The in-vitro activity of cefotaxime and cefoperazone were compared using clinically isolated Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cefotaxime was found on a weight to weight basis, to be much more active than cefoperazone. All the three species studied show the presence of cefoperazone-resistant population which were sensitive to cefotaxime. The possible mechanisms of resistance to these antibiotics were discussed.
In this study we investigated the relationship between several selected commercially available essential oils and beta-lactam antibiotics on their antibacterial effect against multidrug resistant bacteria. The antibacterial activity of essential oils and antibiotics was assessed using broth microdilution. The combined effects between essential oils of cinnamon bark, lavender, marjoram, tea tree, peppermint and ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, carbenicillin, ceftazidime, meropenem, were evaluated by means of the checkerboard method against beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interaction between the combinations. Substantial susceptibility of the bacteria toward natural antibiotics and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were noted in some paired combinations of antibiotics and essential oils. Out of 35 antibiotic-essential oil pairs tested, four of them showed synergistic effect (FIC≤0.5) and 31 pairs showed no interaction (FIC>0.5-4.0). The preliminary results obtained highlighted the occurrence of a pronounced synergistic relationship between piperacillin/cinnamon bark oil, piperacillin/lavender oil, piperacillin/peppermint oil as well as meropenem/peppermint oil against two of the three bacteria under study with a FIC index in the range 0.26-0.5. The finding highlighted the potential of peppermint, cinnamon bark and lavender essential oils being as antibiotic resistance modifying agent. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to decrease the adverse effects and possibly to reverse the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance.
Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds.
The application of nanomaterials has gained considerable momentum in various fields in recent years due to their high reactivity, excellent surface properties and quantum effects in the nanometer range. The properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) vary with its crystallite size or particle size and often nanocrystalline ZnO is seen to exhibit superior physical and chemical properties due to their higher surface area and modified electronic structure. ZnO nanoparticles are reported to exhibit strong bacterial inhibiting activity and silver (Ag) has been extensively used for its antimicrobial properties since ages. In this study, Ag doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by mechanochemical processing in a high energy ball mill and investigated for antimicrobial activity. The nanocrystalline nature of zinc oxide was established by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. It is seen from the XRD data obtained from the samples, that crystallite size of the zinc oxide nanoparticles is seen to decrease with increasing Ag addition. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data also supported the nanoparticle formation during the synthesis. The doped nanoparticles were subjected to antimicrobial investigation and found that both increase in Ag content and decrease in particle size contributed significantly towards antimicrobial efficiency. It was also observed that Ag doped ZnO nanoparticles possess enhanced antimicrobial potential than that of virgin ZnO against the studied microorganisms of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
A series of (E)-1-(4-alkyloxyphenyl)-3-(hydroxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one have been successfully synthesised via Claisen-Schmidt condensation. The synthesised chalcone derivatives consisted of hydroxyl groups at either ortho, meta or para position and differed in the length of the alkyl groups, C (n) H(2) (n) (+1,) where n = 6, 10, 12 and 14. The structures of all compounds were defined by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR. The antimicrobial studies were carried out against wild-type Escherichia coli American Type Culture Collection 8739 to evaluate the effect of the hydroxyl and the alkyl groups of the synthesised chalcones. All the synthesised compounds have shown significant antimicrobial activities. The optimum inhibition was dependent on the position of the hydroxyl group as well as the length of the alkyl chains.
Chlorhexidine (CHX) is known for its high antibacterial substantivity and is suitable for use to bio-inert medical devices due to its long-term antibacterial efficacy. However, CHX molecules require a crosslinking film to be stably immobilized on bio-inert metal surfaces. Therefore, polydopamine (PDA) was utilized in this study to immobilize CHX on the surface of 316L type stainless steel (SS316L). The SS316L disks were pre-treated, modified with PDA film and immobilized with different concentrations of CHX (10mM-50mM). The disks were then subjected to various surface characterization analyses (ATR-FTIR, XPS, ToF-SIMS, SEM and contact angle measurement) and tested for their cytocompatibility with human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results demonstrated the formation of a thin PDA film on the SS316L surface, which acted as a crosslinking medium between the metal and CHX. CHX was immobilized via a reduction process that covalently linked the CHX molecules with the functional group of PDA. The immobilization of CHX increased the hydrophobicity of the disk surfaces. Despite this property, a low concentration of CHX optimized the viability of HSF cells without disrupting the morphology of adherent cells. The immobilized disks also demonstrated high antibacterial efficacy against both bacteria, even at a low concentration of CHX. This study demonstrates a strong beneficial effect of the crosslinked PDA film in immobilizing CHX on bio-inert metal, and these materials are applicable in medical devices. Specifically, the coating will restrain bacterial proliferation without suffocating nearby tissues.
Silver (Ag) coated bioactive glass particles (Ag-BG) were formulated and compared to uncoated controls (BG) in relation to glass characterization, solubility and microbiology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed a crystalline AgNP surface coating while ion release studies determined low Ag release (<2 mg/L). Cell culture studies presented increased cell viability (127 and 102%) with lower liquid extract (50 and 100 ml/ml) concentrations. Antibacterial testing of Ag-BG in E. coli, S. epidermidis and S. aureus significantly reduced bacterial cell viability by 60-90%. Composites of Ag-BG/CMC-Dex Hydrogels were formulated and characterized. Agar diffusion testing was conducted where Ag-BG/hydrogel composites produced the largest inhibition zones of 7 mm (E. coli), 5 mm (S. aureus) and 4 mm (S. epidermidis).
Thirty-six strains of Escherichia coli isolated from animals in Bario, a remote area in Sarawak, Malaysia, were examined for presence of plasmid DNA and their susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents. Of the total 36 isolates, five bovine and six canine isolates were found to contain plasmid DNA ranging in sizes from 2.6 to 70 kilobases. All were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and neomycin but resistance to ampicillin (47%), erythromycin (19%), streptomycin (25%) and tetracycline (11%) was observed. Resistance was associated with carriage of a 47 kb (SC98), 70 kb, (SC133) and 56 and 4.6 kb (SC119) plasmids which were transmissible to the Escherichia coli K12 recipient. It is concluded that animals form a potential reservoir of R plasmids carrying E. coli in the study area.
Fifteen independent E. coli strains of avian, bovine and porcine origin in Peninsular Malaysia were tested for antibiotic resistance and conjugative R plasmids. Eight (53%) isolates were found to be antibiotic resistant. Among them, 37.5% were mono-resistant and 62.5% were resistant to three or more antibiotics, i.e., multi-resistant. All of them were resistant to Tc and sensitive to Gm and Nx. Three of the eight antibiotic resistant strains were able to transfer all or part of their resistance to an E. coli K12 recipient by conjugation. The transfer frequencies of Km, Sm and Tc resistance of the three donors varied between 4.5 X 10(-8) to 6.8 X 10(-7). Analysis of the plasmid profiles of all the three donors and their respective transconjugants after agarose gel electrophoresis provided conclusive evidence that the transferable resistance traits were plasmid-mediated.
Four of the five veterinary E. coli strains, which were unable to transfer their antibiotic resistance by conjugation, were found to harbour plasmids. Evidence from transformation, agarose gel electrophoresis and curing experiments showed that in strains KE-3, KE-4 and KE-14 a nonconjugative R plasmid carried the gene for resistance to tetracycline. The plasmids in KE-9 were cryptic.
Ultrafine titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowires were synthesised using a hydrothermal method with different volumes of ethylene glycol (EG) and annealing temperatures. It shows that sodium titanate nanowires synthesised using 5 and 10 ml EG, which annealed at 400°C produced TiO2 nanowires that correspond to a photochemically active phase, which is anatase. The influences of annealing temperatures (400-600°C) on the morphological arrangement of TiO2 nanowires were evident in the field emission scanning electron microscopy. The annealing temperature of 500°C led to agglomeration, which formed a mixture of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires. High thermal stability of TiO2 nanowires revealed by thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum showed the presence of the Ti-O-Ti vibrations as evidenced due to TiO2 lattices. An antibacterial study using TiO2 nanowires toward Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed large zones of inhibition that indicated susceptibility of the microbe toward TiO2. Growth kinetic analysis shows that addition of TiO2 has reduced optical density (OD) suggesting an inhibition of the growth of bacteria. These results indicate TiO2 nanowires can be effectively used as an antimicrobial agent against gram-bacteria. The TiO2 nanowires could be exploited in the medical, packaging and detergent formulation industries and wastewater treatment.
Poor microbial water quality jeopardizes the health and safety of food produced by aquaculture farms. Three fish farms and transect sites in Singapore were assessed for microbial water quality and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Of the 33 multidrug resistant E. coli isolated from surface waters of the Johor Straits, 81.8% were ESBL producers. The relative abundance of sul1, qnrA and intI1 genes were higher in sediments than surface waters. Among the surface water samples, higher concentrations (10-1-101) of beta-lactamases (blaSHV, blaOXA, blaCTX-M) were detected in the transect sites. This study highlights a potential antimicrobial resistance transmission chain from environmental waters, to animal carriers and humans.
Prazosin (PRZ) and levonorgestrel (LNG) are widely used as an anti-disease drugs due to their biological activity in the human body. The frequent detection of these compounds in water samples requires alternative technologies for the removal of both compounds. After electrochemical degradation of PRZ and LNG, the parent compounds could be completely removed after treatment, but the identification and characterization of by-products are necessary as well. In this study, the effects of NaCl concentration and applied voltage were investigated during the electrochemical degradation process. The results revealed that the increase of NaCl concentration and applied voltage could promote the generation of hypochlorite OCl- and then enhance the degradation of PRZ and LNG. After initial study, 6V and 0.2g NaCl were selected for further experiments (96% and 99% removal of PRZ and LNG after 40min, respectively). Energy consumption was also evaluated and calculated for PRZ and LNG at 3, 6 and 8V. Solid phase extraction (SPE) method plays an important role in enhancing the detection limit of by-products. Furthermore, characterization and identification of chlorinated and non-chlorinated by-products were conducted using an accurate liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry LC-TOF/MS instrument. The monitoring of products during the electrochemical degradation process was performed at 6V and 0.2g NaCl in a 50mL solution. The results indicated that two chlorinated products were formed during the electrochemical process. The toxicity of by-products toward E. coli bacteria was investigated at 37°C and 20hr incubation time.
Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals active compounds (PACs) in secondary effluents by using B. subtilis 2012WTNC as a function of β-lactamase was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) designed by central composite design (CCD). Four factors including initial concentration of bacteria (1-6 log10 CFU mL-1), incubation period (1-14 days), incubation temperature (20-40 °C) and initial concentration of PACs (1-5 mg L-1) were investigated. The optimal operating factors for biodegradation process determined using response surface methodology (RSM) was recorded with 5.57 log10 CFU mL-1 of B. subtilis, for 10.38 days, at 36.62 °C and with 4.14 mg L-1 of (cephalexin/amoxicillin) with R2 coefficient of 0.99. The biodegradation was 83.81 and 93.94% respectively. The relationship among the independent variables was significant (p coli and S. aureus after degradation using B. subtilis which reflects the higher potential of bacteria to biodegrade PACs in secondary effluents. B. subtilis has the potential for biodegradation of PACs in the secondary effluents.
The present study comprises the synthesis of a new series of benzenesulfonamides derived from N-sulfonation of 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-ethanamine (1). The synthesis was initiated by the reaction of 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-ethanamine (1) with benzenesulfonyl chloride (2), to yield N-(4-methoxyphenethyl)benzenesulfonamide (3). This parent molecule 3 was subsequently treated with various alkyl/aralkyl halides (4a-j) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and in the presence of a weak base lithium hydride (LiH) to obtain various N-(alkyl/aralkyl)-N-(4-methoxyphenethyl) benzenesulfonamides (5a-j). The characterization of these derivatives was carried out by spectroscopic techniques like IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. Elemental analysis also supported this data. The biofilm inhibitory action of all the synthesized compounds was carried out on Escherichia coli and some of the compounds were identified to be very suitable inhibitors of this bacterial strain. Furthermore, the molecules were also tested for their cytotoxicity behavior to assess their utility as less cytotoxic therapeutic agents.
Infectious diseases remain a significant threat to human health, contributing to more than 17 million deaths, annually. With the worsening trends of drug resistance, there is a need for newer and more powerful antimicrobial agents. We hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments are potential sources of antimicrobials. Under polluted milieus, organisms such as cockroaches encounter different types of microbes, including superbugs. Such creatures survive the onslaught of superbugs and are able to ward off disease by producing antimicrobial substances. Here, we characterized antibacterial properties in extracts of various body organs of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and showed potent antibacterial activity in crude brain extract against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1. The size-exclusion spin columns revealed that the active compound(s) are less than 10 kDa in molecular mass. Using cytotoxicity assays, it was observed that pre-treatment of bacteria with lysates inhibited bacteria-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. Using spectra obtained with LC-MS on Agilent 1290 infinity liquid chromatograph, coupled with an Agilent 6460 triple quadruple mass spectrometer, tissues lysates were analysed. Among hundreds of compounds, only a few homologous compounds were identified that contained the isoquinoline group, chromene derivatives, thiazine groups, imidazoles, pyrrole-containing analogs, sulfonamides, furanones, and flavanones and known to possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties and anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, and analgesic properties. Further identification, characterization, and functional studies using individual compounds can act as a breakthrough in developing novel therapeutics against various pathogens including superbugs.
Modified rice straw/Fe3O4/polycaprolactone nanocomposites (ORS/Fe3O4/ PCL-NCs) have been prepared for the first time using a solution casting method. The RS/Fe3O4-NCs were modified with octadecylamine (ODA) as an organic modifier. The prepared NCs were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRD results showed that as the intensity of the peaks decreased with the increase of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs content in comparison with PCL peaks, the Fe3O4-NPs peaks increased from 1.0 to 60.0 wt. %. The TEM and SEM results showed a good dispersion of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs in the PCL matrix and the spherical shape of the NPs. The TGA analysis indicated thermal stability of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs increased after incorporation with PCL but the thermal stability of ORS/Fe3O4/PCL-NCs decreased with the increase of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs content. Tensile strength was improved with the addition of 5.0 wt. % of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs. The antibacterial activities of the ORS/Fe3O4/PCL-NC films were examined against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) by diffusion method using nutrient agar. The results indicated that ORS/Fe3O4/PCL-NC films possessed a strong antibacterial activity with the increase in the percentage of ORS/Fe3O4-NCs in the PCL.
The aim of this study was to investigate the mode of action of the lavender essential oil (LV) on antimicrobial activity against multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli J53 R1 when used singly and in combination with piperacillin.