Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 70 in total

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  1. Teo CL, Idris A
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Dec;174:281-6.
    PMID: 25463809 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.10.035
    Nannochloropsis sp. wet biomass was directly transesterified under microwave (MW) irradiation in the presence of methanol and various alkali and acid catalyst. Two different types of direct transesterification (DT) were used; one step and two step transesterification. The biodiesel yield obtained from the MWDT was compared with that obtained using conventional method (lipid extraction followed by transesterification) and water bath heating DT method. Findings revealed that MWDT efficiencies were higher compared to water bath heating DT by at least 14.34% and can achieve a maximum of 43.37% with proper selection of catalysts. The use of combined catalyst (NaOH and H2SO4) increased the yield obtained by 2.3-folds (water bath heating DT) and 2.87-folds (MWDT) compared with the one step single alkaline catalyst respectively. The property of biodiesel produced by MWDT has high lubricating property, good cetane number and short carbon chain FAME's compared with water bath heating DT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  2. Hayyan A, Alam MZ, Mirghani ME, Kabbashi NA, Hakimi NI, Siran YM, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Oct;101(20):7804-11.
    PMID: 20541401 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.05.045
    In this study, biodiesel was produced from sludge palm oil (SPO) using tolune-4-sulfonic monohydrate acid (PTSA) as an acid catalyst in different dosages in the presence of methanol to convert free fatty acid (FFA) to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), followed by a transesterification process using an alkaline catalyst. In the first step, acid catalyzed esterification reduced the high FFA content of SPO to less than 2% with the different dosages of PTSA. The optimum conditions for pretreatment process by esterification were 0.75% (w/w) dosage of PTSA to SPO, 10:1 M ratio, 60 °C temperature, 60 min reaction time and 400 rpm stirrer speed. The highest yield of biodiesel after transesterification and purification processes was 76.62% with 0.07% FFA and 96% ester content. The biodiesel produced was favorable as compared to EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 standard. This study shows a potential exploitation of SPO as a new feedstock for the production of biodiesel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  3. Li R, Cao C, Zheng Z, Yang X, Tan CP, Xu Y, et al.
    Food Funct, 2021 Mar 15;12(5):2020-2031.
    PMID: 33565560 DOI: 10.1039/d0fo02511a
    The consumption of saturated lipids in combination with a sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the distribution of endogenous fatty acids (FA) after the consumption of saturated lipids and the connection between FA distribution and lipid metabolism-related genes relative expression have not been fully elucidated to date. In this study, we characterized FA profiles in the liver and visceral fats of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed with a high-palm-oil diet. The investigation showed that the levels of C16:0 and C18:1 (n-9) increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the liver of the high-palm-oil group (POG), while C16:1 (n-7) and C18:2 (n-6) accumulated markedly (P < 0.05) in the visceral fats of the control group (CN). A correlation analysis indicated a negative correlation between C16:0 and C16:1 (n-7) in the epididymal fat of POG. Our study also demonstrated that the intake of saturated lipids caused changes in lipid metabolism-related gene expression, especially stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), which was upregulated at the third week but was inhibited in the subsequent weeks in the POG liver and perirenal fat. The SCD had a notable positive correlation with C16:1 (n-7) in the POG liver and perirenal fat but a significant negative correlation with C16:0 in the POG epididymal fat. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that a high-C16:0 diet may result in adaptive SCD expression, and these findings may help to elucidate the effects of dietary fat on lipid metabolism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  4. Ramli US, Baker DS, Quant PA, Harwood JL
    Biochem Soc Trans, 2002 Nov;30(Pt 6):1043-6.
    PMID: 12440968
    Control analysis is a powerful method to quantify the regulation of metabolic pathways. We have applied it to lipid biosynthesis for the first time by using model tissue culture systems from the important oil crops, olive ( Olea europaea L.) and oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). By the use of top-down control analysis, fatty acid biosynthesis has been shown to exert more control than lipid assembly under different experimental conditions. However, both parts of the lipid biosynthetic pathway are important, so that attempts to alter oil yield by manipulating the activity of a single enzyme step are very unlikely to produce significant increases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  5. Lam MK, Lee KT, Mohamed AR
    Biotechnol Adv, 2010 Jul-Aug;28(4):500-18.
    PMID: 20362044 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2010.03.002
    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism; Trans Fatty Acids/metabolism
  6. Mohd Razaif-Mazinah MR, Mohamad Annuar MS, Sharifuddin Y
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2016 Jan-Feb;63(1):92-100.
    PMID: 25643814 DOI: 10.1002/bab.1354
    The biosynthesis of medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 cultivated on mixed carbon sources was investigated. The mixed carbon sources consisted of heptanoic acid (HA) and oleic acid (OA). A relatively low PHA content at 1.2% (w/w) and 11.4% (w/w) was obtained when HA or OA was used as the sole carbon source. When these fatty acids were supplied as a mixture, PHA content increased threefold. Interestingly, the mixture-derived PHA composed of both odd and even monomer units, namely. 3-hydroxyheptanoate, 3-hydroxyoctanoate, 3-hydroxydecanoate, and 3-hydroxydodecanoate and no unsaturated monomer was detected. It is hypothesized that the even-numbered monomers were derived primarily from OA, whereas the odd-numbered monomer was derived from HA. This also points out to an efficient and yet distinct fatty acids metabolism that fed the PHA biosynthesis machinery of this particular microorganism. PHA obtained was elastomeric because melting temperature (Tm ) and crystallinity were absent. It showed good thermal stability with degradation temperature (Td ) ranging from 275.96 to 283.05 °C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism*
  7. Gumel AM, Annuar MS, Heidelberg T
    Braz J Microbiol, 2014;45(2):427-38.
    PMID: 25242925
    Growth associated biosynthesis of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. Models with substrate inhibition terms described well the kinetics of its growth. Selected fatty acids (C8:0 to C18:1) and ammonium were used as carbon and nitrogen sources during growth and PHA biosynthesis, resulting in PHA accumulation of about 50 to 69% (w/w) and PHA yields ranging from 10.12 g L(-1) to 15.45 g L(-1), respectively. The monomer composition of the PHA ranges from C4 to C14, and was strongly influenced by the type of carbon substrate fed. Interestingly, an odd carbon chain length (C7) monomer was also detected when C18:1 was fed. Polymer showed melting temperature (T m) of 42.0 (± 0.2) °C, glass transition temperature (T g) of -1.0 (± 0.2) °C and endothermic melting enthalpy of fusion (ΔHf) of 110.3 (± 0.1) J g(-1). The molecular weight (M w) range of the polymer was relatively narrow between 55 to 77 kDa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  8. Ezebor F, Khairuddean M, Abdullah AZ, Boey PL
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Apr;157:254-62.
    PMID: 24561631 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.01.110
    The use of pseudo-infinite methanol in increasing the rate of esterification and transesterification reactions was studied using oil palm trunk (OPT) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) derived solid acid catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by incomplete carbonisation at 400°C for 8h, followed by sulfonation at 150°C for 15h and characterised using TGA/DTA, XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDS, EA and titrimetric determinations of acid sites. Under optimal reaction conditions, the process demonstrated rapid esterification of palmitic acid, with FAME yields of 93% and 94% in 45min for OPT and SCB catalysts, respectively. With the process, moisture levels up to 16.7% accelerated the conversion of low FFA oils by sulfonated carbon catalysts, through moisture-induced violent bumping. Moisture assisted transesterification of palm olein containing 1.78% FFA and 8.33% added water gave FAME yield of 90% in 10h, which was two folds over neat oil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  9. Jaliliannosrati H, Amin NA, Talebian-Kiakalaieh A, Noshadi I
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 May;136:565-73.
    PMID: 23567732 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.02.078
    The synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) by a two-step in situ (reactive) esterification/transesterification from Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) seeds using microwave system has been investigated. Free fatty acid was reduced from 14% to less than 1% in the first step using H2SO4 as acid catalyst after 35 min of microwave irradiation heating. The organic phase in the first step was subjected to a second reaction by adding 5 N KOH in ethanol as the basic catalyst. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was utilized to design the experiments and analyze the influence of process variables (particles seed size, time of irradiation, agitation speed and catalyst loading) on conversion of triglycerides (TGs) in the second step. The highest triglycerides conversion to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) was 97.29% at the optimum conditions:<0.5mm seed size, 12.21 min irradiation time, 8.15 ml KOH catalyst loading and 331.52 rpm agitation speed in the 110 W microwave power system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  10. Ebrahimi M, Rajion MA, Goh YM, Sazili AQ
    J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), 2012 Dec;96(6):962-9.
    PMID: 21848848 DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01206.x
    The effects of different inclusion levels of oil palm fronds (OPF) on the fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi (LD), biceps femoris (BF) and infraspinatus (IS) muscle of goats fed for 100 days are described. Twenty-four individually housed Kacang crossbred male goats (averaged 21.7 ± 0.97 kg BW) were allocated to three groups receiving either a 100% concentrate control diet (CON), diet with 25% inclusion level of OPF (HAF) or a diet with 50% inclusion of OPF. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed at 3.0% of BW daily. Samples of LD, BF and IS muscles were taken at slaughter for the determination of fatty acid profiles. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the LD and BF muscles of the OPF group were significantly (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  11. Chong FC, Tey BT, Dom ZM, Ibrahim N, Rahman RA, Ling TC
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2006 Sep 07;6:1124-31.
    PMID: 16964369
    An intensified esterification process was operated by circulating 10 l of reaction mixtures, consisting of palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD) and glycerol in hexane, through a packed-bed reactor (PBR) filled with 10 kg of delipidated rice bran lipase (RBL). The influence of the process parameters, such as reaction temperature and type of water-removal agent, on the performance of this intensified esterification process were investigated. The highest degree of esterification (61%) was achieved at a reaction temperature of 65 masculineC, using silica gels as the water-removal agent. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis showed that the major composition of the esterified product was diacylglycerol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism*
  12. Chen M, Zhang B, Li C, Kulaveerasingam H, Chew FT, Yu H
    Plant Physiol., 2015 Sep;169(1):391-402.
    PMID: 26152712 DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.00943
    Seed storage reserves mainly consist of starch, triacylglycerols, and storage proteins. They not only provide energy for seed germination and seedling establishment, but also supply essential dietary nutrients for human beings and animals. So far, the regulatory networks that govern the accumulation of seed storage reserves in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), which encodes a WD40 repeat transcription factor involved in many aspects of plant development, plays an important role in mediating the accumulation of seed storage reserves in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The dry weight of ttg1-1 embryos significantly increases compared with that of wild-type embryos, which is accompanied by an increase in the contents of starch, total protein, and fatty acids in ttg1-1 seeds. FUSCA3 (FUS3), a master regulator of seed maturation, binds directly to the TTG1 genomic region and suppresses TTG1 expression in developing seeds. TTG1 negatively regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins partially through transcriptional repression of 2S3, a gene encoding a 2S albumin precursor. TTG1 also indirectly suppresses the expression of genes involved in either seed development or synthesis/modification of fatty acids in developing seeds. In addition, we demonstrate that the maternal allele of the TTG1 gene suppresses the accumulation of storage proteins and fatty acids in seeds. Our results suggest that TTG1 is a direct target of FUS3 in the framework of the regulatory hierarchy controlling seed filling and regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins and fatty acids during the seed maturation process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  13. Talebi AF, Tohidfar M, Mousavi Derazmahalleh SM, Sulaiman A, Baharuddin AS, Tabatabaei M
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:597198.
    PMID: 26146623 DOI: 10.1155/2015/597198
    Exploitation of renewable sources of energy such as algal biodiesel could turn energy supplies problem around. Studies on a locally isolated strain of Dunaliella sp. showed that the mean lipid content in cultures enriched by 200 mg L(-1) myoinositol was raised by around 33% (1.5 times higher than the control). Similarly, higher lipid productivity values were achieved in cultures treated by 100 and 200 mg L(-1) myoinositol. Fluorometry analyses (microplate fluorescence and flow cytometry) revealed increased oil accumulation in the Nile red-stained algal samples. Moreover, it was predicted that biodiesel produced from myoinositol-treated cells possessed improved oxidative stability, cetane number, and cloud point values. From the genomic point of view, real-time analyses revealed that myoinositol negatively influenced transcript abundance of AccD gene (one of the key genes involved in lipid production pathway) due to feedback inhibition and that its positive effect must have been exerted through other genes. The findings of the current research are not to interprete that myoinositol supplementation could answer all the challenges faced in microalgal biodiesel production but instead to show that "there is a there there" for biochemical modulation strategies, which we achieved, increased algal oil quantity and enhanced resultant biodiesel quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  14. Abubakr A, Alimon AR, Yaakub H, Abdullah N, Ivan M
    PLoS One, 2015;10(3):e0119756.
    PMID: 25789610 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119756
    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism*
  15. Abdullah AS, Rajion MA
    Vet Hum Toxicol, 1990 Oct;32(5):444-5.
    PMID: 2238442
    Brachiaria decumbens toxicity resulted in an altered reticulorumen environment in the sheep. This adversely affected the growth and activity of microorganisms in the rumen as reflected by greatly decreased concentrations of the volatile fatty acids (acetic, propionic and butyric) in B decumbens-intoxicated sheep.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  16. Azizan A, Ahamad Bustamam MS, Maulidiani M, Shaari K, Ismail IS, Nagao N, et al.
    Mar Drugs, 2018 May 07;16(5).
    PMID: 29735927 DOI: 10.3390/md16050154
    Microalgae are promising candidate resources from marine ecology for health-improving effects. Metabolite profiling of the microalgal diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans was conducted by using robust metabolomics tools, namely ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The unsupervised data analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), resolved the five types of extracts made by solvents ranging from polar to non-polar into five different clusters. Collectively, with various extraction solvents, 11 amino acids, cholesterol, 6 fatty acids, 2 sugars, 1 osmolyte, 6 carotenoids and 2 chlorophyll pigments were identified. The fatty acids and both carotenoid pigments as well as chlorophyll, were observed in the extracts made from medium polar (acetone, chloroform) and non-polar (hexane) solvents. It is suggested that the compounds were the characteristic markers that influenced the separation between the clusters. Based on partial least square (PLS) analysis, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and lutein displayed strong correlation to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity. This metabolomics study showed that solvent extractions are one of the main bottlenecks for the maximum recovery of bioactive microalgal compounds and could be a better source of natural antioxidants due to a high value of metabolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  17. Shahfiza N, Osman H, Hock TT, Abdel-Hamid AZ
    Acta Biochim. Pol., 2017;64(2):215-219.
    PMID: 28350402 DOI: 10.18388/abp.2015_1224
    BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the major public health problems in the world, affecting more than fifty million cases in tropical and subtropical region every year. The metabolome, as pathophysiological end-points, provide significant understanding of the mechanism and progression of dengue pathogenesis via changes in the metabolite profile of infected patients. Recent developments in diagnostic technologies provide metabolomics for the early detection of infectious diseases.

    METHODS: The mid-stream urine was collected from 96 patients diagnosed with dengue fever at Penang General Hospital (PGH) and 50 healthy volunteers. Urine samples were analyzed with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, followed by chemometric multivariate analysis. NMR signals highlighted in the orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) S-plots were selected and identified using Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) and Chenomx Profiler. A highly predictive model was constructed from urine profile of dengue infected patients versus healthy individuals with the total R2Y (cum) value 0.935, and the total Q2Y (cum) value 0.832.

    RESULTS: Data showed that dengue infection is related to amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid intermediates cycle and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Distinct variations in certain metabolites were recorded in infected patients including amino acids, various organic acids, betaine, valerylglycine, myo-inositol and glycine.

    CONCLUSION: Metabolomics approach provides essential insight into host metabolic disturbances following dengue infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  18. Yusuf AL, Adeyemi KD, Samsudin AA, Goh YM, Alimon AR, Sazili AQ
    BMC Vet Res, 2017 Nov 24;13(1):349.
    PMID: 29178910 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-017-1223-0
    BACKGROUND: The nature and amount of dietary medicinal plants are known to influence rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in ruminants. Nonetheless, changes in nutrient digestibility and rumen metabolism in response to dietary Andrographis paniculata (AP) in goats are unknown. This study examined the effects of dietary supplementation of leaves and whole plant of AP on nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, fatty acids and rumen microbial population in goats. Twenty-four Boer crossbred bucks (4 months old; average body weight of 20.18 ± 0.19 kg) were randomly assigned to three dietary groups of eight goats each. The dietary treatments included a control diet (Basal diet without additive), basal diet +1.5% (w/w) Andrographis paniculata leaf powder (APL) and basal diet +1.5% (w/w) Andrographis paniculata whole plant powder (APW). The trial lasted 100 d following 14 d of adjustment.

    RESULTS: The rumen pH and concentration of propionate were greater (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism*
  19. Tan IK, Ho CC
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 1991 Nov;36(2):163-6.
    PMID: 1368105
    The utilisation of palm oil and its fractions by Penicillium chrysogenum for growth and penicillin production is strain-dependent. Strain H1107 could utilise crude palm oil, its liquid (palm olein) and solid (palm stearin) fractions and its component fatty acids (oleic, palmitic, stearic and myristic) as the main carbon source; strain M223 could not. Cell-bound lipase activity was higher in H1107 than in M223.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
  20. Sinding MS, Gopalakrishnan S, Ramos-Madrigal J, de Manuel M, Pitulko VV, Kuderna L, et al.
    Science, 2020 06 26;368(6498):1495-1499.
    PMID: 32587022 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz8599
    Although sled dogs are one of the most specialized groups of dogs, their origin and evolution has received much less attention than many other dog groups. We applied a genomic approach to investigate their spatiotemporal emergence by sequencing the genomes of 10 modern Greenland sled dogs, an ~9500-year-old Siberian dog associated with archaeological evidence for sled technology, and an ~33,000-year-old Siberian wolf. We found noteworthy genetic similarity between the ancient dog and modern sled dogs. We detected gene flow from Pleistocene Siberian wolves, but not modern American wolves, to present-day sled dogs. The results indicate that the major ancestry of modern sled dogs traces back to Siberia, where sled dog-specific haplotypes of genes that potentially relate to Arctic adaptation were established by 9500 years ago.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids/metabolism
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