Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 64 in total

  1. Zamzuri NA, Abd-Aziz S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 Feb;93(3):429-38.
    PMID: 23208984 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5962
    This review provides an overview of biovanillin production from agro wastes as an alternative food flavour. Biovanillin is one of the widely used flavour compounds in the foods, beverages and pharmaceutical industries. An alternative production approach for biovanillin as a food flavour is hoped for due to the high and variable cost of natural vanillin as well as the limited availability of vanilla pods in the market. Natural vanillin refers to the main organic compound that is extracted from the vanilla bean, as compared to biovanillin, which is produced biologically by microorganisms from a natural precursor such as ferulic acid. Biovanillin is also reviewed as a potential bioflavour produced by microbial fermentation in an economically feasible way in the near future. In fact, we briefly discuss natural, synthetic and biovanillin and the types of agro wastes that are useful as sources for bioconversion of ferulic acid into biovanillin. The subsequent part of the review emphasizes the current application of vanillin as well as the utilization of biovanillin as an alternative food flavour. The final part summarizes biovanillin production from agro wastes that could be of benefit as a food flavour derived from potential natural precursors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives; Eugenol/metabolism
  2. Chieng AC, Hee AK, Wee SL
    J Insect Sci, 2018 Sep 01;18(5).
    PMID: 30351432 DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/iey104
    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Handel) is one of the most destructive pests of fruits. The discovery of methyl eugenol (ME) as a potent male attractant for this species has led to its successful use in area-wide fruit fly control programs such as male annihilation. While the antenna is recognized as primarily responsible for male flies' detection of attractants such as ME, little is known of the involvement of the maxillary palp. Using behavioral assays involving males with intact and ablated antennae and maxillary palp structures, we seek to ascertain the relative involvement of the maxillary palp in the ability of the male fly to detect ME. In cage bioassays (distance of ≤40 cm from the source), >97% of unmodified males will normally show a response to ME. Here, we showed that 17.6% of males with their antennae ablated were still attracted to ME versus 75.0% of males with their palps ablated. However, none of the antennae-ablated males were able to detect ME over a distance of >100 cm. Furthermore, wind tunnel bioassays showed that maxillary palp-ablated males took a significantly longer time compared to unablated males to successfully detect and eventually feed on ME. These results suggest that although the antennae are necessary for detection of ME over longer distances, at shorter distances, both antennae and maxillary palps are also involved in detecting ME. Hence, those palps may play a larger role than previously recognized in maneuvering males toward lure sources over shorter ranges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*; Eugenol/metabolism
  3. Chong LE, Jow TK
    Dent J Malaysia Singapore, 1967 Oct;7(2):44-51.
    PMID: 5247441
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/therapeutic use; Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement/therapeutic use
  4. Yusop Ahmad, Nur Haziyanti Mohamad Khalid, Trevor Glen Philip
    This study aimed to test the effect of modality imagery training via video tapes and audio tapes to improve the performance of overhead service skills in volleyball. 45 subjects who followed the volleyball professional course in Sultan Idris University of Education (UPSI) were selected for this test and they were randomly divided into three groups: video, audio group and control group. Russel-Lange Volleyball Test was used to obtain data on the overhead service performance. The results showed significant differences in overhead service performance before and after participants were exposed to the methods of video and audio tapes. There were also significant differences in overhead service performance among the video, audio, and control group. The study should that the introduction of audio and video imagery method may helps improve the overhead service skills performance in volley ball.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol
  5. Wee SL, Tan KH
    J. Chem. Ecol., 2001 May;27(5):953-64.
    PMID: 11471947 DOI: 10.1023/A:1010387020135
    Methyl eugenol (ME), is converted into two major phenylpropanoids, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol and trans-coniferyl alcohol, following consumption by the male fruit fly Bactrocera papayae. Chemical analysis of wild male B. papayae rectal glands, where the compounds are sequestered, revealed the presence of ME metabolites in varying quantities. These phenylpropanoids are shown to be involved in the fruit fly defense both in no-choice and choice feeding tests against the Malayan spiny gecko, Gekko monarchus. After being acclimatized to feeding on fruit flies, geckos consumed significantly fewer ME-fed male flies than controls that consumed all the ME-deprived male flies offered throughout a two-week period. Diagnosis of dissected livers from geckos that consumed ME-fed male flies revealed various abnormalities. These included discoloration and hardening of liver tissue, whitening of the gallbladder, or presence of tumor-like growths in all geckos that consumed ME-fed male flies. Control geckos fed on ME-deprived male flies had healthy livers. When given an alternative prey, geckos preferred to eat untreated house flies, Musca domestica to avoid preying on ME-fed fruit flies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*; Eugenol/metabolism*; Eugenol/pharmacokinetics; Eugenol/toxicity*
  6. Ravivarman C, Jeyasenthil A, Ajay R, Nilofernisha N, Karthikeyan R, Rajkumar D
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2020 Aug;12(Suppl 1):S73-S77.
    PMID: 33149434 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_21_20
    Background: Eugenol released from zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE)-based sealants may cause irritation to the periapical tissues and has cytotoxic potential. Ozone therapy has numerous clinical applications with humans because of its bactericidal action, detoxifying effect, stimulation of angiogenesis, and wound-healing capacity. Therefore ozone can be incorporated in ZOE sealer to exploit these properties.

    Materials and Methods: Eugenol was ozonated using ozonator machine and the samples were divided into two groups: Group I: zinc oxide eugenol (n = 10) and Group II: zinc oxide-ozonated eugenol (OZOE; n = 10). The pH of the fresh sealer samples and the set samples was measured using calibrated pH meter after predetermined time intervals. Cytotoxicity of the set sealer was evaluated on mouse L929 fibroblasts using cellular metabolic assay.

    Results: pH of the samples in Group II was higher when compared to Group I. Group II showed higher cell viability than the Group I.

    Conclusion: OZOE sealers can be used as an alternative to the conventional ZOE sealers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol; Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement
  7. Singh S, Srivastava B, Gupta K, Gupta N, Singh R, Singh S
    Int J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2020 8 4;13(2):119-123.
    PMID: 32742086 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1718
    Aim and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antifungal efficacy of MTA Fillapex, Metapex, zinc oxide eugenol cement, Endomethasone, and Endoflas against Candida albicans.

    Materials and methods: Root canal exudates of 30 patients were tested against MTA Fillapex (Angelus), Metapex (BioMed), zinc oxide eugenol (Deepak Enterprise), Endomethasone (Septodont), Endoflas FS (Sanlor Laboratories), MTA (Angelus) (positive control), and glycerine (negative control). Children with failed endodontic cases were included in the study. Tube dilution and agar diffusion methods were used to check the antifungal efficacy of the root canal sealers. In tube dilution method, 24-well culture plates containing freshly mixed material along with Candida albicans were used. Wells containing MTA (Angelus) along with Sabouraud dextrose agar and Candida albicans served as positive control while glycerine along with Sabouraud dextrose agar and Candida albicans served as negative control. All plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Growth of the fungi was monitored after 24 hours by the presence of the turbidity. The samples were recultured to test the experimental material using agar well diffusion method, and the Petri plates were incubated for 24 hours and 72 hours. Zone of inhibition was measured after respective time period. Paired t test was used for the data analysis.

    Results: It was seen in tube dilution method Endomethasone showed least turbidity while maximum was shown by Metapex; similar results were seen in case of agar well diffusion method in which largest zone of inhibition was shown by Endomethasone while smallest was by Metapex.

    Conclusion: It was concluded that Endomethasone showed maximum efficacy against Candida albicans as compared to Metapex.

    How to cite this article: Singh S, Srivastava B, Gupta K, et al. Comparative Evaluation of Antifungal Efficacy of Five Root Canal Sealers against Clinical Isolates of Candida albicans: A Microbiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020;13(2):119-123.

    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol; Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement
  8. Bakhori SKM, Mahmud S, Mohamad D, Masudi SM, Seeni A
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Jul;100:645-654.
    PMID: 30948101 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.03.034
    Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) cements are generally made up of 80%-90% ZnO powder while the remaining content consists of eugenol bonding resin. ZnO structure plays a major role in the morphology and mechanical properties of ZOE. In this study, we investigated the effects of different particle sizes/shapes of ZnO particles on the surface and mechanical properties of ZOE. Three samples were prepared namely ZnO-Ax, ZnO-B and ZnO-K. The crystallite sizes calculated from XRD were 37.76 nm (ZnO-Ax), 39.46 nm (ZnO-B) and 42.20 nm (ZnO-K) while the average particle sizes obtained by DLS were 21.11nm (ZnO-Ax), 56.73 nm (ZnO-B) and 2012 nm (ZnO-K). Results revealed that the compressive strengths of ZOE-Ax and ZOE-B were improved by 87.92% and 57.16%, respectively, relative to that of commercial ZOE-K. Vickers hardness test demonstrated that the hardness of ZOE-Ax and ZOE-B also increased by 74.9% and 31.1%, respectively. The ZnO-Ax nanostructure possessed a small average particle size (21.11 nm), a homogeneous size distribution (DLS) and an oxygen-rich surface (from EDS and elemental mapping). Meanwhile, ZnO-B exhibited a slightly larger average particle size of 56.73 nm compared with that of other samples. Sample ZnO-Ax demonstrated the highest compressive strength which was attributed to its large particle surface area (21.11 nm particle size) that provided a large contact area and greater interfacial (or interlock) bonding capability if compared to that of ZnO-K sample (2012 nm particle size).
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/chemistry*
  9. Myint S, Daud WR, Mohamad AB, Kadhum AA
    J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl, 1996 Apr 26;679(1-2):193-5.
    PMID: 8998560
    An ethanolic extract of cloves was analyzed by gas chromatography directly to identify eugenol and other major phenolic compounds without previous separation of other components. Separation was performed on a fused-silica capillary column of 30 m x 0.53 mm I.D., 0.53 microns film thickness. The detector was a flame ionization detector. Helium gas at a flow-rate of 3 ml/min was used as a carrier gas. The analysis were performed with linear temperature programming. Nine components were detected and special attention was given to the major phenolic compound, eugenol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analysis*
  10. Hee AK, Tan KH
    J. Chem. Ecol., 2004 Nov;30(11):2127-38.
    PMID: 15672660 DOI: 10.1023/B:JOEC.0000048778.02561.70
    Pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol (ME)--a highly potent male attractant, by Bactrocera papayae results in the hydroxylation of ME to sex pheromonal components, 2-ally-4,5-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) and (E)-coniferyl alcohol (CF). These compounds, which are also male attractants, are then sequestered and stored in the rectal gland prior to their release during courtship at dusk. Chemical analyses of the digestive tract (excluding the crop and rectal gland) showed the absence of the sex pheromonal components and their precursor, ME. However, B. papayae males were attracted to and fed on the ME-fed male hemolymph extracts but not on hemolymph extracts of ME-deprived males. After thin layer chromatography in a hexane:ethyl acetate solvent system, flies were attracted to and fed on the original point on the TLC plate where the hemolymph extract had been spotted, suggesting that the pheromone components were bound in polar complexes. Chemical analyses of the ME-fed male hemolymph and crop extracts revealed the presence of the sex pheromonal components. The presence of the ME-derived pheromonal components and the absence of ME in the hemolymph suggest that the hemolymph is involved in the transportation of sex pheromonal components from the crop to the rectal gland.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*; Eugenol/analysis; Eugenol/chemistry*
  11. Hee AK, Ooi YS, Wee SL, Tan KH
    Zookeys, 2015.
    PMID: 26798265 DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.540.6099
    Males of certain species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to, and readily feed on methyl eugenol (ME), a plant secondary compound that is found in over 480 plant species worldwide. Amongst those species is one of the world's most severe fruit pests the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former taxonomic species Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis. The latter species have been recently synonymised with Bactrocera dorsalis based on their very similar morphology, mating compatibility, molecular genetics and identical sex pheromones following consumption of ME. Previous studies have shown that male fruit fly responsiveness to lures is a unique phenomenon that is dose species-specific, besides showing a close correlation to sexual maturity attainment. This led us to use ME sensitivity as a behavioural parameter to test if Bactrocera dorsalis and the three former taxonomic species had similar sensitivity towards odours of ME. Using Probit analysis, we estimated the median dose of ME required to elicit species' positive response in 50% of each population tested (ED50). ED50 values were compared between Bactrocera dorsalis and the former species. Our results showed no significant differences between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis in their response to ME. We consider that the Bactrocera males' sensitivity to ME may be a useful behavioural parameter for species delimitation and, in addition to other integrative taxonomic tools used, provides further supportive evidence that the four taxa belong to one and the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol
  12. Bhagat V, Haque M, Simbak NB, Jaalam K
    Adv Med Educ Pract, 2016;7:341-6.
    PMID: 27354836 DOI: 10.2147/AMEP.S108477
    Personality dimension negative emotionality is known to be associated with academic achievement. The present study focuses on the influence of negative emotionality (neuroticism) on the medical students' academic achievements. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the negative emotionality scores among the first year Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and India, further to find out the association between negative emotionality and their academic achievements. The current study sample includes 60 first year Malaysian medical students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, and USM-KLE IMP, Belgaum, India. They were selected by convenient sampling technique. The Medico-Psychological questionnaire was used to find out the negative emotionality scores among the students and these scores were compared with academic scores. The data were analyzed using SPSS- 20. Thus, the study result goes with the prediction that there is a significant correlation between academic achievement and negative emotionality. We concluded that negative emotionality has a negative impact on medical student's academic achievement regardless of the fact whether they study in their own country or overseas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol
  13. Tan, M. C., Liew, S. L., Wan Aida, W. M., Osman, H., Maskat, M. Y.
    Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used in the study to optimize the production of vanillin from isoeugenol through fermentation by Aspergillus niger I-1472. Three factors were studied which include amount of isoeugenol, resin (Amberlite XAD-4) and Span 80. During fermentation, isoeugenol as substrate were vortexed with Span 80 and added into the culture on Day 4. Resin (Amberlite XAD-4) was added into the medium the following day. The predicted optimum medium combination consisted of 3.61 g/L of isoeugenol, 5.8% (g/ mL) of Amberlite XAD-4 resin and 0.37% of Span 80 with an expected vanillin production of 0.137 g/L. Verification test showed that the model produced similar predicted and experimental values.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol
  14. Jaganathan SK, Mondhe D, Wani ZA, Supriyanto E
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:912051.
    PMID: 25506620 DOI: 10.1155/2014/912051
    People affected with leukemia are on the rise and several strategies were employed to thwart this deadly disease. Recent decade of research focuses on phenolic constituents as a tool for combating various inflammatory, cancer, and cardiac diseases. Our research showed honey and its phenolic constituents as crusaders against cancer. In this work, we explored the antileukemic activity of selected honey and one of its phenolic constituent eugenol against L1210 leukemia animal model. Results of this experiment showed that the selected honey samples as well as eugenol after intraperitoneal injection could not increase the median survival time (MST) of animals. Further, there was only slight marginal increase in the %T/C values of honey and eugenol treated groups. The number of phenolics present in the honey may not be a prime factor to promote antileukemic effect since there was no difference in the MST of two different honeys tested. This study limits the use of selected honey and eugenol against leukemia animal model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/pharmacology; Eugenol/therapeutic use*
  15. Wee SL, Tan KH, Nishida R
    J. Chem. Ecol., 2007 Jun;33(6):1272-82.
    PMID: 17443401 DOI: 10.1007/s10886-007-9295-0
    After pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol (ME), males of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) produced (E)-coniferyl alcohol (CF) along with its endogenously synthesized pheromonal compounds. CF was shown to be released into the air by the ME-fed males only during the courtship period at dusk and attracted significantly more males and females than the ME-deprived males in wind tunnel assays. However, earlier onset of sexual attraction and a higher mating success were observed only in the wind tunnel and field cage assays on the third day posttreatment of ME. Field cage observations on the male-to-male interaction indicated that the ME-deprived males did not exhibit aggregation behavior, but that ME feeding promoted aggregation behavior in B. carambolae. Field cage observations revealed that the ME-deprived males were not only attracted to the ME-fed males, but also appeared to feed on their anal secretions. The secretions were subsequently confirmed to contain CF along with endogenously produced pheromonal compounds. Results obtained for B. carambolae were compared to those previously obtained from its sibling species, Bactrocera dorsalis, and are discussed in light of species advancement in fruit fly-plant relationships.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*; Eugenol/pharmacology
  16. Hee AK, Tan KH
    Bull. Entomol. Res., 2005 Dec;95(6):615-20.
    PMID: 16336709 DOI: 10.1079/BER2005392
    Sex pheromonal components of the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol and (E)-coniferyl alcohol, are biosynthesized from a highly potent male attractant, methyl eugenol, then sequestered and stored in the rectal gland prior to their release during courtship at dusk. These sex pheromonal components have been detected in the haemolymph and crop organ. Hence, attempts were made to separate and identify the haemolymph fractions which contained the sex pheromonal components. Identification of these bioactive fractions in methyl eugenol-fed male flies using gel filtration column chromatography and biodetection using live male flies showed two fractions as highly attractive to conspecific males. These fractions show a significant increase in protein absorbance in the elution profile of haemolymph from methyl eugenol-fed males compared with that from methyl eugenol-deprived males. The molecular mass of these bioactive fractions as determined by using gel filtration was in the peptide range of 3.3 to 5.5 kDa. Subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses further confirmed the presence of the pheromonal components in the bioactive fractions. The presence of these methyl eugenol-derived sex pheromonal components in specific haemolymph fractions suggests the involvement of a sex pheromone binding complex.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*; Eugenol/blood
  17. Khoo CC, Tan KH
    Microsc Res Tech, 2005 Aug 1;67(5):219-26.
    PMID: 16170821 DOI: 10.1002/jemt.20199
    Sexually mature males of Bactrocera papayae are strongly attracted to and consume methyl eugenol (ME). Upon consumption, ME is biotransformed to two phenylpropanoids, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) and (E)-coniferyl alcohol (CF), that are transported in the hemolymph, sequestered and stored in the rectal glands, and subsequently released as sex and aggregation pheromones during courtship. To date, very little work on the ultrastructure and anatomy of the rectal gland has been done, and the accumulation of phenylpropanoids in the rectal glands of males has not been observed visually. Our objectives are to describe the anatomy and fine structures of the rectal glands of males and females and to observe the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds in the rectal glands of males. The rectal glands of males and females have four rectal papillae with each papilla attached to a rectal pad. The rectal pads protrude from the rectal gland as the only surfaces of the gland that are not surrounded by muscles. The rectal papillae of ME-fed males had oil droplets and autofluorescent compounds that were absent from those of ME-deprived males. The autofluorescent compounds accumulated in the rectal sac, which is an evagination that is not found in rectal glands of females. The accumulation of these compounds increased with time and reached maximum at a day post-ME feeding and decreased thereafter. This trend is similar to the accumulation pattern of phenylpropanoids, CF and DMP in the rectal gland.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*; Eugenol/metabolism
  18. Wee SL, Tan KH
    J. Chem. Ecol., 2005 Apr;31(4):845-58.
    PMID: 16124255 DOI: 10.1007/s10886-005-3548-6
    Bactrocera carambolae and B. papayae are major fruit fly pests and sympatric sibling species of the B. dorsalis complex. They possess distinct differences in male pheromonal components. In the 1990's, wild Bactrocera fruit flies with morphological traits intermediate between those of B. carambolae and B. papayae were often captured in traps baited with methyl eugenol (ME). Chemical analyses of rectal glands of ME-fed males revealed that the laboratory Fl, F2, and backcross hybrids possessed ME-derived sex pheromonal components ranging from that typical of B. papayae to that of B. carambolae without any specific trend, which included a combination of pheromonal components from both parental species within an individual hybrid. ME-fed hybrids without any ME-derived pheromonal components were also detected. Further chemical analysis of rectal glands from wild Bactrocera males, after ME feeding in the laboratory, showed a combination of pheromonal components similar to that found in the ME-fed, laboratory-bred hybrids. These findings present circumstantial evidence for the occurrence of a natural hybrid of the two Bactrocera species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives; Eugenol/pharmacology
  19. Wee SL, Abdul Munir MZ, Hee AKW
    Bull. Entomol. Res., 2018 Feb;108(1):116-124.
    PMID: 28625191 DOI: 10.1017/S0007485317000554
    The Artocarpus fruit fly, Bactrocera umbrosa (Fabricius) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an oligophagous fruit pest infesting Moraceae fruits, including jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamarck), a fruit commodity of high value in Malaysia. The scarcity of fundamental biological, physiological and ecological information on this pest, particularly in relation to behavioural response to phytochemical lures, which are instrumental to the success of many area-wide fruit fly control and management programmes, underpins the need for studies on this much-underrated pest. The positive response of B. umbrosa males to methyl eugenol (ME), a highly potent phytochemical lure, which attracts mainly males of many Bactrocera species, was shown to increase with increasing age. As early as 7 days after emergence (DAE), ca. 22% of males had responded to ME and over 50% by 10 DAE, despite no occurrence of matings (i.e. the males were still sexually immature). Male attraction to ME peaked from 10 to 27 DAE, which corresponded with the flies' attainment of sexual maturity. In wind-tunnel assays during the dusk courtship period, ME-fed males exhibited earlier calling activity and attracted a significantly higher percentage of virgin females compared with ME-deprived males. ME-fed males enjoyed a higher mating success than ME-deprived males at 1-day post ME feeding in semi-field assays. ME consumption also promotes aggregation behaviour in B. umbrosa males, as demonstrated in wind-tunnel and semi-field assays. We suggest that ME plays a prominent role in promoting sexual communication and enhancing mating performance of the Artocarpus fruit fly, a finding that is congruent with previous reports on the consequences of ME acquisition by other economically important Bactrocera species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*; Eugenol/pharmacology
  20. Abdul Manan FM, Attan N, Widodo N, Aboul-Enein HY, Wahab RA
    Prep Biochem Biotechnol, 2018 Jan 02;48(1):92-102.
    PMID: 29194017 DOI: 10.1080/10826068.2017.1405021
    An alternative environmentally benign support was prepared from chitosan-chitin nanowhiskers (CS/CNWs) for covalent immobilization of Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) to increase the operational stability and recyclability of RML in synthesizing eugenyl benzoate. The CS/CNWs support and RML-CS/CNWs were characterized using X-ray diffraction, fluorescent microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Efficiency of the RML-CS/CNWs was compared to the free RML to synthesize eugenyl benzoate for parameters: reaction temperature, stirring rate, reusability, and thermal stability. Under optimal experimental conditions (50°C, 250 rpm, catalyst loading 3 mg/mL), a twofold increase in yield of eugenyl benzoate was observed for RML-CS/CNWs as compared to free RML, with the former achieving maximum yield of the ester at 62.1% after 5 hr. Results demonstrated that the strategy adopted to prepare RML-CS/CNWs was useful, producing an improved and prospectively greener biocatalyst that supported a sustainable process to prepare eugenyl benzoate. Moreover, RML-CS/CNWs are biodegradable and perform esterification reactions under ambient conditions as compared to the less eco-friendly conventional acid catalyst. This research provides a facile and promising approach for improving activity of RML in which the resultant RML-CS/CNWs demonstrated good operational stability for up to eight successive esterification cycles to synthesize eugenyl benzoate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*; Eugenol/metabolism
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