OBJECTIVE: This systematic review assessed available evidence whether "exergaming" could be a feasible modality for contributing to a recommended exercise prescription according to current ACSM™ or WHO guidelines for physical activity.
METHODS: Strategies used to search for published articles were conducted using separate search engines (Google Scholar™, PubMed™ and Web of Science™) on cardiometabolic responses and perceived exertion during exergaming among neurologically-disabled populations possessing similar physical disabilities. Each study was categorized using the SCIRE-Pedro evidence scale.
RESULTS: Ten of the 144 articles assessed were identified and met specific inclusion criteria. Key outcome measures included responses, such as energy expenditure, heart rate and perceived exertion. Twelve out of the 17 types of exergaming interventions met the ACSM™ or WHO recommendations of "moderate intensity" physical activity. Exergames such as Wii Jogging, Bicycling, Boxing, DDR and GameCycle reported moderate physical activity intensities. While Wii Snowboarding, Skiing and Bowling only produced light intensities.
CONCLUSION: Preliminary cross-sectional evidence in this review suggested that exergames have the potential to provide moderate intensity physical activity as recommended by ACSM™ or WHO in populations with neurological disabilities. However, more research is needed to document exergaming's efficacy from longitudinal observations before definitive conclusions can be drawn. Implications for Rehabilitation Exergaming can be deployed as physical activity or exercise using commercially available game consoles for neurologically disabled individuals in the convenience of their home environment and at a relatively inexpensive cost Moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercises can be achieved during exergaming in this population of persons with neurological disabilities. Exergaming can also be engaging and enjoyable, yet achieve the recommended physical activity guidelines proposed by ACSM™ or WHO for health and fitness benefits. Exergaming as physical activity in this population is feasible for individuals with profound disabilities, since it can be used even in sitting position for wheelchair-dependent users, thus providing variability in terms of exercise options. In the context of comprehensive rehabilitation, exergaming should be viewed by the clinician as "at least as good as" (and likely more enjoyable) than traditional arm-exercise modalities, with equivalent aerobic dose-potency as "traditional" exercise in clinic or home environments.
METHODS: Participants (N=142) in this randomized controlled trial were office workers aged 20-50 years old with neck, shoulders, and lower back pain. They were randomly assigned to either the ergonomic modification group, the exercise group, the combined exercise and ergonomic modification group, or the control group (no-treatment). The exercise training group performed a series of stretching exercises, while the ergonomic group received some modification in the working place. Outcome measures were assessed by the Cornell Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire at baseline, after 2, 4, and 6 months of intervention.
RESULTS: There was significant differences in pain scores for neck (MD -10.55; 95%CI -14.36 to -6.74), right shoulder (MD -12.17; 95%CI -16.87 to -7.47), left shoulder (MD -11.1; 95%CI -15.1 to -7.09) and lower back (MD -7.8; 95%CI -11.08 to -4.53) between the exercise and control groups. Also, significant differences were seen in pain scores for neck (MD -9.99; 95%CI -13.63 to -6.36), right shoulder (MD -11.12; 95%CI -15.59 to -6.65), left shoulder (MD -10.67; 95%CI -14.49 to -6.85) and lower back (MD -6.87; 95%CI -10 to -3.74) between the combined exercise and ergonomic modification and control groups. The significant improvement from month 4 to 6, was only seen in exercise group (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: To have a long term effective on MSDs, physical therapists and occupational therapists should use stretching exercises in their treatment programs rather than solely rely on ergonomic modification.
CLINICAL TRIAL ID: NCT02874950 - https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02874950.
METHODS: A within-subject, repeated-measures, crossover randomized controlled design was conducted among 25 participants (7 males and 18 females) with chronic nonspecific low back pain. All the participants received 3 different types of experimental interventions, which included LPST, the passive automated cycling intervention, and the control intervention randomly, with 48 hours between the sessions. The pressure pain threshold (PPT), hot-cold pain threshold, and pain intensity were estimated before and after the interventions.
RESULTS: Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that LPST provided therapeutic effects as it improved the PPT beyond the placebo and control interventions (P < 0.01). The pain intensity under the LPST condition was significantly better than that under the passive automated cycling intervention and controlled intervention (P < 0.001). Heat pain threshold under the LPST condition also showed a significant trend of improvement beyond the control (P < 0.05), but no significant effects on cold pain threshold were evident.
CONCLUSIONS: Lumbopelvic stabilization training may provide therapeutic effects by inducing pain modulation through an improvement in the pain threshold and reduction in pain intensity. LPST may be considered as part of the management programs for treatment of chronic low back pain.
METHODS: In this study, national and international databases of SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDoc, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched to find studies published electronically from 1999 to 2019. Heterogeneity between the collected studies was determined using the Cochran's test (Q) and I2. Due to presence of heterogeneity, the random effects model was used to estimate the standardized mean difference of sport test scores obtained from the measurement of anxiety reduction among the elderly, between the intervention group before and after the test.
RESULTS: In this meta-analysis and systematic review, 19 papers finally met the inclusion criteria. The overall sample size of all collected studies for the meta-analysis was 841 s. Mean anxiety score before and after intervention were 38.7 ± 5.6 33.7 ± 3.4 respectively, denoting a decrease in anxiety score after intervention.
CONCLUSION: Results of this study indicates that Sport significantly reduces Anxiety in the Elderly. Therefore, a regular exercise program can be considered as a part of the elderly care program.
METHODS: The studies used in this systematic review were selected from the articles published from 1996 to 2019, in national and international databases including SID, Magiran, Iranmedex, Irandoc, Google Scholar, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science (ISI). These databases were thoroughly searched, and the relevant ones were selected based on some plausible keywords to the aim of this study. Heterogeneity index between studies was determined using Cochran's test and I2. Due to heterogeneity in studies, the random effects model was used to estimate standardized mean difference.
RESULTS: From the systematic review, a meta-analysis was performed on 31 articles which were fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The sample including of 714 subjects was selected from the intervention group, and almost the same sample size of 720 individuals were selected in the control group. Based on the results derived from this meta-analysis, the standardized mean difference between the intervention group before and after the intervention was respectively estimated to be 23.8 ± 6.2 and 16.9 ± 3.2, which indicates that the physical exercise reduces fatigue in patients with MS.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study extracted from a detailed meta-analysis reveal and confirm that physical exercise significantly reduces fatigue in patients with MS. As a results, a regular exercise program is strongly recommended to be part of a rehabilitation program for these patients.
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this paper is to introduce an exercise training program designed to decrease muscle stiffness and pain that can be performed in the office setting.
METHODS: Forty healthy office workers (age: 28±5.3 years old; body mass: 87.2±10.2 kg; height: 1.79±0.15 m) apart from suffering from any sub-clinical symptoms of muscle and joint stiffness, and who had at least two years of experience in office work were chosen and randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). The experimental group performed the exercise training program three times a week for 11 weeks. The Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire was used to measure the pain levels in the neck, shoulders, and lower back areas. The Borg CR-10 Scale was used to measure their perceived exertion when doing the exercises, and a goniometer was used to measure the changes in range of motion (ROM) of the neck, hips, knees, and shoulders.
RESULTS: The overall results indicated that the exercise program could significantly (p
METHODS: Forty older participants were equally assigned to a supervised exercise program (group-I) or a home exercise program (group-II). Each participant performed the exercise program for 35-45 minutes, two times per week for four months. Balance indices and isometric muscle strength were measured with the Biodex Balance System and Hand-Held Dynamometer. Functional activities were evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the timed get-up-and-go test (TUG).
RESULTS: The mean values of the Biodex balance indices and the BBS improved significantly after both the supervised and home exercise programs (P < 0.05). However, the mean values of the TUG and muscle strength at the ankle, knee and hip improved significantly only after the supervised program. A comparison between the supervised and home exercise programs revealed there were only significant differences in the BBS, TUG and muscle strength.
CONCLUSIONS: Both the supervised and home exercise training programs significantly increased balance performance. The supervised program was superior to the home program in restoring functional activities and isometric muscle strength in older participants.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of exercise and its potential determinants for pain, function, performance, and quality of life (QoL) in knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA).
METHODS: We searched 9 electronic databases (AMED, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE Ovid, PEDro, PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Google Scholar) for reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing exercise-only interventions with usual care. The search was performed from inception up to December 2017 with no language restriction. The effect size (ES), with its 95% confidence interval (CI), was calculated on the basis of between-group standardised mean differences. The primary endpoint was at or nearest to 8 weeks. Other outcome time points were grouped into intervals, from<1 month to≥18 months, for time-dependent effects analysis. Potential determinants were explored by subgroup analyses. Level of significance was set at P≤0.10.
RESULTS: Data from 77 RCTs (6472 participants) confirmed statistically significant exercise benefits for pain (ES 0.56, 95% CI 0.44-0.68), function (0.50, 0.38-0.63), performance (0.46, 0.35-0.57), and QoL (0.21, 0.11-0.31) at or nearest to 8 weeks. Across all outcomes, the effects appeared to peak around 2 months and then gradually decreased and became no better than usual care after 9 months. Better pain relief was reported by trials investigating participants who were younger (mean age<60 years), had knee OA, and were not awaiting joint replacement surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: Exercise significantly reduces pain and improves function, performance and QoL in people with knee and hip OA as compared with usual care at 8 weeks. The effects are maximal around 2 months and thereafter slowly diminish, being no better than usual care at 9 to 18 months. Participants with younger age, knee OA and not awaiting joint replacement may benefit more from exercise therapy. These potential determinants, identified by study-level analyses, may have implied ecological bias and need to be confirmed with individual patient data.
Methods: A total of 72 rats were divided into six groups, 12 rats in each: control (C), 20 and 80 jumps (20E, 80E), honey (H), and 20 and 80 jump with honey (20EH, 80EH).
Results: The endometrium was significantly thicker in the rats in H, 20EH and 80EH groups compared to C, 20E, and 80E. The myometrium thickness was significantly lower in 80E and significantly higher in 80EH compared to C, respectively. There was significantly higher myometrium thickness in 20EH and 80EH compared to 20E and 80E and H. The number of glands of the uterus in 20E and 80E was significantly lower than C. However, there was a significantly higher number of glands in H, 20EH, and 80EH compared to 20E and 80E. The numbers of uterus vessels were significantly lower in 80E compared to 20E. However, the numbers of vessels were significantly higher in H, 20EH, and 80EH compared to 80E. The number of ovarian haemorregia was significantly lower in 20E, 80E, H, 20EH, and 80EH compared to C. The number of corpora lutea was significantly lower in 80EH, H, 80E, and 20E compared to C. However, the number of corpora lutea was significantly higher in 20EH compared to J20 and H.
Conclusion: This study suggested that jumping exercises in particularly high-intensity exercise may induce histopathological changes in uterus and ovary in rats, and honey supplementation may ameliorate these effects.
METHODS: Staff involved in student support from three medical schools were invited to participate in five workshops facilitated by an Australian educator. Video discussion triggers of students presenting with concerns were used in workshop activities, including written exercises, group discussions and reflection. The quantitative and qualitative data collected included categorical and free-text participant responses to questionnaires and structured field notes from local faculty developers using peer observation.
FINDINGS: Academic and clinician-teacher participants predominated in the workshops. Of 66 participant questionnaires (92% response rate), over 90% agreed that the workshop was relevant, and over 95% agreed that the videos facilitated discussion and the sharing of experiences. Field notes confirmed that participants were engaged by the videos, but identified that one student scenario and the approaches for seeking support in others were not immediately transferable to local contexts. The adaptation of facilitation techniques used in Australian workshops was needed to address audience responses.
DISCUSSION: Our findings confirm faculty development principles of content relevancy and incorporation of reflection. To enhance transferability, we recommend co-facilitation with local faculty members, the explicit signposting of topics and re-contextualising key concepts through reflective discussion.