RESULTS: Three days of incubation in darkness increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) content from 34.0 to 41.4% but decreased monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content from 36.7 to 29.8%. Palmitic acid (C16:0) content was increased from 23.2 to 28.9%, whereas oleic acid (C18:1) content was reduced from 35.4 to 28.8%. Total oil content was slightly decreased from 20.4 to 18.7% after 3 days of darkness, without a significant reduction in biomass compared to 3 days of incubation in light. Biomass and oil content was highest in cultures incubated for 6 days in light, however the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of darkness (or light) on SFA and MUFA content was no longer present at 6 days of incubation.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study suggests that fatty acid composition in C. vulgaris could be modulated to favor either C16:0 or C18:1 by a brief period of either darkness or light incubation, prior to harvesting.
METHODOLOGY: The resulting products were compared to the control muffin, which was made with 100% butter. Muffins were analyzed for nutritional content, fatty acid profiles, and sensory acceptability.
RESULT: Muffins incorporated with avocado purée revealed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with respect to moisture, ash, and carbohydrate in comparison with the control sample. However, no significant changes (p > 0.05) were detected in all muffin formulations for protein and dietary fiber content. Both fat content and caloric value of muffins incorporated with avocado purée were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The fatty acid profile showed that there was an increment in the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) content by 16.51% at full-fat substitution. The sensory evaluation test demonstrated that muffins had acceptability at up to 50% substitution. Fat substitution at higher than 50% lead to undesirable flavor and aftertaste, which was significant (p < 0.05) to the panelists.
CONCLUSION: The findings indicated the feasibility of avocado purée in fat-reduced muffin preparation with an optimal level of 50% avocado purée substitution.
Methods: In the current study, new ester 3-hydroxyoctyl -5- trans-docosenoate (compound-1) was isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of A. anchusa using column chromatography. Using MTT assay, the anticancer effect of the compound was determined in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG-2) compared with normal epithelial cell line (Vero). DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays were performed to assess the antioxidant potential. The Molecular Operating Environment (MOE-2016) tool was used against tyrosine kinase.
Results: The structure of the compound was elucidated based on IR, EI, and NMR spectroscopy technique. It exhibited a considerable cytotoxic effect against HepG-2 cell lines with IC50 value of 6.50 ± 0.70 µg/mL in comparison to positive control (doxorubicin) which showed IC50 value of 1.3±0.21 µg/mL. The compound did not show a cytotoxic effect against normal epithelial cell line (Vero). The compound also exhibited significant DPHH scavenging ability with IC50 value of 12 ± 0.80 µg/mL, whereas ascorbic acid, used as positive control, demonstrated activity with IC50 = 05 ± 0.15 µg/mL. Similarly, it showed ABTS radical scavenging ability (IC50 = 130 ± 0.20 µg/mL) compared with the value obtained for ascorbic acid (06 ± 0.85 µg/mL). In docking studies using MOE-2016 tool, it was observed that compound-1 was highly bound to tyrosine kinase by having two hydrogen bonds at the hinge region. This good bonding network by the compound might be one of the reasons for showing significant activity against this enzyme.
Conclusion: Our findings led to the isolation of a new compound from A. anchusa which has significant cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 cell lines with marked antioxidant potential.