Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

  1. Kai T, Mak GL, Wada S, Nakazato T, Takanashi H, Uemura Y
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Jul;163:360-3.
    PMID: 24813567 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.04.030
    In this study, a novel method for the production of biodiesel under mild conditions using fine particles of sodium methoxide formed in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is proposed. Biodiesel is generally produced from vegetable oils by the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol. However, this reaction produces glycerol as a byproduct, and raw materials are not effectively utilized. Transesterification with DMC has recently been studied because glycerol is not formed in the process. Although solid-state sodium methoxide has been reported to be inactive for this reaction, the catalytic activity dramatically increased with the preparation of fine catalyst powders by crystallization. The transesterification of canola oil with DMC was studied using this catalyst for the preparation of biodiesel. A conversion greater than 96% was obtained at 65°C for 2h with a 3:1M ratio of DMC and oil and 2.0 wt% catalyst.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/chemistry*
  2. Alfaleh MA, Fahmy O, Al-Rabia MW, Abourehab MAS, Ahmed OAA, Fahmy UA, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2022 Nov 14;12(1):19446.
    PMID: 36376469 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-24151-3
    As a hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, Fluvastatin (FLV) is used for reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as well as to prevent cardiovascular problems. FLV showed cell line cytotoxicity and antitumor effect. Melittin (MEL) exhibits antineoplastic activity and is known to be promising as a therapeutic option for cancer patients. The aim of this work was to investigate the combination of FLV with MEL loaded hybrid formula of phospholipid (PL) with alpha lipoic acid (ALA) nanoparticles to maximize anticancer tendencies. This study examines the optimization of the prepared formulation in order to minimize nanoparticles size and maximize zeta potential to potentiate cytotoxic potentialities in colon cancer cells (Caco2), cell viability, cell cycle analysis and annexin V were tested. In addition to biological markers as P53, Bax, bcl2 and Caspase 3 evaluation The combination involving FLV PL ALA MEL showed enhanced cytotoxic potentiality (IC50 = 9.242 ± 0.35 µg/mL), about twofold lower, compared to the raw FLV (IC50 = 21.74 ± 0.82 µg/mL). According to studies analyzing cell cycle, optimized FLV PL ALA MEL was found to inhibit Caco2 colon cancer cells more significantly than other therapeutic treatments, wherein a higher number of cells were found to accumulate over G2/M and pre-G1 phases, whereas G0/G1/S phases witnessed the accumulation of a lower number of cells. The optimized formulation may pave the way for a novel and more efficacious treatment for colon cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/pharmacology
  3. Wan Ishak, W.I., Kit, W.H., Awwal, M. A.
    This paper describes the design and development of harvesting system for the gantry system to harvest eggplants. For this purpose, the harvesting robot was successfully designed and fabricated for the gantry system to harvest eggplants. The operation of the harvester was controlled by Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). Basically, the limit switches, DC motor, and relay are connected to the PLC. Meanwhile, a PLC ladder diagram was designed and developed to control the operation of the eggplant harvester. A visual basic programme was developed to interface the harvester with a greenhouse gantry control system. A videogrammetry method was employed to calculate the distance between the stems of eggplants and the cutter of robot end effector. The end effector used electric as its power source and it was controlled via Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). Visual Basic Programme was developed to interface the harvester with the gantry control system. The accuracy of the videogrammetry was tested to be 67.2% for X-axis, 88.2% for Y-axis and 84.7% for Z-axis. Meanwhile, the speed of the end effector for harvester is 2.4 km/h and it could lift up to 55 cm. In order to determine detachment force of eggplant, 16 samples of mature eggplants were tested in a greenhouse, and as a result, more than 22.76 N force was needed to detach a mature eggplant inside the gantry system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
  4. Jahangirian H, Haron MJ, Silong S, Yusof NA
    J Oleo Sci, 2011;60(6):281-6.
    PMID: 21606615
    Phenyl fatty hydroxamic acids (PFHAs) were synthesized from canola or palm oils and phenyl hydroxylamine (FHA) catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM or RM IM. The reaction was carried out by shaking the reaction mixture at 120 rpm. The optimization was carried out by changing the reaction parameters, namely; temperature, organic solvent, amount and kind of enzyme, period of reaction and the mol ratio of reactants. The highest conversion was obtained when the reaction was carried out under the following conditions: temperature, 39°C; solvent, petroleum ether; kind and amount of lipase, 80 mg Lipozyme TL IM/mmol oil; reaction period, 72 h and FHA-oil ratio, 7.3 mmol FHA/ mmol oil. The highest conversion percentage of phenyl hydroxylaminolysis of the Ladan and Kristal brands commercial canola oils, palm stearin and palm kernel oils were 55.6, 52.2, 51.4 and 49.7 %, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/metabolism*; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/chemistry
  5. Cha TS, Yee W, Phua PSP, Loh SH, Aziz A
    Biotechnol Lett, 2021 Apr;43(4):803-812.
    PMID: 33438120 DOI: 10.1007/s10529-021-03077-2
    OBJECTIVE: The effects of a brief (3 days) and prolonged (6 days) period of incubation in darkness and light on the biomass content, lipid content and fatty acid profile in Chlorella vulgaris UMT-M1 were determined.

    RESULTS: Three days of incubation in darkness increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) content from 34.0 to 41.4% but decreased monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content from 36.7 to 29.8%. Palmitic acid (C16:0) content was increased from 23.2 to 28.9%, whereas oleic acid (C18:1) content was reduced from 35.4 to 28.8%. Total oil content was slightly decreased from 20.4 to 18.7% after 3 days of darkness, without a significant reduction in biomass compared to 3 days of incubation in light. Biomass and oil content was highest in cultures incubated for 6 days in light, however the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of darkness (or light) on SFA and MUFA content was no longer present at 6 days of incubation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study suggests that fatty acid composition in C. vulgaris could be modulated to favor either C16:0 or C18:1 by a brief period of either darkness or light incubation, prior to harvesting.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/analysis*; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/metabolism
  6. Nakata H, Shinohara R, Nakazawa Y, Isobe T, Sudaryanto A, Subramanian A, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2012 Oct;64(10):2211-8.
    PMID: 22910332 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.07.049
    We analyzed 68 green and blue mussels collected from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam and the USA during 2003 and 2007, to elucidate the occurrence and widespread distributions of emerging pollutants, synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) in Asia-Pacific coastal waters. Synthetic musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from all countries, suggesting their ubiquitous contamination and widespread distribution. High concentrations of musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from Japan and Korea, where the levels were comparable or greater than those of PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs. Significant correlations were found between the concentrations of HHCB and AHTN, and also between the concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328, which suggest similar sources and compositions of these compounds in commercial and industrial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study of large-scale monitoring of synthetic musks and BUVSs in Asia-Pacific coastal waters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/analysis; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/metabolism*
  7. Ceesay A, Nor Shamsudin M, Aliyu-Paiko M, Ismail IS, Nazarudin MF, Mohamed Alipiah N
    Biomed Res Int, 2019;2019:2640684.
    PMID: 31119160 DOI: 10.1155/2019/2640684
    The aim of the present study was to extract and characterize bioactive components from separate body organs of Holothuria leucospilota. Preliminary qualitative assessment of the crude extracts was positive for phenols, terpenoids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, steroids, phlobatannins, and tannins in all body organs evaluated. Phenolics were the most abundant group of bioactives accounting for approximately 80%. The extraction solvent mixtures that yielded most compounds evaluated were methanol/acetone (3:1, v:v) and methanol/distilled water (3:1, v:v). In other analyses, GC-MS data revealed diverse metabolic and biologically active compounds, where those in high concentrations included 2-Pentanone, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl- among the ketones; phenol- 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, a phenol group; and 2-Chlorooctane, a hydrocarbon. Among FA and their methyl/ethyl esters, n-hexadecanoic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid ethyl ester (arachidonic acid), and 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid methyl ester (EPA) were among the most abundant FAMEs accounting for approximately 50% of the subgroups measured. Data from GC-FID analysis revealed methyl laurate (C12:0), methyl myristate (C14:0), methyl palmitate (C16:0), and methyl stearate (18:0) methyl esters as the most abundant saturated FA, whereas cis-9-oleic methyl ester (C18:1) and methyl linoleate (C18:2) were found as the major monounsaturated FA and PUFA FAMEs, respectively, in the body wall of the species. Taken together, the extraction and characterization of different categories of metabolically and biologically active compounds in various organ extracts of H. leucospilota suggest that the species is potentially a rich source of cholesterol-lowering, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer agents. These substances are known to benefit human health and assist in disease prevention. These findings justify the use of sea cucumbers in traditional folklore medication and the current interest and attention focused on the species to mine for bioactives in new drugs research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/therapeutic use; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/chemistry*
  8. Hue, W.L., Nyam, K.L.
    Kenaf seed oil contains high amount of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and bioactive compounds, such as tocopherol and phytosterol. In order to prevent bioactive compounds from oxidation, kenaf seed oil (KSO) was encapsulated by coextrusion technology. KSO and microencapsulated kenaf seed oil (MKSO) were then subjected to accelerated storage to investigate the effect of microencapsulation on the storage stability of kenaf seed oil. The changes of fatty acids profiles and bioactive compounds in oils were evaluated. Result showed that there was significant decreased (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
  9. Alireza, S., Tan, C.P., Hamed, M., Che Man, Y.B.
    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of the frying media and storage time on the fatty acid composition (FAC) and iodine value (IV) of deep-fat fried potato chips. The frying experiment was conducted at 180ºC for five consecutive days. Six frying media were considered as the main treatments: refined, bleached, deodorized (RBD) palm olein (A), canola oil (C), RBD palm olein/sesame oil (AB, 1:1 w/w), RBD palm olein/canola oil (AC, 1:1, w/w), sesame oil/canola oil (BC, 1:1, w/w), and RBD palm olein/sesame oil/canola oil (ABC, 1:1:1, w/w/w). The initial degrees of unsaturation of the consumed oils, A, C, AB, AC, BC, and ABC, were 58.6, 94.0, 68.0, 72.2, 87.7, and 75.8 (g/100 g), respectively. The fatty acid analysis showed that there was a decrease in both the linolenic acid (C18:3) and linoleic acid (C18:2) contents, whereas the palmitic acid (C16:0) increased with a prolonged frying time. The chemical analysis showed that there was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in terms of the IV for each frying oil during the five consecutive days of frying (day 0 to 5). Oil C had the least stability in terms of deep-fat frying due to a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, oil AC had the best stability due to the smallest reduction of the C18:2/C16:0 ratio and the IV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
  10. Asmaa, A.A., Zzaman, W., Tajul, A.Y.
    The influence of superheated steam cooking on fat and fatty acid composition of chicken sausage were investigated at various temperatures (150, 200, and 250°C) with different time domains (2-6 min). It has been found that the fat content of raw sample was higher than that of all cooked samples. The total fat content of cooked sample, showed a linear decreasing with time at all investigated temperatures. Superheated steam produce changes in saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in which their values were found to decrease in cooked samples. When different cooking conditions (temperature, time) were applied, the fatty acids were decreased as the time and temperature increased. The PUFA and MUFA were less prone to decrease at 150°C, while at this temperature there was a remarkable loss in SFA content. This cooking method considerably reduced the level of fat and SFA which have a positive effect on health. In addition it could imply a great choice for consumers to choose the healthier technique for cooking food.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
  11. Othman NA, Abdul Manaf M, Harith S, Wan Ishak WR
    J Am Coll Nutr, 2018 04 13;37(7):583-588.
    PMID: 29652576 DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2018.1451408
    OBJECTIVE: The feasibility of developing reduced-fat muffins with avocado is investigated by preparing muffins with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% avocado purée as a fat (butter) replacer.

    METHODOLOGY: The resulting products were compared to the control muffin, which was made with 100% butter. Muffins were analyzed for nutritional content, fatty acid profiles, and sensory acceptability.

    RESULT: Muffins incorporated with avocado purée revealed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with respect to moisture, ash, and carbohydrate in comparison with the control sample. However, no significant changes (p > 0.05) were detected in all muffin formulations for protein and dietary fiber content. Both fat content and caloric value of muffins incorporated with avocado purée were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The fatty acid profile showed that there was an increment in the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) content by 16.51% at full-fat substitution. The sensory evaluation test demonstrated that muffins had acceptability at up to 50% substitution. Fat substitution at higher than 50% lead to undesirable flavor and aftertaste, which was significant (p < 0.05) to the panelists.

    CONCLUSION: The findings indicated the feasibility of avocado purée in fat-reduced muffin preparation with an optimal level of 50% avocado purée substitution.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
  12. Rak AE, Nasir SNAM, Nor MM, Han DK, Appalasamy S, Abdullah F, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jul;27(20):24772-24785.
    PMID: 32016873 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-07923-0
    Corbicula fluminea (C. fluminea) is one of the mollusc species commonly eaten as a popular snack in Kelantan, Malaysia. This species contributes to the local economic activity. However, the handling process of C. fluminea at different processing stages (raw, smoke and selling stages) is believed to have affected the nutritional value in their soft tissue. Hence, this study aims to provide information about the chemical content (moisture, crude fat, ash, crude protein and carbohydrate) of C. fluminea and fatty acid of smoked C. fluminea at different processing stages. Samples were collected from Pasir Mas and Tumpat, Kelantan, Malaysia. The chemical content analysis was carried out based on the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) standard procedures. The results have indicated that moisture (80.93 ± 0.37%) and crude fat (10.82 ± 0.21%) in C. fluminea were significantly higher (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
  13. Marikkar JM, Rana S
    J Oleo Sci, 2014;63(9):867-73.
    PMID: 25174673
    A study was conducted to detect and quantify lard stearin (LS) content in canola oil (CaO) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Authentic samples of CaO were obtained from a reliable supplier and the adulterant LS were obtained through a fractional crystallization procedure as reported previously. Pure CaO samples spiked with LS in levels ranging from 5 to 15% (w/w) were analyzed using DSC to obtain their cooling and heating profiles. The results showed that samples contaminated with LS at 5% (w/w) level can be detected using characteristic contaminant peaks appearing in the higher temperature regions (0 to 70°C) of the cooling and heating curves. Pearson correlation analysis of LS content against individual DSC parameters of the adulterant peak namely peak temperature, peak area, peak onset temperature indicated that there were strong correlations between these with the LS content of the CaO admixtures. When these three parameters were engaged as variables in the execution of the stepwise regression procedure, predictive models for determination of LS content in CaO were obtained. The predictive models obtained with single DSC parameter had relatively lower coefficient of determination (R(2) value) and higher standard error than the models obtained using two DSC parameters in combination. This study concluded that the predictive models obtained with peak area and peak onset temperature of the adulteration peak would be more accurate for prediction of LS content in CaO based on the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) value) and smallest standard error.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/chemistry*
  14. Ali MA, Nouruddeen ZB, Muhamad II, Latip RA, Othman NH
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2013 Jul-Sep;12(3):241-52.
    PMID: 24584953
    Microwave heating is one of the most attractive cooking methods for food preparation, commonly employed in households and especially in restaurants for its high speed and convenience. The chemical constituents of oils that degrade during microwave heating do so at rates that vary with heating temperature and time in a similar manner to other type of processing methods. The rate of quality characteristics of the oil depends on the fatty acid composition and the minor components during heating. Addition of oxidative-stable palm olein (PO) to heat sensitive canola oil (CO), may affect the quality characteristics of CO during microwave heating. The aim of this study was to evaluate how heat treatments by microwave oven affect the quality of CO in presence of PO.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/chemistry*
  15. Teo YY, Misran M, Low KH
    J Liposome Res, 2014 Sep;24(3):241-8.
    PMID: 24597523 DOI: 10.3109/08982104.2014.891234
    A vesicle is a microscopic particle composed of a lipid bilayer membrane that separates the inner aqueous compartment from the outer aqueous environment. Palmitoleate-palmitoleic acid vesicles were prepared and their physico-chemical properties were investigated. Moreover, mixed vesicles composed of palmitoleic acid and PEGylated lipid and/or a mixture of phospholipids were also prepared. The stabilizing effects of these double-chain lipids on the formation of palmitoleate-palmitoleic acid vesicles were studied. Stability of the vesicle suspension was examined using particle size and zeta potential at 30 °C. The magnitude of the zeta potential was relatively lower in the vesicle suspension with the presence of phospholipid. Although some of the mixed vesicles that were formed were not very stable, they displayed potential for encapsulating the active ingredient calcein and the encapsulation efficiencies of calcein were encouraging. The palmitoleate-palmitoleic acid-DPPE-PEG2000 vesicle showed the most promising stability and encapsulation efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/chemistry*
  16. Tay ST, Lim SL, Tan HW
    PMID: 25380692 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-439
    The increasing resistance of Candida yeasts towards antifungal compounds and the limited choice of therapeutic drugs have spurred great interest amongst the scientific community to search for alternative anti-Candida compounds. Mycocins and fungal metabolites have been reported to have the potential for treatment of fungal infections. In this study, the growth inhibition of Candida species by a mycocin produced by Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactone compound from Aureobasidium pullulans were investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/isolation & purification; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/pharmacology*
  17. Sundram K, French MA, Clandinin MT
    Eur J Nutr, 2003 Aug;42(4):188-94.
    PMID: 12923649
    Partial hydrogenation of oil results in fats containing unusual isomeric fatty acids characterized by cis and trans configurations. Hydrogenated fats containing trans fatty acids increase plasma total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol while depressing HDL-cholesterol levels. Identifying the content of trans fatty acids by food labeling is overshadowed by a reluctance of health authorities to label saturates and trans fatty acids separately. Thus, it is pertinent to compare the effects of trans to saturated fatty acids using stable isotope methodology to establish if the mechanism of increase in TC and LDL-cholesterol is due to the increase in the rate of endogenous synthesis of cholesterol. Ten healthy normocholesterolemic female subjects consumed each of two diets containing approximately 30% of energy as fat for a fourweek period. One diet was high in palmitic acid (10.6% of energy) from palm olein and the other diet exchanged 5.6% of energy as partially hydrogenated fat for palmitic acid. This fat blend resulted in monounsaturated fatty acids decreasing by 4.9 % and polyunsaturated fats increasing by 2.7%. The hydrogenated fat diet treatment provided 3.1% of energy as elaidic acid. For each dietary treatment, the fractional synthesis rates for cholesterol were measured using deuterium-labeling procedures and blood samples were obtained for blood lipid and lipoprotein measurements. Subjects exhibited a higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol level when consuming the diet containing trans fatty acids while also depressing the HDL-cholesterol level. Consuming the partially hydrogenated fat diet treatment increased the fractional synthesis rate of free cholesterol. Consumption of hydrogenated fats containing trans fatty acids in comparison to a mixtur e of palmitic and oleic acids increase plasma cholesterol levels apparently by increasing endogenous synthesis of cholesterol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/administration & dosage; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/pharmacology
  18. Garba L, Mohamad Yussoff MA, Abd Halim KB, Ishak SNH, Mohamad Ali MS, Oslan SN, et al.
    PeerJ, 2018;6:e4347.
    PMID: 29576935 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4347
    Membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases perform oxygenated desaturation reactions to insert double bonds within fatty acyl chains in regioselective and stereoselective manners. The Δ9-fatty acid desaturase strictly creates the first double bond between C9 and 10 positions of most saturated substrates. As the three-dimensional structures of the bacterial membrane fatty acid desaturases are not available, relevant information about the enzymes are derived from their amino acid sequences, site-directed mutagenesis and domain swapping in similar membrane-bound desaturases. The cold-tolerantPseudomonassp. AMS8 was found to produce high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids at low temperature. Subsequently, an active Δ9-fatty acid desaturase was isolated and functionally expressed inEscherichia coli. In this paper we report homology modeling and docking studies of a Δ9-fatty acid desaturase from a Cold-tolerantPseudomonassp. AMS8 for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Three dimensional structure of the enzyme was built using MODELLER version 9.18 using a suitable template. The protein model contained the three conserved-histidine residues typical for all membrane-bound desaturase catalytic activity. The structure was subjected to energy minimization and checked for correctness using Ramachandran plots and ERRAT, which showed a good quality model of 91.6 and 65.0%, respectively. The protein model was used to preform MD simulation and docking of palmitic acid using CHARMM36 force field in GROMACS Version 5 and Autodock tool Version 4.2, respectively. The docking simulation with the lowest binding energy, -6.8 kcal/mol had a number of residues in close contact with the docked palmitic acid namely, Ile26, Tyr95, Val179, Gly180, Pro64, Glu203, His34, His206, His71, Arg182, Thr85, Lys98 and His177. Interestingly, among the binding residues are His34, His71 and His206 from the first, second, and third conserved histidine motif, respectively, which constitute the active site of the enzyme. The results obtained are in compliance with thein vivoactivity of the Δ9-fatty acid desaturase on the membrane phospholipids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
  19. Bahurmiz, O.M., Adzitey, F., Ng, W.K.
    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional characteristics (moisture, protein, lipids, ash and fatty acid composition) of the flesh of oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) caught from Hadhramout coast of the Arabian Sea. The protein content was 21.6% and 18.1% (wet weight basis) for mackerel and sardine, respectively. The lipid content was much higher in sardine (10.1%) compared with mackerel (1.7%). The fatty acid composition showed that total saturated fatty acids had the highest relative value (37.5%) among other fatty acid groups in the flesh lipids of sardine, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (29.9%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (23.4%). In mackerel, polyunsaturated fatty acids was present at 37.4%, followed by saturated fatty acids (36.7%) and then monounsaturated fatty acids (14.3%). The majority of polyunsaturated fatty acids in both fish were deposited as omega-3 (89.8% in sardine and 87.9% in mackerel), of which docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were the most abundant. In conclusion, oil sardine and Indian mackerel which are locally available and affordable fish in Yemen can be considered valuable sources of nutrients particularly protein and health-beneficial omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
  20. Hussain S, Ullah F, Ayaz M, Ali Shah SA, Ali Shah AU, Shah SM, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2019;13:4195-4205.
    PMID: 31849451 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S228971
    Background: Cancer is one of the chronic health conditions worldwide. Various therapeutically active compounds from medicinal plants were the current focus of this research in order to uncover a treatment regimen for cancer. Anchusa arvensis (A. anchusa) (L.) M.Bieb. contains many biologically active compounds.

    Methods: In the current study, new ester 3-hydroxyoctyl -5- trans-docosenoate (compound-1) was isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of A. anchusa using column chromatography. Using MTT assay, the anticancer effect of the compound was determined in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG-2) compared with normal epithelial cell line (Vero). DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays were performed to assess the antioxidant potential. The Molecular Operating Environment (MOE-2016) tool was used against tyrosine kinase.

    Results: The structure of the compound was elucidated based on IR, EI, and NMR spectroscopy technique. It exhibited a considerable cytotoxic effect against HepG-2 cell lines with IC50 value of 6.50 ± 0.70 µg/mL in comparison to positive control (doxorubicin) which showed IC50 value of 1.3±0.21 µg/mL. The compound did not show a cytotoxic effect against normal epithelial cell line (Vero). The compound also exhibited significant DPHH scavenging ability with IC50 value of 12 ± 0.80 µg/mL, whereas ascorbic acid, used as positive control, demonstrated activity with IC50 = 05 ± 0.15 µg/mL. Similarly, it showed ABTS radical scavenging ability (IC50 = 130 ± 0.20 µg/mL) compared with the value obtained for ascorbic acid (06 ± 0.85 µg/mL). In docking studies using MOE-2016 tool, it was observed that compound-1 was highly bound to tyrosine kinase by having two hydrogen bonds at the hinge region. This good bonding network by the compound might be one of the reasons for showing significant activity against this enzyme.

    Conclusion: Our findings led to the isolation of a new compound from A. anchusa which has significant cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 cell lines with marked antioxidant potential.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/isolation & purification; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/pharmacology*; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/chemistry
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