Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

  1. Woodward TE, Smadel JE, Ley HL, Green R, Mankikar DS
    Ann Intern Med, 1948;29:131-4.
    DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-29-1-131
    A NEW antibiotic Chloromycetin has been clinically tested in the treatment of typhoid fever and has been found to exhibit significant chemotherapeutic effects. A description of the results in 10 cases is submitted as a preliminary report.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid Fever/drug therapy
  2. Merican I
    Med J Malaysia, 1997 Sep;52(3):299-308; quiz 309.
    PMID: 10968104
    Typhoid fever (TF), a systemic prolonged febrile illness, continues to be a worldwide health problem especially in developing countries where there is poor sanitation and poor standards of personal hygiene. The worldwide incidence of TF is estimated to be approximately 16 million cases annually with 7 million cases occurring annually in SE Asia alone. More than 600,000 people die of the disease annually. The pathogenesis of TF is beginning to be understood. The clinical features and diagnosis of TF are well known. New diagnostic methods have yet to gain universal acceptance. Traditional treatment with the first-line antibiotics (i.e. chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole) though still being used in most developing countries are gradually being replaced with shorter courses of treatment with third generation cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones especially with the growing incidence of multi-drug resistant S typhi strains (MDR-ST). MDR-ST strains are particularly common in the Indian subcontinent; Pakistan and China. The presently available vaccines are far from satisfactory in terms of safety, efficacy and costs. Newer vaccines have been developed and are presently undergoing clinical trials in human volunteers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid Fever/drug therapy*
  3. Zakaria ZA, Wen LY, Abdul Rahman NI, Abdul Ayub AH, Sulaiman MR, Gopalan HK
    Med Princ Pract, 2007;16(6):443-9.
    PMID: 17917444
    The present study was carried out to determine the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the aqueous extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaves using animal models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fever/drug therapy*
  4. Wilson G, Prabhu N, Easow JM, Mukhopadhyay C
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Dec;60(5):667-9.
    PMID: 16515126
    Salmonella osteomyelitis of the rib is a rare clinical entity. In our case, a muhidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi was isolated from an immuno-competent patient with osteomyclitis of the ribs, who was treated earlier with ciprotloxacin for typhoid fever. The patient was successfully treated for osteomyclitis with intravenous ceftriaxone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid Fever/drug therapy*
  5. Choo KE, Razif A, Ariffin WA, Sepiah M, Gururaj A
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1988 Dec;8(4):207-12.
    PMID: 2467604
    A retrospective study of 137 patients with blood culture-positive typhoid fever admitted to the paediatric unit of the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia was carried out to study epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and treatment aspects of typhoid fever in Kelantanese children in hospital. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. School-children were the most affected. Cases were seen throughout the year. The five most frequently presenting features were fever, hepatomegaly, diarrhoea, vomiting and cough. Rose spots were seen in only two patients. Complications included gastritis, bronchitis, ileus, psychosis, encephalopathy, gastro-intestinal bleeding and myocarditis. Relative bradycardia was not seen. Blood and stool cultures were positive in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd weeks of illness. There was no significant difference between percentages of elevated O and H titres, whether done during or after the 1st week of illness. A four-fold rise in (O) titres occurred in 50% of cases tested. We would miss 50% of typhoid fever cases if a titre (O) equal to more than 1/160 were relied upon for diagnosis. Altogether, 46% of patients had leucopenia. Chloramphenicol was the most commonly used antibiotic. There were two deaths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid Fever/drug therapy
  6. Singh N, Menon V
    Med J Malaysia, 1975 Dec;30(2):93-7.
    PMID: 1228388
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid Fever/drug therapy
  7. Yap KP, Thong KL
    Trop Med Int Health, 2017 08;22(8):918-925.
    PMID: 28544285 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12899
    Next-generation whole-genome sequencing has revolutionised the study of infectious diseases in recent years. The availability of genome sequences and its understanding have transformed the field of molecular microbiology, epidemiology, infection treatments and vaccine developments. We review the key findings of the publicly accessible genomes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi since the first complete genome to the most recent release of thousands of Salmonella Typhi genomes, which remarkably shape the genomic research of S. Typhi and other pathogens. Important new insights acquired from the genome sequencing of S. Typhi, pertaining to genomic variations, evolution, population structure, antibiotic resistance, virulence, pathogenesis, disease surveillance/investigation and disease control are discussed. As the numbers of sequenced genomes are increasing at an unprecedented rate, fine variations in the gene pool of S. Typhi are captured in high resolution, allowing deeper understanding of the pathogen's evolutionary trends and its pathogenesis, paving the way to bringing us closer to eradication of typhoid through effective vaccine/treatment development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid Fever/drug therapy
  8. Ahola T, Couderc T, Courderc T, Ng LF, Hallengärd D, Powers A, et al.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis, 2015 Apr;15(4):250-7.
    PMID: 25897811 DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2014.1681
    Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapies available against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and these were subjects discussed during a CHIKV meeting recently organized in Langkawi, Malaysia. In this review, we chart the approaches taken in both areas. Because of a sharp increase in new data in these fields, the present paper is complementary to previous reviews by Weaver et al. in 2012 and Kaur and Chu in 2013 . The most promising antivirals so far discovered are reviewed, with a special focus on the virus-encoded replication proteins as potential targets. Within the vaccines in development, our review emphasizes the various strategies in parallel development that are unique in the vaccine field against a single disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chikungunya Fever/drug therapy
  9. Ahmad Hatib NA, Chong CY, Thoon KC, Tee NW, Krishnamoorthy SS, Tan NW
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2016 Jul;45(7):297-302.
    PMID: 27523510
    INTRODUCTION: Enteric fever is a multisystemic infection which largely affects children. This study aimed to analyse the epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of paediatric enteric fever in Singapore.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of children diagnosed with enteric fever in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Singapore was conducted from January 2006 to January 2012. Patients with positive blood cultures for Salmonella typhi or paratyphi were identified from the microbiology laboratory information system. Data was extracted from their case records.

    RESULTS: Of 50 enteric fever cases, 86% were due to Salmonella typhi, with 16.3% being multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. Sixty-two percent of S. typhi isolates were of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS). Five cases were both MDR and DCS. The remaining 14% were Salmonella paratyphi A. There were only 3 indigenous cases. Ninety-four percent had travelled to typhoid-endemic countries, 70.2% to the Indian subcontinent and the rest to Indonesia and Malaysia. All patients infected with MDR strains had travelled to the Indian subcontinent. Anaemia was a significant finding in children with typhoid, as compared to paratyphoid fever (P = 0.04). Although all children were previously well, 14% suffered severe complications including shock, pericardial effusion and enterocolitis. None had typhoid vaccination prior to their travel to developing countries.

    CONCLUSION: Enteric fever is largely an imported disease in Singapore and has contributed to significant morbidity in children. The use of typhoid vaccine, as well as education on food and water hygiene to children travelling to developing countries, needs to be emphasised.

    Matched MeSH terms: Paratyphoid Fever/drug therapy; Typhoid Fever/drug therapy
  10. Anbu JS, Jayaraj P, Varatharajan R, Thomas J, Jisha J, Muthappan M
    Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med, 2009 Jul 03;6(4):529-33.
    PMID: 20606773
    The ethanol and water extracts of Sansevieria trifasciata leaves showed dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) increase in pain threshold in tail-immersion test. Moreover, both the extracts (100 - 200 mg/kg) exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of writhing and also showed a significant (P < 0.001) inhibition of both phases of the formalin pain test. The ethanol extract (200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) reversed yeast-induced fever. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins, proteins and carbohydrates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fever/drug therapy
  11. Hamidah A, Lim YS, Zulkifli SZ, Zarina AL, Nordiah AJ, Jamal R
    Singapore Med J, 2007 Jul;48(7):615-9.
    PMID: 17609821
    We evaluated the efficacy of cefepime in association with amikacin in the initial empirical therapy of febrile neutropenic children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fever/drug therapy*
  12. Ariffin H, Ai CL, Lee CL, Abdullah WA
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2006 Dec;42(12):781-4.
    PMID: 17096713
    Empirical therapy for children with febrile neutropenia has traditionally consisted of combination antibiotics, usually a beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside. However, recent trends and international guidelines have now made monotherapy a feasible option in the management of this group of patients. We prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of cefepime monotherapy in our population of paediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fever/drug therapy
  13. Yap YF, Puthucheary SD
    Singapore Med J, 1998 Jun;39(6):260-2.
    PMID: 9803814
    Typhoid fever, which is endemic in Malaysia, affects all age groups and it has been stated that classical features described in textbooks were absent in children. The aim of this study was to find out whether this was true in the local setting and hence a retrospective study was undertaken.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid Fever/drug therapy
  14. Banerjee AK
    Med J Malaya, 1972 Mar;26(3):173-8.
    PMID: 4555503
    Matched MeSH terms: Fever/drug therapy*
  15. Thong KL, Ang CP
    PMID: 22299444
    Abstract. Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B is known to cause either paratyphoid fever or gastroenteritis. Differentiation of Salmonella ser. Paratyphi B into biotype Java (d-tartrate fermenting, dT+) and biotype Paratyphi B (d-tartrate non-fermenting, dT) is important for Salmonella epidemiology. This study applied a PCR approach to differentiate the two biotypes to augment the conventional biochemical method and to determine the antibiograms and genomic diversity of Malaysian S. Paratyphi B. Among 100 strains tested (clinical, 86; non-humans, 14), only two clinical strains were confirmed as biotype Paratyphi B as indicated by both lead acetate test and PCR. Antibiotic resistance rates were as follows: streptomycin 18%, sulphonamides 13%, ampicillin 10%, chloramphenicol 4%, tetracycline 3%, cefotaxime 2%, cefpodoxime 2%, ceftazidime 2%, gentamicin 1% and trimethoprim 1%. None showed resistance towards amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Seven strains showed multidrug resistance towards 3 or more classes of antimicrobial agents. REP-PCR and PFGE generated 32 and 76 different profiles, respectively. PFGE (D = 0.99) was more discriminative than REP-PCR (D = 0.93) and antimicrobial susceptibility test (D = 0.48) in subtyping the strains. Strains isolated 18 years apart (1982 - 2008) from different localities in Malaysia were clonally related as demonstrated by REP-PCR and PFGE, indicating that these strains were stable and widely distributed. In some clusters, strains isolated from different sources (clinical, food and animal) were grouped together. Thus, biotype Java was the most common biotype of Salmonella ser. Paratyphi B in Malaysia. The PCR approach is highly recommended due to its simplicity, specificity and ease of operation. The level of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella ser. Paratyphi B remained relatively low in Malaysia but the emergence of resistance to cephalosporins is a cause for concern.
    Matched MeSH terms: Paratyphoid Fever/drug therapy
  16. Zakaria ZA, Sulaiman MR, Morsid NA, Aris A, Zainal H, Pojan NH, et al.
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2009 Mar;31(2):81-8.
    PMID: 19455262 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2009.31.2.1353876
    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models. The extract, at concentrations of 10, 50 and 100%, was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in distilled water (dH2O) for 72 h. The extract solutions were administered subcutaneously in mice/rats 30 min prior to the tests. The extract exhibited significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. Overall, these activities occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, except for the 50% concentration of the extract, which was not effective in the abdominal constriction test. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects and thus supported traditional claims of its medicinal uses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fever/drug therapy
  17. Yam MF, Ang LF, Basir R, Salman IM, Ameer OZ, Asmawi MZ
    Inflammopharmacology, 2009 Feb;17(1):50-4.
    PMID: 19127348 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-008-8038-3
    The anti-pyretic activity of a standardized methanol/water (50/50) extract of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (SEOS) was investigated for its effect on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The SEOS showed no effect on normal body temperature. Doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of SEOS significantly reduced the yeast-induced elevation in body temperature. This effect persisted up to 4 h following the administration of the extract. The anti-pyretic effect of SEOS was comparable with that of paracetamol (acetaminophen in U.S) (150 mg/kg p.o.), a standard anti-pyretic agent. HPLC study revealed that rosmarinic acid, sinensetin, eupatorin and tetramethoxyflavone were present in SEOS in the amounts of 7.58%, 0.2%, 0.34% and 0.24% respectively. The LD(50) of the extract in rats was higher than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, the present study ascertained that SEOS possesses a significant anti-pyretic activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fever/drug therapy*
  18. Zakaria ZA, Abdul Ghani ZD, Raden Mohd Nor RN, Gopalan HK, Sulaiman MR, Abdullah FC
    Yakugaku Zasshi, 2006 Nov;126(11):1197-203.
    PMID: 17077622
    The present study was carried out to establish the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of Dicranopteris linearis leaves chloroform extract in experimental animals. The antinociceptive activity was measured using the abdominal constriction, formalin and hot plate tests, while the anti-inflammatory activity was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema. The extract, obtained after 72 h soaking of the air-dried leaves in chloroform followed by evaporation under vacuo (40 degrees C) to dryness, was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide to the doses of 20, 100 and 200 mg/kg and administered subcutaneously 30 min prior to subjection to the above mentioned assays. The extract, at all doses used, was found to exhibit significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity observed occur in a dose-independent manner. As a conclusion, the chloroform extract of D. linearis possesses antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity and thus justify its traditional uses by the Malays to treat various ailments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fever/drug therapy*
  19. Zakaria ZA, Gopalan HK, Zainal H, Mohd Pojan NH, Morsid NA, Aris A, et al.
    Yakugaku Zasshi, 2006 Nov;126(11):1171-8.
    PMID: 17077618
    AIM: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of chloroform extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models.

    METHODS: The extract was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) the air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in chloroform for 72 hrs followed by evaporation (40 degrees C) under reduced pressure to dryness (1.26 g) and then dissolved (1:50; w/v) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The supernatant, considered as the stock solution with dose of 200 mg/kg, was diluted using DMSO to 20 and 100 mg/kg, and all doses were administered (s.c.; 10 ml/kg) in mice/rats 30 min prior to tests.

    RESULTS: The extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests. Overall, the activities occurred in a dose-independent manner.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the lipid-soluble extract of S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties and confirmed the traditional claims.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fever/drug therapy*
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