METHODS: Potential MAR/SAR sites were predicted in the AF9 gene by using MAR/SAR prediction tools. Normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69) and NPC cells (TWO4) were treated with BA at neutral and acidic pH. Inverse-PCR (IPCR) was used to identify chromosome breaks in SAR region (contains MAR/SAR) and non-SAR region (does not contain MAR/SAR). To map the chromosomal breakpoints within the AF9 SAR and non-SAR regions, DNA sequencing was performed.
RESULTS: In the AF9 SAR region, the gene cleavage frequencies of BA-treated NP69 and TWO4 cells were significantly higher than those of untreated control. As for the AF9 non-SAR region, no significant difference in cleavage frequency was detected between untreated and BA-treated cells. A few breakpoints detected in the SAR region were mapped within the AF9 region that was previously reported to translocate with the mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL) gene in an acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) patient.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that MAR/SAR may be involved in defining the positions of chromosomal breakages induced by BA. Our report here, for the first time, unravelled the relation of these BA-induced chromosomal breakages to the AF9 chromatin structure.
RESULTS: In this study, L-cells were isolated from a primary intestinal cell line to create suitable target cells for insulin expression studies. The isolated cells displayed L-cell properties and were therefore used as an L-cell surrogate. Next, the isolated L-cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmid consisting of an insulin gene located downstream of the GLP-1 promoter. The secretion tests revealed that an increase in glucose concentration from 5 mM to 25 mM induced insulin gene expression in the L-cells by 2.7-fold. Furthermore, L-cells quickly responded to the glucose stimulation; the amount of insulin protein increased 2-fold in the first 30 minutes and then reached a plateau after 90 minutes.
CONCLUSION: Our data showed that L-cells efficiently produced the mature insulin protein. In addition, the insulin protein secretion was positively regulated with glucose induction. In conclusion, GLP-1 promoter and L-cell could be potential candidates for diabetes gene therapy agents.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were pre-treated with LUT, ZEA, or both for 24 h before 200 μM H2O2 challenge. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. DICER1 and Alu RNA were quantified by western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively.
RESULTS: H2O2 increased cell Alu RNA expression and decreased cell viability of ARPE-19, but had no significant impact on the DICER1 protein level. LUT, alone and in combination with ZEA pre-treatment, prior to H2O2 challenge significantly improved cell viability of ARPE-19 and reduced the level of Alu RNA compared to the negative control.
CONCLUSIONS: These results support the use of LUT alone, and in combination with ZEA, in AMD prevention and treatment. This study is also the first to report LUT modulating effects on Alu RNA.
METHODS: We tested the ability of BA at neutral and acidic pH in inducing phosphatidylserine (PS) externalisation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) disruption, and caspase 3/7 activity in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial (NP69) and NPC (TWO4) cells. Inverse-PCR (IPCR) was employed to detect AF9 gene cleavages. To investigate the role of CAD in mediating these cleavages, caspase inhibition was performed. IPCR bands representing AF9 cleaved fragments were sequenced.
RESULTS: BA-treated cells showed higher levels of PS externalisation, ROS production, MMP loss and caspase 3/7 activity than untreated control cells. The effect of BA in the induction of these intracellular events was enhanced by acid. BA at neutral and acidic pH also induced significant cleavage of the AF9 gene. These BA-induced gene cleavages were inhibited by Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor. Intriguingly, a few chromosome breaks were identified within the AF9 region that was previously reported to participate in reciprocal translocation between the mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL) and AF9 genes in an acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) patient.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a role for BA-induced apoptosis in mediating chromosome rearrangements in NPC. In addition, CAD may be a key player in chromosome cleavages mediated by BA-induced apoptosis. Persistent exposure of sinonasal tract to gastric duodenal refluxate may increase genomic instability in surviving cells.