Displaying all 12 publications

  1. Chen JH, Liu L, Lim PE, Wei D
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2019 Jul;42(7):1129-1142.
    PMID: 30919105 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-019-02110-z
    Microalgal lipid production by Chlorella protothecoides using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was investigated in this study. First, maximum glucose and reducing sugar concentrations of 15.2 and 27.0 g/L were obtained in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (SCBH), and the effects of different percentages of glucose and xylose on algal cultivation were investigated. Afterwards, SCBH was used as a carbon source for the cultivation of C. protothecoides and higher biomass concentration of 10.7 g/L was achieved. Additionally, a large amount of fatty acids, accounting up to 16.8% of dry weight, were accumulated in C. protothecoides in the nitrogen-limited (0.1-1 mmol/L) culture. Although SCBH inhibited fatty acid accumulation to a certain degree and the inhibition was aggravated by nitrogen starvation, SCBH favored microalgal cell growth and fatty acid production. The present study is of significance for the integration of cost-effective feedstocks production for biodiesel with low-cost SCBH as well as environmentally friendly disposal of lignocellulosic wastes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis*
  2. Jahangirian H, Haron MJ, Silong S, Yusof NA
    J Oleo Sci, 2011;60(6):281-6.
    PMID: 21606615
    Phenyl fatty hydroxamic acids (PFHAs) were synthesized from canola or palm oils and phenyl hydroxylamine (FHA) catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM or RM IM. The reaction was carried out by shaking the reaction mixture at 120 rpm. The optimization was carried out by changing the reaction parameters, namely; temperature, organic solvent, amount and kind of enzyme, period of reaction and the mol ratio of reactants. The highest conversion was obtained when the reaction was carried out under the following conditions: temperature, 39°C; solvent, petroleum ether; kind and amount of lipase, 80 mg Lipozyme TL IM/mmol oil; reaction period, 72 h and FHA-oil ratio, 7.3 mmol FHA/ mmol oil. The highest conversion percentage of phenyl hydroxylaminolysis of the Ladan and Kristal brands commercial canola oils, palm stearin and palm kernel oils were 55.6, 52.2, 51.4 and 49.7 %, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis*
  3. Fung WY, Woo YP, Liong MT
    J Agric Food Chem, 2008 Sep 10;56(17):7910-8.
    PMID: 18686970 DOI: 10.1021/jf801567j
    Four strains of probiotics were evaluated for their alpha-galactosidase activity. Lactobacillus acidophilus FTCC 0291 displayed the highest specific alpha-galactosidase activity and was thus selected to be optimized in soy whey medium supplemented with seven nitrogen sources. The first-order model showed that meat extract, vegetable extract, and peptone significantly (P < 0.05) influenced the growth of L. acidophilus. The second-order polynomial regression estimated that maximum growth was obtained from the combination of 7.25% (w/v) meat extract, 4.7% (w/v) vegetable extract, and 6.85% (w/v) peptone. The validation experiment showed that response surface methodology was reliable with a variation of only 1.14% from the actual experimental data. Increased utilization of oligosaccharides and reducing sugars contributed to increased growth of L. acidophilus in the soy whey medium. This was accompanied by increased production of short-chain fatty acids and a decrease in pH.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis
  4. Lau BY, Clerens S, Morton JD, Dyer JM, Deb-Choudhury S, Ramli US
    Protein J, 2016 Apr;35(2):163-70.
    PMID: 26993480 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-016-9655-0
    The details of plant lipid metabolism are relatively well known but the regulation of fatty acid production at the protein level is still not understood. Hence this study explores the importance of phosphorylation as a mechanism to control the activity of fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes using low and high oleic acid mesocarps of oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis variety of Tenera). Adaptation of neutral loss-triggered tandem mass spectrometry and selected reaction monitoring to detect the neutral loss of phosphoric acid successfully found several phosphoamino acid-containing peptides. These peptides corresponded to the peptides from acetyl-CoA carboxylase and 3-enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase as identified by their precursor ion masses. These findings suggest that these enzymes were phosphorylated at 20th week after anthesis. Phosphorylation could have reduce their activities towards the end of fatty acid biosynthesis at ripening stage. Implication of phosphorylation in the regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis at protein level has never been reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis*
  5. Rosli R, Amiruddin N, Ab Halim MA, Chan PL, Chan KL, Azizi N, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(4):e0194792.
    PMID: 29672525 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194792
    Comparative genomics and transcriptomic analyses were performed on two agronomically important groups of genes from oil palm versus other major crop species and the model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana. The first analysis was of two gene families with key roles in regulation of oil quality and in particular the accumulation of oleic acid, namely stearoyl ACP desaturases (SAD) and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (FAT). In both cases, these were found to be large gene families with complex expression profiles across a wide range of tissue types and developmental stages. The detailed classification of the oil palm SAD and FAT genes has enabled the updating of the latest version of the oil palm gene model. The second analysis focused on disease resistance (R) genes in order to elucidate possible candidates for breeding of pathogen tolerance/resistance. Ortholog analysis showed that 141 out of the 210 putative oil palm R genes had homologs in banana and rice. These genes formed 37 clusters with 634 orthologous genes. Classification of the 141 oil palm R genes showed that the genes belong to the Kinase (7), CNL (95), MLO-like (8), RLK (3) and Others (28) categories. The CNL R genes formed eight clusters. Expression data for selected R genes also identified potential candidates for breeding of disease resistance traits. Furthermore, these findings can provide information about the species evolution as well as the identification of agronomically important genes in oil palm and other major crops.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis*
  6. Wong YC, Teh HF, Mebus K, Ooi TEK, Kwong QB, Koo KL, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2017 06 21;18(1):470.
    PMID: 28637447 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-017-3855-7
    BACKGROUND: The oil yield trait of oil palm is expected to involve multiple genes, environmental influences and interactions. Many of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to oil yield are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a microarray approach to study the gene expression profiles of mesocarp tissue at different developmental stages, comparing genetically related high- and low- oil yielding palms to identify genes that contributed to the higher oil-yielding palm and might contribute to the wider genetic improvement of oil palm breeding populations.

    RESULTS: A total of 3412 (2001 annotated) gene candidates were found to be significantly differentially expressed between high- and low-yielding palms at at least one of the different stages of mesocarp development evaluated. Gene Ontologies (GO) enrichment analysis identified 28 significantly enriched GO terms, including regulation of transcription, fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolic processes. These differentially expressed genes comprise several transcription factors, such as, bHLH, Dof zinc finger proteins and MADS box proteins. Several genes involved in glycolysis, TCA, and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways were also found up-regulated in high-yielding oil palm, among them; pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component Subunit Beta (PDH), ATP-citrate lyase, β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases I (KAS I), β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases III (KAS III) and ketoacyl-ACP reductase (KAR). Sucrose metabolism-related genes such as Invertase, Sucrose Synthase 2 and Sucrose Phosphatase 2 were found to be down-regulated in high-yielding oil palms, compared to the lower yield palms.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that a higher carbon flux (channeled through down-regulation of the Sucrose Synthase 2 pathway) was being utilized by up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, TCA and fatty acid biosynthesis leading to enhanced oil production in the high-yielding oil palm. These findings are an important stepping stone to understand the processes that lead to production of high-yielding oil palms and have implications for breeding to maximize oil production.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis
  7. Cha TS, Yee W, Phua PSP, Loh SH, Aziz A
    Biotechnol Lett, 2021 Apr;43(4):803-812.
    PMID: 33438120 DOI: 10.1007/s10529-021-03077-2
    OBJECTIVE: The effects of a brief (3 days) and prolonged (6 days) period of incubation in darkness and light on the biomass content, lipid content and fatty acid profile in Chlorella vulgaris UMT-M1 were determined.

    RESULTS: Three days of incubation in darkness increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) content from 34.0 to 41.4% but decreased monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content from 36.7 to 29.8%. Palmitic acid (C16:0) content was increased from 23.2 to 28.9%, whereas oleic acid (C18:1) content was reduced from 35.4 to 28.8%. Total oil content was slightly decreased from 20.4 to 18.7% after 3 days of darkness, without a significant reduction in biomass compared to 3 days of incubation in light. Biomass and oil content was highest in cultures incubated for 6 days in light, however the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of darkness (or light) on SFA and MUFA content was no longer present at 6 days of incubation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study suggests that fatty acid composition in C. vulgaris could be modulated to favor either C16:0 or C18:1 by a brief period of either darkness or light incubation, prior to harvesting.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis*
  8. Cha TS, Chen JW, Goh EG, Aziz A, Loh SH
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Nov;102(22):10633-40.
    PMID: 21967717 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.042
    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different nitrate concentrations in culture medium on oil content and fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1) and Chlorella sorokiniana (KS-MB2). Results showed that both species produced significant higher (p<0.05) oil content at nitrate ranging from 0.18 to 0.66 mM with C. vulgaris produced 10.20-11.34% dw, while C. sorokiniana produced 15.44-17.32% dw. The major fatty acids detected include C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3. It is interesting to note that both species displayed differentially regulated fatty acid accumulation patterns in response to nitrate treatments at early stationary growth phase. Their potential use for biodiesel application could be enhanced by exploring the concept of binary blending of the two microalgae oils using developed mathematical equations to calculate the oil mass blending ratio and simultaneously estimated the weight percentage (wt.%) of desirable fatty acid compositions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis*
  9. Jusoh M, Loh SH, Aziz A, Cha TS
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2019 Jun;188(2):450-459.
    PMID: 30536033 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-02937-4
    Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biofuels and nutritional inventions. Recent studies from our lab have shown that two plant hormones, auxin and jasmonic acid, influence microalgae growth and fatty acid accumulation. Therefore, in this study, a high oil-producing strain Chlorella vulgaris UMT-M1 was selected for hormonal study using gibberellin (GA). Exogenous GA3 was applied to early stationary culture of C. vulgaris UMT-M1. Results showed that GA3 gradually increases the cell density of C. vulgaris to up to 42% on days after treatment (DAT)-8 and also capable of delaying the algal senescence. However, the increment in cell density did not enhance the total oil production albeit transient modification of fatty acid compositions was observed for saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids. This illustrates that GA3 only promotes cell division and growth but not the oil accumulation. In addition, application of GA3 in culture medium was shown to promote transient increment of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids from DAT-4 to DAT-6 and these changes are correlated with the expression of β-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KAS I) gene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis*
  10. Jusoh M, Loh SH, Chuah TS, Aziz A, Cha TS
    Phytochemistry, 2015 Mar;111:65-71.
    PMID: 25583439 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.12.022
    Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biodiesel. Many microalgae species accumulate a substantial amount of lipids and oils under environmental stresses. However, low growth rate under these adverse conditions account for the decrease in overall biomass productivity which directly influence the oil yield. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of exogenously added auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) on the oil content, fatty acid compositions, and the expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1). Auxin has been shown to regulate growth and metabolite production of several microalgae. Results showed that oil accumulation was highest on days after treatment (DAT)-2 with enriched levels of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, while the linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic (C18:3n3) acids levels were markedly reduced by IAA. The elevated levels of saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were consistent with high expression of the β-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KAS I) gene, while low expression of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD) gene was consistent with low production of C18:2. However, the increment of stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) gene expression upon IAA induction did not coincide with oleic acid (C18:1) production. The expression of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD) gene showed a positive correlation with the synthesis of PUFA and C18:3n3.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis*
  11. Williams AR, Krych L, Fauzan Ahmad H, Nejsum P, Skovgaard K, Nielsen DS, et al.
    PLoS One, 2017;12(10):e0186546.
    PMID: 29028844 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186546
    Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet supplement and infection with the enteric nematode Ascaris suum in pigs. Pigs were fed either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with grape pomace (GP), an industrial by-product rich in polyphenols such as oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Half of the animals in each group were then inoculated with A. suum for 14 days to assess parasite establishment, acquisition of local and systemic immune responses and effects on the gut microbiome. Despite in vitro anthelmintic activity of GP-extracts, numbers of parasite larvae in the intestine were not altered by GP-supplementation. However, the bioactive diet significantly increased numbers of eosinophils induced by A. suum infection in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and modulated gene expression in the jejunal mucosa of infected pigs. Both GP-supplementation and A. suum infection induced significant and apparently similar changes in the composition of the prokaryotic gut microbiota, and both also decreased concentrations of isobutyric and isovaleric acid (branched-chain short chain fatty acids) in the colon. Our results demonstrate that while a polyphenol-enriched diet in pigs may not directly influence A. suum establishment, it significantly modulates the subsequent host response to helminth infection. Our results suggest an influence of diet on immune function which may potentially be exploited to enhance immunity to helminths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis
  12. Tan YH, Lim PE, Beardall J, Poong SW, Phang SM
    Aquat Toxicol, 2019 Dec;217:105349.
    PMID: 31734626 DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.105349
    Ocean acidification, due to increased levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, is known to affect the physiology and growth of marine phytoplankton, especially in polar regions. However, the effect of acidification or carbonation on cellular metabolism in polar marine phytoplankton still remains an open question. There is some evidence that small chlorophytes may benefit more than other taxa of phytoplankton. To understand further how green polar picoplankton could acclimate to high oceanic CO2, studies were conducted on an Antarctic Chlorella sp. Chlorella sp. maintained its growth rate (∼0.180 d-1), photosynthetic quantum yield (Fv/Fm = ∼0.69) and chlorophyll a (0.145 fg cell-1) and carotenoid (0.06 fg cell-1) contents under high CO2, while maximum rates of electron transport decreased and non-photochemical quenching increased under elevated CO2. GCMS-based metabolomic analysis reveal that this polar Chlorella strain modulated the levels of metabolites associated with energy, amino acid, fatty acid and carbohydrate production, which could favour its survival in an increasingly acidified ocean.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/biosynthesis
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