Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

  1. Almasi D, Sadeghi M, Lau WJ, Roozbahani F, Iqbal N
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Jul 01;64:102-107.
    PMID: 27127033 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.03.053
    The present work reviews the current fabrication methods of the functionally graded polymeric material (FGPM) and introduces a novel fabrication method that is versatile in applications as compared to those of existing used methods. For the first time electrophoresis was used to control the distribution of the tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) in a film made of polylactic acid (PLA), aiming to induce antimicrobial effect on the film prepared. The elemental analysis on the film surface showed that by employing electrophoresis force, higher amount of TC was detected near the top surface of the film. Results also showed that the FGPM samples with higher percentage of the TC on the film surface were highly effective to minimize the growth of Escherichia coli. These findings are useful and important to improve dispersion quality of the particles in the composite material and further enhance its antibacterial property.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*
  2. Salim MM, Malek NANN
    PMID: 26652350 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.09.099
    The antibacterial activity of regenerated NaY zeolite (thermal treatment from cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified NaY zeolite and pretreatment with Na ions) loaded with silver ions were examined using the broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method against Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 11229) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 6538). X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and chemical elemental analyses were used to characterize the regenerated NaY and AgY zeolites. The XRD patterns indicated that the calcination and addition of silver ions on regenerated NaY zeolite did not affect the structure of the regenerated NaY zeolite as the characteristic peaks of the NaY zeolite were retained, and no new peaks were observed. The regenerated AgY zeolite showed good antibacterial activity against both bacteria strains in distilled water, and the antibacterial activity of the samples increased with increasing Ag loaded on the regenerated AgY zeolite; the regenerated AgY zeolite was more effective against E. coli than S. aureus. However, the antibacterial activity of the regenerated AgY was not effective in saline solution for both bacteria. The study showed that CTAB-modified NaY zeolite materials could be regenerated to NaY zeolite using thermal treatment (550°C, 5h) and this material has excellent performance as an antibacterial agent after silver ions loading.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*
  3. Alswat AA, Ahmad MB, Saleh TA, Hussein MZB, Ibrahim NA
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Nov 01;68:505-511.
    PMID: 27524047 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.06.028
    Nanocomposites of zinc oxide loaded on a zeolite (Zeolite/ZnO NCs) were prepared using co-precipitation method. The ratio effect of ZnO wt.% to the Zeolite on the antibacterial activities was investigated. Various techniques were used for the nanocomposite characterization, including UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDX, FESEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed that ZnO peak intensity increased while the intensities of Zeolite peaks decreased. TEM images indicated a good distribution of ZnO-NPs onto the Zeolite framework and the cubic structure of the zeolite was maintained. The average particle size of ZnO-nanoparticles loaded on the surface of the Zeolite was in the range of 1-10nm. Moreover, Zeolite/ZnO NCs showed noticeable antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria; Gram- positive and Gram- negative bacteria, under normal light. The efficiency of the antibacterial increased with increasing the wt.% from 3 to 8 of ZnO NPs, and it reached 87% against Escherichia coli E266.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*
  4. Nathan S
    Virulence, 2014 Apr 1;5(3):371-4.
    PMID: 24569500 DOI: 10.4161/viru.28338
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*
  5. Jin LZ, Ho YW, Abdullah N, Ali MA, Jalaludin S
    Lett Appl Microbiol, 1996 Aug;23(2):67-71.
    PMID: 8987444
    Twelve Lactobacillus strains isolated from chicken intestine, which demonstrated a strong and moderate capacity to adhere to the ileal epithelial cells in vitro, were used to investigate their inhibitory ability against five strains of salmonella, i.e. Salmonella enteritidis 935/79, Salm. pullorum, Salm. typhimurium, Salm. blockley and Salm. enteritidis 94/448, and three serotypes of Escherichia coli, viz. E. coli O1:K1, O2:K1 and O78:K80. The results showed that all the 12 Lactobacillus isolates were able to inhibit the growth of the five strains of salmonella, and the three strains of E. coli in varying degrees. Generally, they were more effective in inhibiting the growth of salmonella than E. coli. Inhibition of the pathogenic bacteria was probably due to the production of organic acids by the Lactobacillus isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development
  6. Ng WK, Lim TS, Lai NS
    Protein Expr. Purif., 2016 11;127:73-80.
    PMID: 27412717 DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2016.07.004
    Neonatal Fc-receptor (FcRn) with its affinity to immunoglobulin G (IgG) has been the subject of many pharmacokinetic studies in the past century. This protein is well known for its unique feature in maintaining the circulating IgG from degradation in blood plasma. FcRn is formed by non-covalent association between the α-chain with the β-2-microglobulin (β2m). Many studies have been conducted to produce FcRn in the laboratory, mainly using mammalian tissue culture as host for recombinant protein expression. In this study, we demonstrate a novel strategy to express the α-chain of FcRn using Escherichia coli as the expression host. The expression vector that carries the cDNA of the α-chain was transformed into expression host, Rosetta-gami 2 strain for inducible expression. The bacterial culture was grown in a modified growth medium which constitutes of terrific broth, sodium chloride (NaCl), glucose and betaine. A brief heat shock at 45 °C was carried out after induction, before the temperature for expression was reduced to 22 °C and grown for 16 h. The soluble form of the α-chain of FcRn expressed was tested in the ELISA and dot blot immunoassay to confirm its native functionality. The results implied that the α-chain of FcRn expressed using this method is functional and retains its pH-dependent affinity to IgG. Our study significantly suggests that the activity of human FcRn remain active and functional in the absence of β2m.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*
  7. Sharifzadeh G, Hezaveh H, Muhamad II, Hashim S, Khairuddin N
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 May;110:110609.
    PMID: 32204060 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.110609
    Vaginal drug delivery is regarded as a promising route against women-related health issues such as unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. However, only a very few studies have been reported on the use of hydrogel rings with low cytotoxicity for vaginal drug delivery applications. Moreover, the effect of nanoparticles on hydrogel vaginal rings has not been clearly evaluated. To overcome these challenges, we hereby developed nanocomposite hydrogel rings based on polyacrylamide-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-montmorillonite nanoparticles in the ring-shaped aluminum mold for controlled drug delivery. The hydrogel rings were synthesized by using N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl ethylene diamine, and ammonium persulfate, as a crosslinker, accelerator, and initiator, respectively. The obtained rings were 5.5 cm in diameters and 0.5 cm in rims. Chemical structures of the nanocomposite rings were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopies. Additionally, the swelling ratio of hydrogels was appeared to be adjusted by the introduction of nanoparticles. In vitro release experiment of methylene blue, as a hydrophilic model drug, revealed that the nanocomposite rings could not only reduce burst effect (almost more than twice), but also achieve prolonged release for 15 days in the vaginal fluid simulant which mimic the vaginal conditions at pH of almost 4.2, and a temperature of 37 °C. Importantly, the resultant hydrogel rings with or without various concentrations of montmorillonite showed low cytotoxicity toward human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, different antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli were observed for various concentrations of montmorillonite in hydrogels. These results suggest the great potential of montmorillonite-based hydrogel rings for vaginal drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*
  8. Zeimaran E, Pourshahrestani S, Djordjevic I, Pingguan-Murphy B, Kadri NA, Wren AW, et al.
    J Mater Sci Mater Med, 2016 Jan;27(1):18.
    PMID: 26676864 DOI: 10.1007/s10856-015-5620-2
    Bioactive glasses may function as antimicrobial delivery systems through the incorporation and subsequent release of therapeutic ions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of a series of composite scaffolds composed of poly(octanediol citrate) with increased loads of a bioactive glass that releases zinc (Zn(2+)) and gallium (Ga(3+)) ions in a controlled manner. The antibacterial activity of these scaffolds was investigated against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The ability of the scaffolds to release ions and the subsequent ingress of these ions into hard tissue was evaluated using a bovine bone model. Scaffolds containing bioactive glass exhibited antibacterial activity and this increased in vitro with higher bioactive glass loads; viable cells decreased to about 20 % for the composite scaffold containing 30 % bioactive glass. The Ga(3+) release rate increased as a function of time and Zn(2+) was shown to incorporate into the surrounding bone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development
  9. Cheng KK, Lee BS, Masuda T, Ito T, Ikeda K, Hirayama A, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2014;5:3233.
    PMID: 24481126 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4233
    Comparative whole-genome sequencing enables the identification of specific mutations during adaptation of bacteria to new environments and allelic replacement can establish their causality. However, the mechanisms of action are hard to decipher and little has been achieved for epistatic mutations, especially at the metabolic level. Here we show that a strain of Escherichia coli carrying mutations in the rpoC and glpK genes, derived from adaptation in glycerol, uses two distinct metabolic strategies to gain growth advantage. A 27-bp deletion in the rpoC gene first increases metabolic efficiency. Then, a point mutation in the glpK gene promotes growth by improving glycerol utilization but results in increased carbon wasting as overflow metabolism. In a strain carrying both mutations, these contrasting carbon/energy saving and wasting mechanisms work together to give an 89% increase in growth rate. This study provides insight into metabolic reprogramming during adaptive laboratory evolution for fast cellular growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development
  10. Philpot CR, McDonald PJ, Chai KH
    J Hyg (Lond), 1980 Oct;85(2):205-10.
    PMID: 7005325
    Pharyngeal micro-organisms of 131 Australian and Malaysian children and adults were compared by analysis of aerobic culture of throat swab specimens. Enteric Gram-negative bacilli were commonly isolated in small numbers from Malaysian adults whether they had sore throats (28%) or not (36%), but were detected in only 9% of Australian adults without sore throats and in only 12% and 4% of Malaysian children with and without sore throats respectively. In other respects microbiological findings were similar in the different groups of subjects studied. It is concluded that the pharyngeal carriage rate of enteric Gram-negative bacilli may differ substantially between different groups of normal individuals. Our findings also suggest that these micro-organisms do not have a pathogenic role in pharyngitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development
  11. Shah FLA, Ramzi AB, Baharum SN, Noor NM, Goh HH, Leow TC, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2019 Dec;46(6):6647-6659.
    PMID: 31535322 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-019-05066-1
    Flavonoids are polyphenols that are important organic chemicals in plants. The health benefits of flavonoids that result in high commercial values make them attractive targets for large-scale production through bioengineering. Strategies such as engineering a flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in microbial hosts provide an alternative way to produce these beneficial compounds. Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Streptomyces sp. are among the expression systems used to produce recombinant products, as well as for the production of flavonoid compounds through various bioengineering approaches including clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genome engineering and genetically encoded biosensors to detect flavonoid biosynthesis. In this study, we review the recent advances in engineering model microbial hosts as being the factory to produce targeted flavonoid compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development
  12. Ismail NA, Amin KAM, Majid FAA, Razali MH
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Oct;103:109770.
    PMID: 31349525 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.109770
    In this work, the potential of titanium dioxide nanoparticles incorporated gellan gum (GG + TiO2-NPs) biofilm as wound dressing material was investigated. The GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm was prepared via evaporative casting technique and was characterized using FTIR, XRD, and SEM to study their physiochemical properties. The mechanical properties, swelling and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of biofilm was determined to comply with an ideal wound dressing material. In vitro and in vivo wound healing studies was carried out to evaluate the performance of GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm. In vitro wound healing was studied on 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cells for cell viability, cell proliferation, and scratch assay. The acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay were used to evaluate the viability of cell and cell proliferation. Cell migration assay was analyzed using Essen BioScience IncuCyteTM Zoom system. In vivo wound healing via open excision wounds model on Sprague Dawley rat was studied within 14 days. The FT-IR spectra of GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm show main bands assigned to OH stretching, OH deformation, and TiO stretching modes. XRD pattern of GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm suggesting that TiO2-NPs was successfully incorporated in biofilm and well distributed on the surface as proved by SEM analysis. The GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm shows higher mechanical strength and swelling (3.76 ± 0.11 MPa and 1061 ± 6%) as compared to pure GG film (3.32 ± 0.08 Mpa and 902 ± 6%), respectively. GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm shows good antibacterial properties as 9 ± 0.25 mm and 11 ± 0.06 mm exhibition zone was observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria, respectively. While no exhibition zone was obtained for pure GG biofilm. GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm also demonstrated better cell-to-cell interaction properties, as it's promoted cell proliferation and cell migration to accelerate open excision wound healing on Sprague Dawley rat. The wound treated with GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm was healed within 14 days, on the other hand, the wound is still can be seen when it was treated with GG. However, GG and GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm show no cytotoxicity effects on mouse fibroblast cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*
  13. Ng MY, Tan WS, Abdullah N, Ling TC, Tey BT
    J Biotechnol, 2008 Nov 25;138(3-4):74-9.
    PMID: 18786579 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2008.08.004
    Expanded bed adsorption chromatography (EBAC) is a single pass operation that has been used as primary capture step in various protein purifications. The most common problem in EBAC is often associated with successful formation of a stable fluidized bed during the absorption stage, which is critically dependent on parameters such as liquid velocity, bed height, particle (adsorbent) size and density as well as design of column and type of flow distributor. In this study, residence time distribution (RTD) test using acetone as non-binding tracer acetone was performed to evaluate liquid dispersion characteristics of the EBAC system. A high B(o) number was obtained indicating the liquid dispersion in the system employed is very minimal and the liquid flow within the bed was close to plug flow, which mimics a packed bed chromatography system. Evaluation on the effect of flow velocities and bed height on the performance of Streamline DEAE using feedstock containing heat-treated crude Escherichia coli homogenate of different biomass concentrations was carried out in this study. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the problems encountered during recovery of HBcAg with aforementioned parameters are also discussed in this paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development
  14. Wibawa PJ, Nur M, Asy'ari M, Wijanarka W, Susanto H, Sutanto H, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jun 22;26(13).
    PMID: 34206375 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26133790
    This research aimed to enhance the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO3) using aloe vera extract. It was performed by means of incorporating AgNPs on an activated carbon nanoparticle (ACNPs) under ultrasonic agitation (40 kHz, 2 × 50 watt) for 30 min in an aqueous colloidal medium. The successful AgNPs synthesis was clarified with both Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometers. The successful AgNPs-ACNPs incorporation and its particle size analysis was performed using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The brown color suspension generation and UV-Vis's spectra maximum wavelength at around 480 nm confirmed the existence of AgNPs. The particle sizes of the produced AgNPs were about 5 to 10 nm in the majority number, which collectively surrounded the aloe vera extract secondary metabolites formed core-shell like nanostructure of 8.20 ± 2.05 nm in average size, while ACNPs themselves were about 20.10 ± 1.52 nm in average size formed particles cluster, and 48.00 ± 8.37 nm in average size as stacking of other particles. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized AgNPs and AgNPs-immobilized ACNPs was 57.58% and 63.64%, respectively (for E. coli); 61.25%, and 93.49%, respectively (for S. aureus). In addition, when the AgNPs-immobilized ACNPs material was coated on the cotton and polyester fabrics, the antibacterial activity of the materials changed, becoming 19.23% (cotton; E. coli), 31.73% (polyester; E. coli), 13.36% (cotton; S. aureus), 21.15% (polyester; S. aureus).
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*
  15. Chan YW, Siow KS, Ng PY, Gires U, Yeop Majlis B
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Nov 01;68:861-871.
    PMID: 27524089 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.07.040
    Antibacterial coating is important to prevent the colonization of medical devices by biofilm forming bacteria that would cause infection and sepsis in patients. Current coating techniques such as immobilization of antimicrobial compounds, time-releasing antibiotic agents and silver nanoparticles, require multiple processing steps, and they have low efficacy and low stability. We proposed a single-step plasma polymerization of an essential oil known as carvone to produce a moderately hydrophobic antibacterial coating (ppCar) with an average roughness of <1nm. ppCar had a static water contact angle of 78°, even after 10days of air aging and it maintained its stability throughout 24h of LB broth immersion. ppCar showed promising results in the live-dead fluorescence assay and crystal violet assay. The biofilm assay showed an effective reduction of E. coli and S. aureus bacteria by 86% and 84% respectively. ppCar is also shown to rupture the bacteria membrane for its bactericidal effects. The cytotoxicity test indicated that the coating is not cytotoxic to the human cell line. This study would be of interest to researcher keen on producing a bacteria-resistance and biocompatible coating on different substrates in a cost-effective manner.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*
  16. Goh SG, Bayen S, Burger D, Kelly BC, Han P, Babovic V, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2017 Jan 15;114(1):627-634.
    PMID: 27712861 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.09.036
    Water quality in Singapore's coastal area was evaluated with microbial indicators, pathogenic vibrios, chemical tracers and physico-chemical parameters. Sampling sites were grouped into two clusters (coastal sites at (i) northern and (ii) southern part of Singapore). The coastal sites located at northern part of Singapore along the Johor Straits exhibited greater pollution. Principal component analysis revealed that sampling sites at Johor Straits have greater loading on carbamazepine, while turbidity poses greater influence on sampling sites at Singapore Straits. Detection of pathogenic vibrios was also more prominent at Johor Straits than the Singapore Straits. This study examined the spatial variations in Singapore's coastal water quality and provided the baseline information for health risk assessment and future pollution management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development
  17. Tang PW, Choon YW, Mohamad MS, Deris S, Napis S
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2015 Mar;119(3):363-8.
    PMID: 25216804 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2014.08.004
    Metabolic engineering is a research field that focuses on the design of models for metabolism, and uses computational procedures to suggest genetic manipulation. It aims to improve the yield of particular chemical or biochemical products. Several traditional metabolic engineering methods are commonly used to increase the production of a desired target, but the products are always far below their theoretical maximums. Using numeral optimisation algorithms to identify gene knockouts may stall at a local minimum in a multivariable function. This paper proposes a hybrid of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm and the minimisation of metabolic adjustment (MOMA) to predict an optimal set of solutions in order to optimise the production rate of succinate and lactate. The dataset used in this work was from the iJO1366 Escherichia coli metabolic network. The experimental results include the production rate, growth rate and a list of knockout genes. From the comparative analysis, ABCMOMA produced better results compared to previous works, showing potential for solving genetic engineering problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development
  18. Zainol MI, Mohd Yusoff K, Mohd Yusof MY
    PMID: 23758747 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-129
    Antibacterial activity of honey is mainly dependent on a combination of its peroxide activity and non-peroxide components. This study aims to investigate antibacterial activity of five varieties of Malaysian honey (three monofloral; acacia, gelam and pineapple, and two polyfloral; kelulut and tualang) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development
  19. Nathan SA, Qvist R, Puthucheary SD
    FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 2005 Feb 1;43(2):177-83.
    PMID: 15681148
    The oxidative response of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Escherichia coli infected macrophages from normal and melioidosis subjects was determined by measuring the production of nitric oxide which is one of the reactive nitrogen intermediates, and the activation state of these macrophages was determined by measuring the generation of 8-iso-PGF(2alpha), a bioactive product of free radical induced lipid peroxidation. Macrophages obtained from the melioidosis patients generated significantly lower levels of nitric oxide and 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) compared to macrophages obtained from the normal subjects (P<0.001). The reduced efficiency of the oxygen dependent microbicidal mechanism in macrophages of melioidosis patients may be one of the survival strategies developed by B. pseudomallei to remain viable intracellularly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*
  20. Chang JS, Strunk J, Chong MN, Poh PE, Ocon JD
    J Hazard Mater, 2020 01 05;381:120958.
    PMID: 31416043 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.120958
    While bulk zinc oxide (ZnO) is of non-toxic in nature, ZnO nanoarchitectures could potentially induce the macroscopic characteristics of oxidative, lethality and toxicity in the water environment. Here we report a systematic study through state-of-the-art controllable synthesis of multi-dimensional ZnO nanoarchitectures (i.e. 0D-nanoparticle, 1D-nanorod, 2D-nanosheet, and 3D-nanoflowers), and subsequent in-depth understanding on the fundamental factor that determines their photoactivities. The photoactivities of resultant ZnO nanoarchitectures were interpreted in terms of the photodegradation of salicylic acid as well as inactivation of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli under UV-A irradiation. Photodegradation results showed that 1D-ZnO nanorods demonstrated the highest salicylic acid photodegradation efficiency (99.4%) with a rate constant of 0.0364 min-1. 1D-ZnO nanorods also exhibited the highest log reductions of B. subtilis and E. coli of 3.5 and 4.2, respectively. Through physicochemical properties standardisation, an intermittent higher k value for pore diameter (0.00097 min-1 per mm), the highest k values for crystallite size (0.00171 min-1 per nm) and specific surface area (0.00339 min-1 per m2/g) contributed to the exceptional photodegradation performance of nanorods. Whereas, the average normalised log reduction against the physicochemical properties of nanorods (i.e. low crystallite size, high specific surface area and pore diameter) caused the strongest bactericidal effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development
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