BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the most common health problems in men. ED can significantly affect a man's psychological well-being and overall health.
PURPOSE: To investigate the association of psychological factors, patients' knowledge, and management among ED patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 93 patients with an age range from 31 to 81 years who have undergone treatment for ED were included in this study.
RESULTS: It was found that the feeling of blame (P=0.001), guilt (P=0.001), anger or bitterness (P=0.001), depression (P=0.001), feeling like a failure (P=0.001), and the feeling of letting down a partner during intercourse (P=0.001) were significantly associated with ED. Age was also found to be significantly associated with patients' psychological scale (P=0.004). In addition, the majority of patients in this study practice the right method of administration of ED therapy. However, no significant correlation was found between patients' knowledge of ED therapy and demographic characteristics.
CONCLUSION: This study concluded that ED does affect psychological well-being of people. In addition, patient's knowledge about ED and its management is also crucial in ensuring that the patient achieves optimal therapeutic outcomes from ED therapy.
KEYWORDS: erectile dysfunction; management; patients’ knowledge; psychological factors
This paper deals with the aetiological factors of psychogenic impotence, more emphasis however, being placed on the psychological theories. The characteristics of forty cases of impotence were analysed and discussed. Two cases, one of erectile impotence (failure of erection) and another of premature ejaculation were treated by the authors with systematic desensitization successfully. The "squeeze" technique was utilized for the case of premature ejaculation
The case histories of two patients healed by animist treatment in the Iban tradition are reviewed by two psychiatrists. Both psychiatrists point to the difficulties in the evaluation of the background of the disease and of the mechanisms of its treatment by people not aware of the cultural and sociological aspects of eastern civilisation. The diagnostic classification of both patients by means of western medicine and the possible treatment of their disease are discussed. The failure of western medicine to understand the psychiatrical aspects of animist religions in the pathogenesis of diseases raises the question whether western medicine will be able to cope with the health problems of Iban (and other animists) sufficiently when their animist tradition will be replaced by western civilisation.
We report a study which defined the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) among men with ischaemic heart disease. We recruited 510 men with established ischemic heart disease and interviewed these men using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (IIEF-5) questionnaire to determine the presence and severity of ED. Presence of ED was defined as IIEF-5 score of less than 22. The mean age was 60.5 years (range 36-92 years; SD: +9.58). 461 (90.4%) men reported some degree of ED of which two third of them had moderate to severe ED. The prevalence of ED increased significantly with age. Age above 60 years was the only significant risk factor. Non-statistically significant but important risk factors included diabetes, hypertension, diuretics and oral hypoglycemic agents. ED is very common among men with ischemic heart disease. The prevalence and severity increased significantly with age above 60 years old.
Introduction: Marital satisfaction is vital to the wellbeing and functioning of the individual and family. Marital dissatisfaction can lead to detrimental effects on mental, physical and family health. The study aimed to determine the proportion of marital dissatisfaction in outpatient setting and its association with sexual functioning and psychiatric morbidity in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected primary care using purposive sampling. Data collection was done using socio-demographic questionnaire and several validated Malay version of self-administered questionnaires. Marital satisfaction was measured by the Malay version of Golombok–Rust Inventory of Marital State (Mal-GRIMS).
Results: The prevalence of marriage dissatisfaction in sample population was about 37.3% with almost equal prevalence in both, 36.5% (male) and 37.8% (female). Using a regression analysis, the significant factors that affect marital dissatisfaction were respondent’s age group between 31-40 years old (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR. =11.4, 95% Confidence Interval, CI. =1.2-110.9), spouse’s salary of RM1000-RM2000 (lower income category) (AOR=7.3, 95% CI= 1.9-28.1), anxiety case (AOR= 4.8, 95% CI=1.1-21.5), depression case (AOR= 4.8, 95% CI=1.0-22.8), female sexual dysfunction in term of arousal function (AOR= 0.01, 95% CI=0.0-0.7), satisfaction dysfunction (AOR= 9.4, 95% CI= 1.5-58) and pain function (AOR=43.7, 95% CI=1.28 - 1489.2).
Conclusion: Marital dissatisfaction can be influenced by financial factor, sexual dysfunction and presence of psychiatric morbidity. Hence, in management of marital discord, thorough screening of these factors should be prioritized in clinical setting.
We interviewed a population sample of 2412 men aged 40-70 y in Brazil, Italy, Japan and Malaysia about medical history, lifestyle habits and sexual behavior. Men were classified as having moderate or complete erectile dysfunction (ED) if they reported to be sometimes or never able to achieve and maintain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse, respectively. There were 1335 men with no diagnosis of cardiovascular or prostate diseases, diabetes, ulcer or depression, nor taking hormones. The prevalence of ED was 16.1%. ED was associated with age (the risk increased 8% per y), moderate (odds ratio (OR)=2.2) or severe (OR=4.9) lower urinary tract symptoms and smoking (OR=2.3 for >30 cigarettes/day). It was inversely associated with physical activity (OR=0.5) and higher educational levels. Between the ages of 40 and 70 y, almost one in six 'healthy' men is affected by ED. Further research should look at preclinical disease stages and genetic factors.
OBJECTIVES: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a problem commonly encountered by patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of ED among this group of patients along with its risk factors and association with quality of life (QOL).
METHODS: Male patients on MMT in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia were included in the study. A total of 134 patients with sexual partners were assessed for ED using the International Index of Erectile Function. Patients were assessed for substance use using Opiate Treatment Index (OTI) and depression using the Malay version of the self-rated Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-BM). QOL was evaluated using World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF.
RESULTS: The prevalence of ED among patients on MMT was 67%, with 26.1% having mild ED, 30.4% having mild-to-moderate ED, 7.0% having moderate ED, and 17.2% having severe ED. Patients with depression were 4 times more likely to have ED compared with patients without depression, whereas increasing age significantly correlated with the severity of ED. Having ED predicted a poorer QOL in the social relationships domain.
CONCLUSION: Depression is highly associated with ED, which negatively influences the social aspect of QOL among patients on methadone maintenance therapy.
Study site: outpatient addiction psychiatric clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Objective: Sexual problems are common among patients who are on antidepressants treatment. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of PE and ED, and their potential risk factors that may impair their sexual function in a TH
Methods: A cross-sectional study using simple random sampling was conducted among adult male patients who are on antidepressant treatment in the TH psychiatric outpatient clinic. Respondents’ sociodemographic data were obtained. Participants were interviewed using a structured self-report questionnaire with 15-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15)where the scores lesser than 25 were indicative for having an ED. A validated Malay Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (MAPET) was used to assess PE and those with a score ≥ 23 were considered to have PE.
Results: Hundred respondents were participated, and the prevalence of PE and ED was 66% and 85%, respectively. Using multivariate binary logistic regression, the potential risk factors of PE were race, i.e. being non-Malay (p=0.044), lesser in the frequency of sexual activity (p=0.03) and also an ED (p=0.03), respectively. The only risk factor for ED was PE (p=0.026). No significant association was noted for the other factors, including type of the antidepressant, dose and duration of antidepressant used (p>0.05). There was a strong correlation of MAPET and IIEF-15 (r=-0.345, p < 0.01) signifying patient with more severe PE had more severe ED.
Conclusions: Due to very high rate of ED and PE in this group of respondents, it is pivotal to screen for sexual problem among patients who are taking an antidepressant in a psychiatric setup.
Study site: Psychiatric clinic, Pusat Perubatan University Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) have a complex and bi-directional relationship. We examined the relationships between erectile dysfunction and depressive symptoms or diagnosed depression, sexual activity and sexual satisfaction.
A population survey of men aged 40-70 years was carried out in Brazil, Italy, Japan and Malaysia in 1997-1998. A questionnaire was used to collect life style, sexual behaviors and medical data. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. ED was classified as moderate or complete if the men reported they were "sometimes" or "never" able to achieve and maintain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse. Only men with a sexual partner and not taking psychoactive drugs were considered.
Diagnosed depression was reported by 2.0% of the men, depressive symptoms by 21.0%. The prevalence of moderate or complete ED was 17.8%. Sexual satisfaction related to the frequency of sexual intercourse and inversely related to depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with being single (odds ratio [OR] 1.7), widowed, separated or divorced (OR 2.2), moderate or complete ED (1.8), heart disease (1.6) and smoking (1.6), and negatively associated with age, physical activity and frequency of sexual intercourse.
Cross-sectional studies cannot establish a temporal cause-effect relationship. However, the confirmation of known associations reassures about the validity of the original findings.
The findings suggest that depressive symptoms are linked to ED by the mediation of decreased sexual activity and the dissatisfaction generated by the inability to have a healthy sexual life.
This paper highlights women's perceptions of sildenafil citrate (Viagra, Pfizer). It is based on a qualitative study on perceptions of erectile dysfunction in the Malaysian multicultural society. Six focus groups were conducted, consisting of 69 women, aged between 40 and 70 years, recruited from the general public and who had given informed consent. The findings revealed that the women were aware of erectile dysfunction and Viagra. Due to their concern about the negative aspects of Viagra, the Chinese and Malay traditional methods of treatment were commonly mentioned. The women from three ethnic groups viewed the possibility of their husband starting to take Viagra with lots of suspicion, mistrust and fear. They would prefer their husband discussing with them the issue of resorting to taking Viagra. The Chinese and Indian women perceived that if a man takes Viagra, it will boost his ego and he will feel more manly. Indian women felt that a man taking Viagra is proof of his love for his wife. The Malay women felt that a man would be ashamed and have a low self-esteem if he were to resort to taking Viagra. Although Viagra is meant for the male, understanding of women's perception of it is beneficial for a couple's sexual relationship.
This study aimed to assess the sensitivity of the Malay version of the Brief Manual Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) on patients with and without urinary symptoms in Malaysian population. Validity and reliability were studied in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and patients without LUTS. Reliability and validity was evaluated by using the test-retest method while internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Sensitivity to change was expressed as the effect size in the pre-intervention versus post-intervention score in patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Internal consistency was excellent. A high degree of internal consistency was observed for each of the 11 items and 5 domains (Cronbach's alpha value = 0.67 and higher and 0.73 and higher respectively). Test-retest correlation coefficient for the 11 items scores was highly significant. Intraclass correlation coefficient was high (ICC = 0.68 and above). The sensitivity and specificity showed a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to the effects of treatment. A high degree of significant level between baseline and post-treatment scores were observed across 3 domains in the treatment corresponds cohort but not in the control group. The Mal-BMSFI is a suitable, reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical change in the Malaysian population.
To validate the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) in Malaysian population. Reliability and internal consistency were evaluated using the test-retest method and Cronbach's alpha. Sensitivity to change was expressed as the effect size index. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha value = 0.75 to 0.90) Test-retest correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient were highly significant (ICC = 0.75 and above) and a high degree of sensitivity and specificity was observed. The IIEF-15 is suitable, reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical change in the Malaysian population.
To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of oral sildenafil in Asian men with erectile dysfunction of various causes (organic, psychogenic, or mixed) and of more than 6 months' duration.
In this double-blind, parallel-group trial conducted at eight centers in Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore, 254 men, 26 to 78 years old, were randomized to 12 weeks of sildenafil or placebo taken as needed 1 hour before anticipated sexual activity. Initially, the sildenafil (n = 127) or matching placebo (n = 127) dose was 50 mg but could be increased to 100 mg or decreased to 25 mg because of a lack of efficacy or intolerance, respectively. Efficacy was assessed by the 15-question International Index of Erectile Function, patients' event logs of sexual activity, and a global efficacy question about erections.
The two primary efficacy variables relating to achievement and maintenance of an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse, as assessed by the mean scores for International Index of Erectile Function question 3 (4.22 versus 2.59) and question 4 (4.15 versus 2.41), were both significantly higher with sildenafil than with placebo (P <0.0001). In addition, the five separate International Index of Erectile Function domains of sexual function, the percentage of successful intercourse attempts, and the global efficacy assessment of erections revealed significantly greater treatment effects in favor of sildenafil (P <0.0001 versus placebo for all variables). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 22.8% of patients who received sildenafil and in 10.2% of those who received placebo.
Sildenafil is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for Asian men with erectile dysfunction of broad-spectrum etiology.
The main aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of ED and the associated socio-demographic and psychological correlates among hypertensive patients from a rural multiethnic community in Malaysia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among hypertensive patients attending rural primary care clinics. The socio-demographic, health characteristics, erectile function and levels of depression, anxiety and stress were recorded and analysed. The International Index of ErectileFunction-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were used to assess erectile function and the levels of depression, anxiety and stress, respectively.
A total of 253 hypertensive patients comprising 178 (70.4%) Malays, 56 (22.1%) Chinese and 18 (7.5%) Indians participated. The mean age of participants was 59.8 ± 10.62 years. Overall, the prevalence rate of ED was 62%: 90 (35%) with moderate and 69 (27%) with severe ED. The prevalence rate of ED among those aged 65 years or older (83.1%) was significantly higher than those less than 65 years (51.8%), (p<0.001). Higher prevalence rates were also noted among the Chinese (78.6%) compared to Malays (59.6%) and Indians (50%) (p=0.021); lower education level (69.1%) (p=0.026), among hypertensive patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (70.6%) (p=0.026) and WHR ≥ 0.9 (31.3%) (p=0.021). However, no significant association was found between depression, anxiety and stress scores with IIEF-5 score.
The prevalence rate of ED among Malaysian hypertensive patients is high. The rate increases significantly with age, Chinese ethnicity, concomitant diabetes mellitus, lower education level, WHR and the number of pack years of smoking. ED should be properly recognized and managed in hypertensive patients.
Erectile function (EF) is a prerequisite for satisfactory sexual intercourse (SI) and central to male sexual functioning. Satisfactory SI eventually initiates orgasm - a biopsychophysiological state of euphoria - leading to a sense of bliss, enjoyment and positive mental well being. For a psychiatrist, treating ED is self-propelled to harmonize these pleasurable experiences alongside with encouragement of physical wellness and sensuality. Hence, the role of PDE-5i is pivotal in this context and constitutes a therapeutic challenge. PDE-5i work via the dopaminergic-oxytocin-nitric oxide pathway by increasing the availability of endothelial's guanosine monophosphate (GMP), immediately causing relaxation of the penile smooth muscle and an erection. The PDE-5i, like sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil, are effective in the treatment of ED with some benefits/ flexibilities and disadvantages compared to other treatment modalities. Prescribed PDE-5i exclusively improve EF, fostering male's self-confidence and self-esteem. Treatment failures are associated with factors such as absent (or insufficient) sexual stimulation, psychosexual conflicts and the co-existence of medical disorders. Managing ED requires dealing with underlying medical diseases, addressing other co-morbid sexual dysfunctions like premature ejaculation (PE), and educating the patient on healthy life-styles. Furthermore, by dealing with interpersonal dynamics within the couple and embracing adequate lifestyles (managing stress and revising one's sexual scripts), PDE-5i treatment benefits may be enhanced. In this review, we propose a holistic conceptual framework approach for psychiatric management of patients with ED.