycle compared to the control. At the end of culture, HAECs remained as diploid cells under cell cycle analysis. EGF significantly decreased the mRNA expression of p21, pRb, p53 and GADD45 in cultured HAECs. EGF also significantly decreased the pluripotent genes expression: Oct-3/4, Sox2 and Nanog; epithelial genes expression: CK14, p63, CK1 and Involucrin; and neuronal gene expression: NSE, NF-M and MAP 2. The results suggested that EGF is a strong mitogen that promotes the proliferation of HAECs through cell cycle regulation. EGF did not promote HAECs differentiation or pluripotent genes expression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects*
  12. Bhatia M, Landolfi C, Basta F, Bovi G, Ramnath RD, de Joannon AC, et al.
    Inflamm. Res., 2008 Oct;57(10):464-71.
    PMID: 18827968 DOI: 10.1007/s00011-008-7210-y
    Chemokines play a fundamental role in trafficking and activation of leukocytes in colonic inflammation. We investigated the ability of bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) synthesis, to inhibit chemokine production by human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29) and its effect in trinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects
  13. Muhd Haffiz J, Norhayati I, Getha K, Nor Azah MA, Mohd Ilham A, Lili Sahira H, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Mar;30(1):9-14.
    PMID: 23665703 MyJurnal
    Essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus was evaluated for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei BS221 (IC50 = 0.31 ± 0.03 μg/mL) and cytotoxic effect on normal kidney (Vero) cells (IC50 = >100 μg/mL). The crude essential oil was subjected to various chromatography techniques afforded active sub fractions with antitrypanosomal activity; F4 (IC50 = 0.61 ± 0.06 μg/mL), F6 (IC50= 0.73 ± 0.33 μg/mL), F7 (IC50 = 1.15 ± 0 μg/mL) and F8 (IC50 = 1.11 ± 0.01 μg/mL). These active fractions did not exhibit any toxic effects against Vero cell lines and the chemical profiles investigation indicated presence of α-and γ-eudesmol, elemol, α-cadinol and eugenol by GC/MS analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects
  14. Lani R, Hassandarvish P, Chiam CW, Moghaddam E, Chu JJ, Rausalu K, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:11421.
    PMID: 26078201 DOI: 10.1038/srep11421
    The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes chikungunya fever, with clinical presentations such as severe back and small joint pain, and debilitating arthritis associated with crippling pains that persist for weeks and even years. Although there are several studies to evaluate the efficacy of drugs against CHIKV, the treatment for chikungunya fever is mainly symptom-based and no effective licensed vaccine or antiviral are available. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of three types of flavonoids against CHIKV in vitro replication. Three compounds: silymarin, quercetin and kaempferol were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activities against CHIKV using a CHIKV replicon cell line and clinical isolate of CHIKV of Central/East African genotype. A cytopathic effect inhibition assay was used to determine their activities on CHIKV viral replication and quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to calculate virus yield. Antiviral activity of effective compound was further investigated by evaluation of CHIKV protein expression using western blotting for CHIKV nsP1, nsP3, and E2E1 proteins. Briefly, silymarin exhibited significant antiviral activity against CHIKV, reducing both CHIKV replication efficiency and down-regulating production of viral proteins involved in replication. This study may have important consequence for broaden the chance of getting the effective antiviral for CHIKV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects
  15. Jiang L, Hindmarch CC, Rogers M, Campbell C, Waterfall C, Coghill J, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 10 24;6:35671.
    PMID: 27774996 DOI: 10.1038/srep35671
    Glucocorticoids are steroids that reduce inflammation and are used as immunosuppressive drugs for many diseases. They are also the mainstay for the treatment of minimal change nephropathy (MCN), which is characterised by an absence of inflammation. Their mechanisms of action remain elusive. Evidence suggests that immunomodulatory drugs can directly act on glomerular epithelial cells or 'podocytes', the cell type which is the main target of injury in MCN. To understand the nature of glucocorticoid effects on non-immune cell functions, we generated RNA sequencing data from human podocyte cell lines and identified the genes that are significantly regulated in dexamethasone-treated podocytes compared to vehicle-treated cells. The upregulated genes are of functional relevance to cytoskeleton-related processes, whereas the downregulated genes mostly encode pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. We observed a tendency for dexamethasone-upregulated genes to be downregulated in MCN patients. Integrative analysis revealed gene networks composed of critical signaling pathways that are likely targeted by dexamethasone in podocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects*
  16. Liew SK, Azmi MN, In L, Awang K, Nagoor NH
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2017;11:2763-2776.
    PMID: 29075101 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S130349
    Nine analogs of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) were hemi-synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activities against seven human cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferative, apoptotic, and anti-migration effects of these compounds and to explore the plausible underlying mechanisms of action. We found that ACA and all nine analogs were non toxic to human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) used as normal control cells, and only ACA, 1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (AEA), and 1'-acetoxy-3,5-dimethoxychavicol acetate (AMCA) inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of <30.0 μM based on 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay results, and were selected for further investigation. DNA fragmentation assays showed that these three compounds markedly induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells. Western blot analysis revealed increased expression levels of cleaved PARP, p53, and Bax, while decreased expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were seen after treatment, indicating that apoptosis was induced via the mitochondrial pathway. Moreover, ACA, AEA, and AMCA effectively inhibited the migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. They also downregulated the expression levels of pFAK/FAK and pAkt/Akt via the integrin β1-mediated signaling pathway. Collectively, ACA and its hemi-synthetic analogs, AEA and AMCA are seen as potential anticancer agents following their abilities to suppress growth, induce apoptosis, and inhibit migration of breast cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects
  17. Chong YS, Mai CW, Leong CO, Wong LC
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol, 2018 Mar;37(1):52-60.
    PMID: 28554225 DOI: 10.1080/15569527.2017.1335748
    PURPOSE: Dysfunction of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme DICER1 and Alu RNA accumulation are linked to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study determined the optimal dose of lutein (LUT) and zeaxanthin (ZEA) to protect human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The effect of the optimal dose of LUT and ZEA as DICER1 and Alu RNA modulators in cultured human RPE cells challenged with H2O2 was investigated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were pre-treated with LUT, ZEA, or both for 24 h before 200 μM H2O2 challenge. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. DICER1 and Alu RNA were quantified by western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively.

    RESULTS: H2O2 increased cell Alu RNA expression and decreased cell viability of ARPE-19, but had no significant impact on the DICER1 protein level. LUT, alone and in combination with ZEA pre-treatment, prior to H2O2 challenge significantly improved cell viability of ARPE-19 and reduced the level of Alu RNA compared to the negative control.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results support the use of LUT alone, and in combination with ZEA, in AMD prevention and treatment. This study is also the first to report LUT modulating effects on Alu RNA.

    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects*
  18. Tan SN, Sim SP
    BMC Cancer, 2018 04 12;18(1):409.
    PMID: 29649994 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-018-4327-4
    BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) increases the risk of developing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) while nasopharyngeal reflux is known to be one of the major aetiological factors of CRS. Bile acid (BA), the component of gastric duodenal contents, has been recognised as a carcinogen. BA-induced apoptosis was suggested to be involved in human malignancies. Cells have the potential and tendency to survive apoptosis. However, cells that evade apoptosis upon erroneous DNA repair may carry chromosome rearrangements. Apoptotic nuclease, caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease (CAD) has been implicated in mediating translocation in leukaemia. We hypothesised that BA-induced apoptosis may cause chromosome breaks mediated by CAD leading to chromosome rearrangement in NPC. This study targeted the AF9 gene located at 9p22 because 9p22 is one of the most common deletion sites in NPC.

    METHODS: We tested the ability of BA at neutral and acidic pH in inducing phosphatidylserine (PS) externalisation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) disruption, and caspase 3/7 activity in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial (NP69) and NPC (TWO4) cells. Inverse-PCR (IPCR) was employed to detect AF9 gene cleavages. To investigate the role of CAD in mediating these cleavages, caspase inhibition was performed. IPCR bands representing AF9 cleaved fragments were sequenced.

    RESULTS: BA-treated cells showed higher levels of PS externalisation, ROS production, MMP loss and caspase 3/7 activity than untreated control cells. The effect of BA in the induction of these intracellular events was enhanced by acid. BA at neutral and acidic pH also induced significant cleavage of the AF9 gene. These BA-induced gene cleavages were inhibited by Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor. Intriguingly, a few chromosome breaks were identified within the AF9 region that was previously reported to participate in reciprocal translocation between the mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL) and AF9 genes in an acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) patient.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a role for BA-induced apoptosis in mediating chromosome rearrangements in NPC. In addition, CAD may be a key player in chromosome cleavages mediated by BA-induced apoptosis. Persistent exposure of sinonasal tract to gastric duodenal refluxate may increase genomic instability in surviving cells.

    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects
  19. Shanmugapriya, Vijayarathna S, Sasidharan S
    Microsc. Microanal., 2019 10;25(5):1263-1272.
    PMID: 31383043 DOI: 10.1017/S1431927619014776
    Several microscopy methods have been developed to assess the morphological changes in cells in the investigations of the mode of cell death in response to a stimulus. Our recent finding on the treatment of the IC50 concentration (26.67 μg/mL) of Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract indicated the induction of apoptotic cell death via the regulation of miRNA in HeLa cells. Hence, the current study was conducted to validate the function of these downregulated microRNAs in P. longifolia-treated HeLa cells using microscopic approaches. These include scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI)-based fluorescent microscopy techniques by observing the morphological alterations to cells after transfection with mimic miRNA. Interestingly, the morphological changes observed in this study demonstrated the apoptotic hallmarks, for instance, cell blebbing, cell shrinkage, cytoplasmic and nuclear condensation, vacuolization, cytoplasmic extrusion, and the formation of apoptotic bodies, which proved the role of dysregulated miRNAs in apoptotic HeLa cell death after treatment with the P. longifolia leaf extract. Conclusively, the current study proved the crucial role of downregulated miR-484 and miR-221-5p in the induction of apoptotic cell death in P. longifolia-treated HeLa cells using three approaches-SEM, TEM, and AO/PI-based fluorescent microscope.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects*
  20. Ajdari Z, Rahman H, Shameli K, Abdullah R, Abd Ghani M, Yeap S, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 Mar 01;21(3):123.
    PMID: 26938520 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21030123
    The current study investigated the anticancer properties of gold nanoparticles (SG-stabilized AuNPs) synthesized using water extracts of the brown seaweed Sargassum glaucescens (SG). SG-stabilized AuNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The SG-stabilized AuNPs were stable and small at 3.65 ± 1.69 nm in size. The in vitro anticancer effect of SG-stabilized AuNPs was determined on cervical (HeLa), liver (HepG2), breast (MDA-MB-231) and leukemia (CEM-ss) cell lines using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, caspase activity determination, and MTT assays. After 72 h treatment, SG-stabilized AuNPs was shown to be significant (p < 0.05) cytotoxic to the cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 values of SG-stabilized AuNPs on the HeLa, HepG2, CEM-ss, MDA-MB-231 cell lines were 4.75 ± 1.23, 7.14 ± 1.45, 10.32 ± 1.5, and 11.82 ± 0.9 μg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, SG-stabilized AuNPs showed no cytotoxic effect towards the normal human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A). SG-stabilized AuNPs significantly (p < 0.05) arrest HeLa cell cycle at G2/M phase and significantly (p < 0.05) activated caspases-3 and -9 activities. The anticancer effect of SG-stabilized AuNPs is via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The study showed that SG-stabilized AuNPs is a good candidate to be developed into a chemotherapeutic compound for the treatment of cancers especially cervical cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epithelial Cells/drug effects*
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