Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 51 in total

  1. Viecelli AK, Pascoe EM, Polkinghorne KR, Hawley CM, Paul-Brent PA, Badve SV, et al.
    Nephrology (Carlton), 2017 10;22(10):823-824.
    PMID: 27188542 DOI: 10.1111/nep.12823
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3*
  2. Rasti B, Erfanian A, Selamat J
    Food Chem, 2017 Sep 01;230:690-696.
    PMID: 28407968 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.03.089
    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the application, stability and suitability of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) incorporated nanoliposomes in food enrichment. Nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs was prepared by Mozafari method, and their application in bread and milk was compared with unencapsulated (fish oil) and microencapsulated ω3 PUFAs. Sensory evaluation was conducted to determine the perceptible sensory difference/similarity between control, unencapsulated, microencapsulated, and nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs enriched foods. Results showed no significant (p=0.11) detectable difference between control and nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs enriched samples while, samples enriched with unencapsulated or microencapsulated ω3 PUFAs showed significant (p=0.02) fishy flavor. Moreover, significantly (p<0.01) higher ω3 PUFAs % recovery and lower peroxide and anisidine values were observed in nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs enriched samples in comparison with other samples. In conclusion, an effective and reproducible method for application of ω3 PUFAs in the food system was developed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/chemistry*
  3. Rak AE, Nasir SNAM, Nor MM, Han DK, Appalasamy S, Abdullah F, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jul;27(20):24772-24785.
    PMID: 32016873 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-07923-0
    Corbicula fluminea (C. fluminea) is one of the mollusc species commonly eaten as a popular snack in Kelantan, Malaysia. This species contributes to the local economic activity. However, the handling process of C. fluminea at different processing stages (raw, smoke and selling stages) is believed to have affected the nutritional value in their soft tissue. Hence, this study aims to provide information about the chemical content (moisture, crude fat, ash, crude protein and carbohydrate) of C. fluminea and fatty acid of smoked C. fluminea at different processing stages. Samples were collected from Pasir Mas and Tumpat, Kelantan, Malaysia. The chemical content analysis was carried out based on the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) standard procedures. The results have indicated that moisture (80.93 ± 0.37%) and crude fat (10.82 ± 0.21%) in C. fluminea were significantly higher (p omega-6 (n-6) in PUFA is significantly greater than omega-3 (n-3). The n-6/n-3 ratio of smoked C. fluminea is 2.95-3.11 and therefore can be considered as a healthy diet. The findings of this study can improve consumers' health through sufficient nutrient consumption and also provide economic benefits by increasing sellers' income in Kelantan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3*
  4. Mustapha MS
    Adequate consumption of Omega-3 fatty acids are essential during pregnancy because they play an important role in the development offetal brain and retina. The rate of growth remains high during the first year of life. Omega-3 is converted inside the body into longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). DHA and EPA are primarily derived from fish and algae. DHA is essential for the growth and functional development of the brain in infants. DHA is also required for the maintenance of normal brain function in adults. The inclusion of adequate amount of DHA in the diet improved learning ability, whereas deficiencies of DHA are associated with deficits in learning. DHA is readily taken up by the brain in preference to other fatty acids. The turnover of DHA in the brain is very fast, more so than is generally realized. The visual acuity of healthy, full-term, formula-fed infants is increased when their formula includes DHA. However, health professionals and the general public in Malaysia may not be aware about the importance, sources or the quantities required for these essential fat components in foods. This review discusses the benefits of omega-3 consumption with particular emphasis during pregnancy and the first year of life. This review will also attempt to discuss sources of omega-3 fatty acids in Malaysia with the aim to achieve the recommended nutrient intakes foromega-3 fatty acids.
    Keywords: Omega 3 fatty acids, Lactation in Pregnancy, Sources of Omega-3 FA
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  5. Golkhalkhali B, Rajandram R, Paliany AS, Ho GF, Wan Ishak WZ, Johari CS, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Oncol, 2018 Jun;14(3):179-191.
    PMID: 28857425 DOI: 10.1111/ajco.12758
    AIM: Colorectal cancer patients on chemotherapy usually have elevated levels of inflammatory markers and experience numerous side effects from chemotherapy thereby leading to poor quality of life. Omega-3 fatty acid and microbial cell preparation (MCP) have been known to provide significant benefits in patients on chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation of omega-3 fatty acid and MCP in quality of life, chemotherapy side effects and inflammatory markers in colorectal cancer patients on chemotherapy.

    METHODS: A double-blind randomized study was carried out with 140 colorectal cancer patients on chemotherapy. Subjects were separated into two groups to receive either placebo or MCP [30 billion colony-forming unit (CFUs) per sachet] at a dose of two sachets daily for 4 weeks, and omega-3 fatty acid at a dose of 2 g daily for 8 weeks. Outcomes measured were quality of life, side effects of chemotherapy and levels of inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein.

    RESULTS: The supplementation with MCP and omega-3 fatty acid improved the overall quality of life and alleviated certain side effects of chemotherapy. The supplementation with MCP and omega-3 fatty acid also managed to reduce the level of IL-6 (P = 0.002). There was a significant rise in the placebo group's serum TNF-α (P = 0.048) and IL-6 (P = 0.004).

    CONCLUSION: The combined supplementation with MCP and omega-3 fatty acid may improve quality of life, reduce certain inflammatory biomarkers and relieve certain side effects of chemotherapy in colorectal patients on chemotherapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology; Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use*
  6. Nehdi IA, Hadj-Kali MK, Sbihi HM, Tan CP, Al-Resayes SI
    J Oleo Sci, 2019;68(11):1041-1049.
    PMID: 31695014 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess19111
    An optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 (ω-6/ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the diet prevents the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to synthesize and characterize ternary oil blends with optimal ω-6/ω-3 ratios using olive (OL), sunflower (SU), and cress (CR) oils. The oxidative stability, thermal profile, fatty acid (FA) and tocopherol compositions, and the physicochemical properties of the blends were used to determine their quality. Oil mixtures were prepared with 2, 3, 4, and 5 ω-6/ω-3 ratios. FA composition and tocopherol content were the most important factors affecting the oxidation and thermal stabilities of the oils. All oil mixtures showed good quality indices. Thus, synthetized oil blends with high oxidative stability, high antioxidant content, optimal ω-6/ω-3 ratios, and recommended FA compositions can influence human health. The composition of healthy oil blends with optimal ω-6/ω-3 ratios was expressed mathematically and depicted graphically in a ternary diagram.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/analysis*; Fatty Acids, Omega-3/chemistry
  7. Ong HT
    Malays Fam Physician, 2006;1(2):65-66.
    PMID: 27570590 MyJurnal
    Evidence thus far still supports the contention that fish derived omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, are good for heart patients. But this controversy tells us something about the medical research, and the acquisition and application of medical knowledge. Being scientists, doctors try to perform studies as rigorously as possible with randomised, placebo-controlled trials and using tests of statistical significance. But since the studies are on humans, with all their individual differing habits and inconsistencies, different results are produced by different researchers. And so while medicine is a science, in that the trials are scientifically conducted, the interpretation of the results, and in particular its application for the individual patient, is very much an art. A good doctor, like the good artist, must spend much time, energy and effort sieving through the good from the not so good data before coming out with the correct picture. Only by keeping an unbiased, inquisitive mind can the evidence be reviewed to solve the problem at hand. Almost always, the balance of data will favour a particular stand. In this day when newspapers are full of medical articles, a family physician has to be educated, interested and inquisitive to be a source of accurate and relevant information for the patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  8. Nur Airina Muhamad, Jamaludin Mohamad
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:81-94.
    A comparative study on the fatty acids contents of three Malaysian marine fishes Tenualosa toli (Terubok), Rastrelliger kanagurta (Kembong), Stolephorus baganensis (Bilis) and three freshwater fishes Channa striatus (Haruan), Pangasius hypothalamus (Patin), Clarias macrocephalus (Keli) were carried out. Marine fishes showed more unsaturated fatty acids with 3, 4, 5 and 6 double bonds than in freshwater fishes. Two n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docasahaexaenoic acid (DHA) were found more in marine fishes PUFAs than in freshwater fishes. Based on the fatty acids content of DHA, EPA and arachidonic acid (AA), Stolephorus baganensis provides the best source of it (4.68%,10.5%, 4.68%) followed by Rastrelliger kanagurta (10.62%, 4.85%, 3.17%) and Tenualosa toli (9.93%, 2.50%, 0.16%). However, freshwater fishes showed small range of DHA (0.63% - 1.41%), EPA (0.11% - 0.25%) and AA (1.41% - 4.46%). Saturated fatty acids palmitic was the major fatty acid found in all fishes studied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  9. Ellulu MS, Khaza'ai H, Abed Y, Rahmat A, Ismail P, Ranneh Y
    Inflammopharmacology, 2015 Jun;23(2-3):79-89.
    PMID: 25676565 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-015-0228-1
    The roles of Omega-3 FAs are inflammation antagonists, while Omega-6 FAs are precursors for inflammation. The plant form of Omega-3 FAs is the short-chain α-linolenic acid, and the marine forms are the long-chain fatty acids: docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Omega-3 FAs have unlimited usages, and they are considered as omnipotent since they may benefit heart health, improve brain function, reduce cancer risks and improve people's moods. Omega-3 FAs also have several important biological effects on a range of cellular functions that may decrease the onset of heart diseases and reduce mortality among patients with coronary heart disease, possibly by stabilizing the heart's rhythm and by reducing blood clotting. Some review studies have described the beneficial roles of Omega-3 FAs in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer, diabetes, and other conditions, including inflammation. Studies of the effect of Omega-3 FAs gathered from studies in diseased and healthy population. CVDs including atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome were the major fields of investigation. In studies of obesity, as the central obesity increased, the level of adipocyte synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were increased and the level of anti-inflammatory adiponectin was decreased indicating a state of inflammation. The level of C reactive protein (CRP) synthesized from hepatocyte is increased by the influence of IL-6. CRP can be considered as a marker of systemic inflammation associated with increased risks of CVDs. In molecular studies, Omega-3 FAs have direct effects on reducing the inflammatory state by reducing IL-6, TNF-α, CRP and many other factors. While the appropriate dosage along with the administrative duration is not known, the scientific evidence-based recommendations for daily intake are not modified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage
  10. Amirul Alam M, Juraimi AS, Rafii MY, Hamid AA, Kamal Uddin M, Alam MZ, et al.
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2014 Nov;41(11):7395-411.
    PMID: 25085039 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-014-3628-1
    Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea), also known as pigweed, fatweed, pusle, and little hogweed, is an annual succulent herb in the family Portulacaceae that is found in most corners of the globe. From the ancient ages purslane has been treated as a major weed of vegetables as well as other crops. However, worldwide researchers and nutritionists have studied this plant as a potential vegetable crop for humans as well as animals. Purslane is a nutritious vegetable with high antioxidant properties and recently has been recognized as the richest source of α-linolenic acid, essential omega-3 and 6 fatty acids, ascorbic acid, glutathione, α-tocopherol and β-carotene. The lack of vegetable sources of ω-3 fatty acids has resulted in a growing level of attention to introduce purslane as a new cultivated vegetable. In the rapid-revolutionizing worldwide atmosphere, the ability to produce improved planting material appropriate to diverse and varying rising conditions is a supreme precedence. Though various published reports on morphological, physiological, nutritional and medicinal aspects of purslane are available, research on the genetic improvement of this promising vegetable crop are scant. Now it is necessary to conduct research for the genetic improvement of this plant. Genetic improvement of purslane is also a real scientific challenge. Scientific modernization of conventional breeding with the advent of advance biotechnological and molecular approaches such as tissue culture, protoplast fusion, genetic transformation, somatic hybridization, marker-assisted selection, qualitative trait locus mapping, genomics, informatics and various statistical representation have opened up new opportunities of revising the relationship between genetic diversity, agronomic performance and response to breeding for varietal improvement. This review is an attempt to amalgamate the assorted scientific information on purslane propagation, cultivation, varietal improvement, nutrient analyses, medicinal uses and to describe prospective research especially for genetic improvement of this crop.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/analysis
  11. Uddin MK, Juraimi AS, Hossain MS, Nahar MA, Ali ME, Rahman MM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:951019.
    PMID: 24683365 DOI: 10.1155/2014/951019
    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an important plant naturally found as a weed in field crops and lawns. Purslane is widely distributed around the globe and is popular as a potherb in many areas of Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean region. This plant possesses mucilaginous substances which are of medicinal importance. It is a rich source of potassium (494 mg/100 g) followed by magnesium (68 mg/100 g) and calcium (65 mg/100 g) and possesses the potential to be used as vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acid. It is very good source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid (LNA, 18 : 3 w3) (4 mg/g fresh weight) of any green leafy vegetable. It contained the highest amount (22.2 mg and 130 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.) of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid (26.6 mg and 506 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.). The oxalate content of purslane leaves was reported as 671-869 mg/100 g fresh weight. The antioxidant content and nutritional value of purslane are important for human consumption. It revealed tremendous nutritional potential and has indicated the potential use of this herb for the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/chemistry
  12. Abd Aziz N, Azlan A, Ismail A, Mohd Alinafiah S, Razman MR
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:284329.
    PMID: 23509703 DOI: 10.1155/2013/284329
    This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2-944.1 mg/100 g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/analysis
  13. Golkhalkhali B, Paliany AS, Chin KF, Rajandram R
    Nutr Cancer, 2018 01 11;70(2):184-191.
    PMID: 29324050 DOI: 10.1080/01635581.2018.1412470
    The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is on a steady rise over the years, with the World Health Organization (WHO) reporting CRC as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. While treatment modalities may differ in accordance to the staging and severity of the disease itself, chemotherapy is almost unavoidable in most cases. Though effective in its mode of action, chemotherapy is commonly associated with undesirable side effects that negatively affects the patient in terms of quality of life, and in some cases may actually interfere with their treatment regimens, thus escalating to poor prognosis. Gastrointestinal disturbances is a major side effect of chemotherapy and in CRC, gastrointestinal disturbances may be further aggravated and grave in nature mainly due to the affected site, being the gastrointestinal tract. The use of complementary therapies as adjuncts to alleviate the side effects of chemotherapy in CRC patients is gaining prominence with dietary supplements being the most commonly employed adjunct. Some of the frequently used dietary supplements for CRC patients are probiotics, omega-3 fatty acid and glutamine. The successful crosstalk between these dietary supplements with important metabolic pathways is crucial in the alleviation of chemotherapy side effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use*
  14. Ong HT, Cheah JS
    Chin. Med. J., 2008 Aug 20;121(16):1588-94.
    PMID: 18982874
    The aim of this review is to objectively access the trial evidence on the role of omega-3, red yeast rice and garlic in preventing clinical cardiovascular events. Given the large number of clinical trials favoring statin use in cardiovascular disease, it is important to see if evidence is available for these supplements and whether they could replace statin therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage*
  15. Adeyemi KD, Sabow AB, Abubakar A, Samsudin AA, Sazili AQ
    Anim. Sci. J., 2016 Nov;87(11):1421-1432.
    PMID: 26987458 DOI: 10.1111/asj.12597
    This study examined the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil (BCPO) on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant status, oxidative stability and fatty acid composition of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from goats during chill storage. Over a 14-week feeding trial, 24 Boer bucks were randomly assigned to and supplemented with diets containing 0, 4 or 8% BCPO on a dry matter basis, slaughtered and the LTL was subjected to a 7 day chill storage. Neither diet nor post mortem ageing influenced (P > 0.05) antioxidant enzyme activities, chemical composition and cholesterol. Diet had no effect on the carbonyl content, free thiol content, water-holding capacity, tenderness, pH and glycogen. Oil-supplemented goats had higher (P 3 and C20:5n-3, carotenoid, tocopherol and redness, and lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the control goats. Post mortem ageing decreased (P  0.05) changes were found in the proportion of individual fatty acids throughout storage. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decreased while total saturated fatty acids increased as storage progressed. Dietary BCPO enhanced n-3 PUFA without compromising the quality attributes of chevon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/analysis; Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism
  16. Hafandi A, Begg DP, Premaratna SD, Sinclair AJ, Jois M, Weisinger RS
    Comp. Med., 2014 Apr;64(2):106-9.
    PMID: 24674584
    Dietary deficiency of ω3 fatty acid during development leads to impaired cognitive function. However, the effects of multiple generations of ω3 fatty-acid deficiency on cognitive impairment remain unclear. In addition, we sought to test the hypothesis that the cognitive impairments of ω3 fatty-acid-deficient mice are mediated through the arachidonic acid-cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. To address these issues, C57BL/6J mice were bred for 3 generations and fed diets either deficient (DEF) or sufficient (SUF) in ω3 fatty acids. At postnatal day 21, the F3 offspring remained on the dam's diet or were switched to the opposite diet, creating 4 groups. In addition, 2 groups that remained on the dam's diet were treated with a COX inhibitor. At 19 wk of age, spatial-recognition memory was tested on a Y-maze. Results showed that 16 wk of SUF diet reversed the cognitive impairment of F3 DEF mice. However, 16 wk of ω3 fatty-acid-deficient diet impaired the cognitive performance of the F3 SUF mice, which did not differ from that of the F3 DEF mice. These findings suggest that the cognitive deficits after multigenerational maintenance on ω3 fatty-acid-deficient diet are not any greater than are those after deficiency during a single generation. In addition, treatment with a COX inhibitor prevented spatial-recognition deficits in F3 DEF mice. Therefore, cognitive impairment due to dietary ω3 fatty-acid deficiency appears to be mediated by the arachidonic acid-COX pathway and can be prevented by 16 wk of dietary repletion with ω3 fatty acids or COX inhibition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage; Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology*
  17. Kassem AA, Abu Bakar MZ, Yong Meng G, Mustapha NM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:851437.
    PMID: 22489205 DOI: 10.1100/2012/851437
    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage; Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology*
  18. Yashodhara BM, Umakanth S, Pappachan JM, Bhat SK, Kamath R, Choo BH
    Postgrad Med J, 2009 Feb;85(1000):84-90.
    PMID: 19329703 DOI: 10.1136/pgmj.2008.073338
    Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FAs) are essential fatty acids with diverse biological effects in human health and disease. Reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is a well-established benefit of their intake. Dietary supplementation may also benefit patients with dyslipidaemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, obesity, inflammatory diseases, neurological/ neuropsychiatric disorders and eye diseases. Consumption of omega-3 FAs during pregnancy reduces the risk of premature birth and improves intellectual development of the fetus. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of omega-3 FAs. According to the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition guidelines (2004), a healthy adult should consume a minimum of two portions of fish a week to obtain the health benefit. This review outlines the health implications, dietary sources, deficiency states and recommended allowances of omega-3 FAs in relation to human nutrition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage; Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology*
  19. Asmah, R., Siti Sumaiyah, S.A., Nurul, S.R.
    Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce the risk of chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease and cancer as well as promote brain development among infants and children. This study was carried out to compare total protein, fat and omega-3 fatty acids content of raw and pressurized fish of P. pangasius (yellowtail catfish) and H. macrura (long tail shad). The fish was cooked using pressure cooker for six minute to be pressurized. The protein content was determined by using Kjedahl method while total fat was determined using solvent extraction using chloroform and methanol. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were prepared by a direct transesterification method, and quantified by gas chromatography using external standard. Results showed that marine fish H. macrura (long tail shad) had higher content (p < 0.05) of protein (18.30 ± 0.040 g/100 g), fat (10.965 ± 1.610 g/100 g), EPA (11.83 ± 0.02 g/100 g) and DHA (5.96 ± 0.31 g/100 g) compared to freshwater fish P. pangasius (yellowtail catfish). The protein content of pressurized fish was higher compare to raw fish, but there was no difference in total fat and omega-3 fatty acids content between raw and pressurized of freshwater fish P. pangasius and marine fish, H. macrura. In conclusion, marine fish are better source of protein, fat and omega-3 content, while pressurized fish shown to have comparable amount of protein, fat and omega-3 fatty acids content with raw fish. The result obtained assist the consumers to prepare a healthy menu in order to retain the protein and omega-3 fatty acids content of fish through healthy way of cooking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  20. Bahurmiz, O.M., Adzitey, F., Ng, W.K.
    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional characteristics (moisture, protein, lipids, ash and fatty acid composition) of the flesh of oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) caught from Hadhramout coast of the Arabian Sea. The protein content was 21.6% and 18.1% (wet weight basis) for mackerel and sardine, respectively. The lipid content was much higher in sardine (10.1%) compared with mackerel (1.7%). The fatty acid composition showed that total saturated fatty acids had the highest relative value (37.5%) among other fatty acid groups in the flesh lipids of sardine, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (29.9%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (23.4%). In mackerel, polyunsaturated fatty acids was present at 37.4%, followed by saturated fatty acids (36.7%) and then monounsaturated fatty acids (14.3%). The majority of polyunsaturated fatty acids in both fish were deposited as omega-3 (89.8% in sardine and 87.9% in mackerel), of which docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were the most abundant. In conclusion, oil sardine and Indian mackerel which are locally available and affordable fish in Yemen can be considered valuable sources of nutrients particularly protein and health-beneficial omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3
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