Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 65 in total

  1. Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Husin MS, Wahab ZA, Nazarpour FK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:2221-4.
    PMID: 22114485 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S23830
    In the present work, we prepared silver nanoparticles by laser ablation of pure silver plate in ethanol and then irradiated the silver nanoparticles using a 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Transmission electron microscopic images of the sample after irradiation clearly showed formation of big structures, such as microrods and microbelts in ethanol. The obtained microbelts had a width of about 0.166 μm and a length of 1.472 μm. The reason for the formation of such a big structure is the tendency of the nanoparticles to aggregate in ethanol before irradiation, which causes fusion of the nanoparticles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  2. Cui X, Zhao X, Zeng J, Loh SK, Choo YM, Liu D
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Aug;166:584-91.
    PMID: 24956030 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.05.102
    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was pretreated by Formiline process to overcome biomass recalcitrance and obtain hemicellulosic syrup and lignin. Higher formic acid concentration led to more lignin removal but also higher degree of cellulose formylation. Cellulose digestibility could be well recovered after deformylation with a small amount of lime. After digested by enzyme loading of 15 FPU+10 CBU/g solid for 48 h, the polysaccharide conversion could be over 90%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results demonstrated that ethanol concentration reached 83.6 g/L with approximate 85% of theoretic yield when performed at an initial dry solid consistency of 20%. A mass balance showed that via Formiline pretreatment 0.166 kg of ethanol could be produced from 1 kg of dry EFB with co-production of 0.14 kg of high-purity lignin and 5.26 kg hemicellulosic syrup containing 2.8% xylose. Formiline pretreatment thus can be employed as an entry for biorefining of EFB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  3. Lam MK, Lee KT
    Biotechnol Adv, 2012 May-Jun;30(3):673-90.
    PMID: 22166620 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.11.008
    Culturing of microalgae as an alternative feedstock for biofuel production has received a lot of attention in recent years due to their fast growth rate and ability to accumulate high quantity of lipid and carbohydrate inside their cells for biodiesel and bioethanol production, respectively. In addition, this superior feedstock offers several environmental benefits, such as effective land utilization, CO(2) sequestration, self-purification if coupled with wastewater treatment and does not trigger food versus fuel feud. Despite having all these 'theoretical' advantages, review on problems and issues related to energy balance in microalgae biofuel are not clearly addressed until now. Base on the maturity of current technology, the true potential of microalgae biofuel towards energy security and its feasibility for commercialization are still questionable. Thus, this review is aimed to depict the practical problems that are facing the microalgae biofuel industry, covering upstream to downstream activities by accessing the latest research reports and critical data analysis. Apart from that, several interlink solutions to the problems will be suggested with the purpose to bring current microalgae biofuel research into a new dimension and consequently, to revolutionize the entire microalgae biofuel industry towards long-term sustainability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  4. Lee WZ, Chang SK, Khoo HE, Sia CM, Yim HS
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2016 Oct-Dec;15(4):419-428.
    PMID: 28071019 DOI: 10.17306/J.AFS.2016.4.40
    Soursop is a healthy fruit. Peels form about 20% of the soursop fruit and are usually discarded as waste product. With a view to utilizing soursop peel as a source of valuable compounds, this study aimed to investigate the influence of different extraction conditions on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of soursop (Annona muricata L.) peel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  5. Ng HS, Ng TC, Kee PE, Tan JS, Yim HS, Lan JC
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2020 Feb;129(2):237-241.
    PMID: 31629635 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2019.08.013
    Aqueous biphasic flotation (ABF) integrates aqueous biphasic system (ABS) and solvent sublation for recovery of target biomolecules. The feasibility of the alcohol/salt ABF for exclusive partition of cytochrome c to one specific phase of the system was investigated. Aliphatic alcohols of different carbon chain length (ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol) and salts (sulfate, phosphate and citrate) were used for the phase formation. The effects of phase composition, concentration of sample loading, pH, flotation time and flow rate of the system on the partition efficiency of cytochrome c were determined. Cytochrome c was exclusively partitioned to the alcohol-rich top phase of the ABF of 18% (w/w) ethanol and 26% (w/w) ammonium sulfate with pH 6 and 20% (w/w) of sample loading. Highest partition coefficient (K) of 6.85 ± 0.21 and yield (YT) of 99.40% ± 0.02 were obtained with optimum flotation rate of 10 mL/min and flow rate of 10 min.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  6. Myint S, Daud WR, Mohamad AB, Kadhum AA
    J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl, 1996 Apr 26;679(1-2):193-5.
    PMID: 8998560
    An ethanolic extract of cloves was analyzed by gas chromatography directly to identify eugenol and other major phenolic compounds without previous separation of other components. Separation was performed on a fused-silica capillary column of 30 m x 0.53 mm I.D., 0.53 microns film thickness. The detector was a flame ionization detector. Helium gas at a flow-rate of 3 ml/min was used as a carrier gas. The analysis were performed with linear temperature programming. Nine components were detected and special attention was given to the major phenolic compound, eugenol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  7. R R
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2022 Jan;194(1):176-186.
    PMID: 34762268 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-021-03742-2
    Hellenia speciosa (J.Koenig) S.R. Dutta is a plant species belonging to the family Costaceae. It is widely distributed in China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, tropical, and subtropical Asia. In Ayurveda, the rhizome of this plant has been extensively used to treat fever, rash, asthma, bronchitis, and intestinal worms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents of the leaf of Hellenia speciosa using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 17 phytochemical components in the ethanolic leaf extract of Hellenia speciosa. The prevailing bioactive compounds present in Hellenia speciosa were thymol (RT-10.019; 3.59%), caryophyllene (RT-11.854; 0.62%), caryophyllene oxide (RT-13.919; 1.34%), artumerone (RT-14.795; 1.35%), hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (RT-17.536; 2.77%), 9,12-octadecanoic acid methyl ester (RT-19.163; 1.35%), squalene (RT-24.980; 1.19%), piperine (RT-25.745; 3.11%), beta tocopherol (RT-26.681; 2.88%), vitamin E (RT-27.290; 2.64%), progesterone (RT-29.608; 3.18%), caparratriene (RT-29.861; 9.72%), and testosterone (RT-30.73; 5.81%). The compounds were identified by comparing their retention time and peak area with that of the literature and by interpretation of mass spectra. The results and findings of the present study suggest that the plant leaf can be used as a valuable source in the field of herbal drug discovery. The presence of bioactive compounds justifies the use of plant leaves for treating various diseases with fewer side effects and recommended the plant of pharmaceutical importance. However, further studies are needed to undertake its bioactivity and toxicity profile.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  8. Ahmad MA, Lim YH, Chan YS, Hsu CY, Wu TY, Sit NW
    Acta Pharm, 2022 Jun 01;72(2):317-328.
    PMID: 36651512 DOI: 10.2478/acph-2022-0013
    This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and biological activities of the leaf extracts of Syzygium myrtifolium Walp. (Myrtaceae). The results indicate that the leaf extracts of S. myrtifolium contain various classes of phytochemicals (alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, tannins and triterpenoids) and possess antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. Ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, and water extracts exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power than the hexane and chloroform extracts. However, all extracts exhibited stronger inhibitory activity against four tested species of yeasts (minimal inhibitory concentration: 0.02-0.31 mg mL-1) than against six tested species of bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration: 0.16-1.25 mg mL-1). The ethanolic extract offered the highest protection of Vero cells (viability > 70 %) from the cytopathic effect caused by the Chikungunya virus while the ethyl acetate extract showed significant replication inhibitory activity against the virus (p < 0.001) using the replicon-enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  9. Tharsika T, Haseeb AS, Akbar SA, Sabri MF, Hoong WY
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(8):14586-600.
    PMID: 25116903 DOI: 10.3390/s140814586
    An inexpensive single-step carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method for the growth of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures is described, and the ethanol sensing properties are presented. The structure and phases of the grown nanostructures are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. XRD analysis indicates that the core-shell nanostructures have good crystallinity. At a lower growth duration of 15 min, only SnO2 nanowires with a rectangular cross-section are observed, while the ZnO shell is observed when the growth time is increased to 30 min. Core-shell hierarchical nanostructures are present for a growth time exceeding 60 min. The growth mechanism for SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanowires and hierarchical nanostructures are also discussed. The sensitivity of the synthesized SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards ethanol sensing is investigated. Results show that the SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures deposited at 90 min exhibit enhanced sensitivity to ethanol. The sensitivity of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards 20 ppm ethanol gas at 400 °C is about ~5-times that of SnO2 nanowires. This improvement in ethanol gas response is attributed to high active sensing sites and the synergistic effect of the encapsulation of SnO2 by ZnO nanostructures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  10. Arafat MM, Haseeb AS, Akbar SA
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(8):13613-27.
    PMID: 25072346 DOI: 10.3390/s140813613
    In this research work, the sensitivity of TiO2 nanoparticles towards C2H5OH, H2 and CH4 gases was investigated. The morphology and phase content of the particles was preserved during sensing tests by prior heat treatment of the samples at temperatures as high as 750 °C and 1000 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were employed to characterize the size, morphology and phase content of the particles. For sensor fabrication, a film of TiO2 was printed on a Au interdigitated alumina substrate. The sensing temperature was varied from 450 °C to 650 °C with varying concentrations of target gases. Results show that the sensor has ultrahigh response towards ethanol (C2H5OH) compared to hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4). The optimum sensing temperature was found to be 600 °C. The response and recovery times of the sensor are 3 min and 15 min, respectively, for 20 ppm C2H5OH at the optimum operating temperature of 600 °C. It is proposed that the catalytic action of TiO2 with C2H5OH is the reason for the ultrahigh response of the sensor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  11. Thoo YY, Ho SK, Abas F, Lai OM, Ho CW, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2013 Jun 14;18(6):7004-22.
    PMID: 23771061 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18067004
    Antioxidants have been widely used in the food industry to enhance product quality by preventing oxidation of susceptible substances. This work was carried out to maximise the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity from Morinda citrifolia fruit via modification of the ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature at minimal processing cost. The optimised conditions yielded values of 881.57 ± 17.74 mg GAE/100 g DW for TPC, 552.53 ± 34.16 mg CE/100 g DW for TFC, 799.20 ± 2.97 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for ABTS and 2,317.01 ± 18.13 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for DPPH were 75% ethanol, 40 min of time and 57 °C. The four responses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from predicted values, indicating that models obtained are suitable to the optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolics from M. citrifolia. The relative amounts of flavonoids were 0.784 ± 0.01 mg quercetin/g of extract and 1.021 ± 0.04 mg rutin/g of extract. On the basis of the results obtained, M. citrifolia extract can be used as a valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  12. Din WM, Chu J, Clarke G, Jin KT, Bradshaw TD, Fry JR, et al.
    Nat Prod Commun, 2013 Mar;8(3):375-80.
    PMID: 23678815
    In the annals of biomedical theory perhaps no single class of natural product has enjoyed more ingenious speculation than antioxidants formally aimed at counteracting oxidative insults which are involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, skin ageing and wound healing. In pursuing our study of Malaysian traditional medicines with antioxidant properties, we became interested in Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort., used traditionally to heal wounds. To examine whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. could suppress oxidation an ethanol extract was tested by conventional chemical in vitro assays i.e., ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay (FRAP), DPPH scavenging assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. To explore whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. protected cells against oxidative injuries, we exposed human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). In all the aforementioned experiments, the ethanol extracts elicited potent antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. To gain a better understanding of the phytochemical nature of the antioxidant principle involved, five fractions (F1-F5) obtained from the ethanol extract were tested using FRAP, DPPH and BCB assays. Our results provided evidence that F5 was the most active fraction with antioxidant potentials equal to 2.090 +/- 0.307 microg/mL, 0.532 +/- 0.041 microg/mL, 0.032 +/- 0.025 microg/mL in FRAP, DPPH and BCB assay, respectively. Interestingly, F5 protected HepG2 against t-BHP oxidative insults. To further define the chemical identity of the antioxidant principle, we first performed a series of phytochemical tests, followed by liquid-chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) profiling which showed that the major compound contained in F5 was geraniin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the wound healing property of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. is mediated by a geraniin containing extract. Furthermore, our data leads us to conclude that geraniin could be used as a potential pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic topical agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  13. Mohammadi M, Hassan MA, Phang LY, Ariffin H, Shirai Y, Ando Y
    Biotechnol Lett, 2012 Feb;34(2):253-9.
    PMID: 22038551 DOI: 10.1007/s10529-011-0783-5
    A new halogen-free and environmental-friendly method using water and ethanol is developed as an alternative for the recovery of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from recombinant Cupriavidus necator in comparison to the established chloroform extraction method. After optimisation, our results showed that the halogen-free method produced a PHA with 81% purity and 96% recovery yield, in comparison to the chloroform extraction system which resulted in a highly pure PHA with 95% yield. Although the purity of the PHA using the new method is lower, the molecular weight of the extracted PHA is not compromised. This new method can be further developed as an alternative and more environmental-friendly method for industrial application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  14. Yap CL, Gan S, Ng HK
    J Environ Sci (China), 2012;24(6):1064-75.
    PMID: 23505874
    Solubility data of recalcitrant contaminants in cosolvents is essential to determine their potential applications in enhanced soil remediation. The solubilities of phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in ethyl lactate/water and ethanol/water mixtures were measured using equilibrium techniques. The cosolvency powers derived from solubility data were then applied to the model developed from the solvophobic approach to predict the capability of ethyl lactate and ethanol in enhancing the desorption of contaminants from soils. Both ethyl lactate and ethanol cosolvents were shown to be able to enhance the solubilisation of the tested four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by > 4 orders of magnitude above the levels obtained with water alone. However, ethyl lactate demonstrated a greater capacity to enhance PAH solubility than ethanol. The cosolvency powers of ethyl lactate/water system obtained from the end-to-end slope (sigma) and the end-to-half slope (sigma0.5) of the solubilisation curve were 1.0-1.5 and 2.0-2.9 higher than ethanol/water system respectively. In line with this, ethyl lactate/water was demonstrated to enhance the desorption of contaminants from soil by 20%-37% and 18%-61% higher compared to ethanol/water system in low organic content and high organic content soils respectively, with a 2:1 (V/W) ratio of solution:soil and with cosolvent fraction as low as 0.4. With the exception of benzo[a]pyrene, the experimental desorption results agreed fairly with the predicted values, under an applied solution:soil ratio that was enough to hold the capacity of released contaminants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  15. Goh CS, Tan KT, Lee KT, Bhatia S
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Jul;101(13):4834-41.
    PMID: 19762229 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.080
    The present study reveals the perspective and challenges of bio-ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials in Malaysia. Malaysia has a large quantity of lignocellulosic biomass from agriculture waste, forest residues and municipal solid waste. In this work, the current status in Malaysia was laconically elucidated, including an estimation of biomass availability with a total amount of 47,402 dry kton/year. Total capacity and domestic demand of second-generation bio-ethanol production in Malaysia were computed to be 26,161 ton/day and 6677 ton/day, respectively. Hence, it was proven that the country's energy demand can be fulfilled with bio-ethanol if lignocellulosic biomass were fully converted into bio-ethanol and 19% of the total CO(2) emissions in Malaysia could be avoided. Apart from that, an integrated national supply network was proposed together with the collection, storage and transportation of raw materials and products. Finally, challenges and obstacles in legal context and policies implementation were elaborated, as well as infrastructures shortage and technology availabilities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  16. Al-Mulla EA, Yunus WM, Ibrahim NA, Rahman MZ
    J Oleo Sci, 2009;58(9):467-71.
    PMID: 19654456
    N,N'-Carbonyl difatty amides (CDFAs) have been synthesized from palm oil using sodium ethoxide as catalyst. Ethyl fatty esters (EFEs) were produced as a by-product as well as glycerol. The synthesis was carried out by reflux palm oil and urea in presence of ethanol. In this process, palm oil gave 79% pure CDFAs after 8 hours and molar ratio of urea to palm oil was 6.2: 1 at 78 degrees C. Both CDFAs and EFEs have been characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  17. Tan HT, Lee KT, Mohamed AR
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Jul;101(14):5719-27.
    PMID: 20223656 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.023
    Recently, second-generation bio-ethanol (SGB), which utilizes readily available lignocellulosic biomass has received much interest as another potential source of liquid biofuel comparable to biodiesel. Thus the aim of this paper is to determine the exergy efficiency and to compare the effectiveness of SGB and palm methyl ester (PME) processes. It was found that the production of bio-ethanol is more thermodynamically sustainable than that of biodiesel as the net exergy value (NExV) of SGB is 10% higher than that of PME. Contrarily, the former has a net energy value (NEV) which is 9% lower than the latter. Despite this, SGB is still strongly recommended as a potential biofuel because SGB production can help mitigate several detrimental impacts on the environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  18. Hussain K, Ismail Z, Sadikun A, Ibrahim P
    Nat Prod Res, 2009;23(3):238-49.
    PMID: 19235024 DOI: 10.1080/14786410801987597
    Ethanol and aqueous extracts of the different parts of Piper sarmentosum were analysed by HPLC for marker compounds to standardise these extracts. The standardised extracts were investigated for antioxidant activity (beta-carotene linoleate model and DPPH model), anti-TB activity (microplate tetrazolium assay), and estimation of total phenolic and amide contents. The extracts of the different parts exhibited different antioxidant activity, phenolic and amide contents (p < 0.01). The ethanol extracts exhibited better antioxidant activity as compared to the aqueous extracts. The leaf ethanol extract was further investigated for dose response relationship and its EC(50) was found to be 38 microg mL(-1). All the extracts have exhibited anti-TB activity with MIC/MBC 12.5 microg mL(-1). The leaf methanol extract was fractionated and the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited anti-TB activity with MIC/MBC 3.12 microg mL(-1) while MIC/MBC of isoniazid (INH) was found to be 0.5 microg mL(-1). A positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and total polyphenols, flavonoids and amides, in the beta-carotene linoleate model (p = 0.05) and in the DPPH model (p = 0.01). The analytical method was found to have linearity >0.9922, coefficient of variance <5% and accuracy 95.5 +/- 5 to 96.9 +/- 5. This plant possesses promising antioxidant as well as anti-TB properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
  19. Abdulbaqi IM, Darwis Y, Khan NA, Assi RA, Khan AA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2016;11:2279-304.
    PMID: 27307730 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S105016
    Ethosomal systems are novel lipid vesicular carriers containing a relatively high percentage of ethanol. These nanocarriers are especially designed for the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties into deep skin layers and across the skin. Ethosomes have undergone extensive research since they were invented in 1996; new compounds were added to their initial formula, which led to the production of new types of ethosomal systems. Different preparation techniques are used in the preparation of these novel carriers. For ease of application and stability, ethosomal dispersions are incorporated into gels, patches, and creams. Highly diverse in vivo models are used to evaluate their efficacy in dermal/transdermal delivery, in addition to clinical trials. This article provides a detailed review of the ethosomal systems and categorizes them on the basis of their constituents to classical ethosomes, binary ethosomes, and transethosomes. The differences among these systems are discussed from several perspectives, including the formulation, size, ζ-potential (zeta potential), entrapment efficiency, skin-permeation properties, and stability. This paper gives a detailed review on the effects of ethosomal system constituents, preparation methods, and their significant roles in determining the final properties of these nanocarriers. Furthermore, the novel pharmaceutical dosage forms of ethosomal gels, patches, and creams are highlighted. The article also provides detailed information regarding the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted for the evaluation of these vesicular systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry*
  20. Khan NR, Wong TW
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2016 09;13(9):1209-19.
    PMID: 27212391 DOI: 10.1080/17425247.2016.1193152
    OBJECTIVES: Skin drug retention is required in local treatment of skin cancer. This study investigated the interplay effects of ethosomes and microwave in transdermal drug delivery. Skin pre-treatment by microwave and applied with liquified medicine is deemed to 'cement' the skin thereby raising skin drug deposition.

    METHODS: 5-fluorouracil-loaded ethosomes were prepared and subjected to size, zeta potential, morphology, drug content, drug release and skin permeation tests. The molecular characteristics of untreated, microwave and/or ethosome-treated skins were examined by Fourier transform infrared and raman spectroscopy, thermal and electron microscopy techniques.

    RESULTS: The skin drug retention was promoted using larger ethosomes with negative zeta potentials that repelled anionic lipids of skin and hindered vesicle permeation into deep layers. These ethosomes had low ethanol content. They were less able to fluidize the lipid and defluidize the protein domains at epidermis to enlarge aqueous pores for drug permeation. Pre-treatment of skin by 2450 MHz microwave for 2.5 min further increased skin drug penetration and retention of low ethanol ethosomes and provided lower drug permeation than cases treated for 1.15 min and 5 min. A 2.5 min treatment might be accompanied by specific dermal protein fluidization via C=O moiety which translated to macromolecular swelling, narrowing of intercellular spaces at lower skin layers, increased drug retention and reduced drug permeation.

    CONCLUSION: Ethosomes and microwave synergized to promote skin drug retention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ethanol/chemistry
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