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  1. Abdualkader AM, Ghawi AM, Alaama M, Awang M, Merzouk A
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2013 May;26(3):525-35.
    PMID: 23625426
    The medicinal Malaysian leeches have been used in traditional medicine to treat many different ailments. In this study, leech saliva extract (LSE) was collected from the medicinal Malaysian leech Hirudinaria manillensis. Gel electrophoresis of LSE was carried out to estimate the peptide and protein molecular weights of its content. Results showed that LSE contains more than 60 peptides and proteins with molecular masses ranging from 1.9-250kDa. Thrombin time assay in vitro was employed to assess the collected LSE antithrombin activity. First, to study its stability, LSE was lyophilized under the following different conditions: pre-freezing temperature, type of container and lyophilization cycle. Pre-freezed LSE sample at -20°C and lyophilized for 24 hours retained about 100-95% of its original biological activities. Second, the LSE antithrombin activity was monitored for a period of six months. Storage temperature, type of the container and photosensitivity effects on antithrombin activity of the lyophilized (solid state) and non-lyophilized (liquid state) were investigated. Results showed that storage temperature drastically affected the biological activity of LSE with -20 °C as the optimum temperature. Samples stored at ambient temperature and +4 °C were light photosensitive and adversely affected when stored in polypropylene tubes. Lyophilized samples were more stable than non-lyophilized ones over the period of study. To sum up, in order to have a biologically active stock of LSE, it has to be lyophilized for no more than 24 hours following freezing at -20°C and has to be stored at -20°C in glass tubes protected from light.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology
  2. Azad AK, Laboni FR, Rashid H, Ferdous S, Rashid SS, Kamal N, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2020 Aug;34(16):2394-2397.
    PMID: 30475649 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1538216
    The key purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the thrombolytic, antioxidant, membrane stabilizing and antimicrobial potentials of crude ethanol extracts (CEE) of whole plant, organic and aqueous soluble fractions (OF & AQSF). CEE showed the highest (44.63%) clot lysis activity compared to streptokinase (64.35%). In DPPH study, petroleum ether soluble fraction (PSF) has exhibited IC50 of 18.83 μg/mL while the standard ascorbic acid was 2.48 µg/mL. AQSF profoundly inhibited the lysis of erythrocytes (66.20%) which was insignificantly different (p > 0.05) to acetylsalicylic acid (71.98%), the reference. However, AQSF showed a significantly stronger level of protection against heat-induced hemolysis (64.80%) as compared with the acetylsalicylic acid (78.90%). CEE, OF and AQSF have displayed reasonable growth of inhibition of tested bacteria compared to negative control and standard drug (77.50 mg of GAE/g).
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology*
  3. Cercek B, Lew AS, Hod H, Yano J, Lewis B, Reddy KN, et al.
    Thromb Res, 1987 Aug 15;47(4):417-26.
    PMID: 3660351
    Since thrombi continue to incorporate fibrin during lysis we tested the effect of pretreatment with ancrod, a defibrinating agent from Malaysian pit viper venom, on thrombolysis with urokinase and streptokinase. Thrombi were induced by copper-coils in the carotid arteries of the dogs, weighed after 1 hour and inserted into the femoral arteries of the same animals. They were then exposed for 15 min to iv boluses of streptokinase 10,000 U/kg, urokinase 10,000 U/kg and urokinase 25,000 U/kg with or without pretreatment with ancrod. Ancrod depleted fibrinogen within 5 min and enhanced the lytic effect of streptokinase from 25 +/- 8% to 59 +/- 13% (p less than .05), urokinase 10,000 U/kg from 16 +/- 11% to 66 +/- 18% (p less than .01) and urokinase 25,000 U/kg from 27 +/- 17% to 85 +/- 8% (p less than .001) of the initial thrombus weight. Ancrod itself did not activate plasminogen to plasmin. We conclude that ancrod enhances thrombolysis probably by depleting fibrinogen and preventing new fibrin incorporation into the thrombus during lysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology*
  4. Aziz-Ur-Rehman -, Khan SG, Bokhari TH, Anjum F, Akhter N, Rasool S, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2020 Mar;33(2(Supplementary)):871-876.
    PMID: 32863264
    A novel series of 5-(3-Chlorophenyl)-2-((N-(substituted)-2-acetamoyl)sulfanyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives was efficiently synthesized and screened for antibacterial, hemolytic and thrombolytic activities. The molecule 7c remained the best inhibitor of all selected bacterial strains and furthermore possessed very low toxicity, 8.52±0.31. Compound 7a 7b and 7f showed very good thrombolytic activity relative to Streptokinase employed as reference drug. In addition to low toxicity and moderately good thrombolytic activity, the synthesized compounds possessed excellent to moderate antibacterial activity, relative to ciprofloxacin. All compounds especially 7b and 7f can be consider for further clinical studies and might be helpful in synthesis of new drugs for treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology*
  5. Ikram HM, Rasool N, Ahmad G, Chotana GA, Musharraf SG, Zubair M, et al.
    Molecules, 2015 Mar 23;20(3):5202-14.
    PMID: 25806546 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20035202
    The present study reports the synthesis of various new derivatives based on 5-aryl-2-bromo-3-hexylthiophene with moderate-to-good yields via a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. This coupling method involved the reaction of 2,5-dibromo-3-hexylthiophene with several arylboronic acids in order to synthesize corresponding thiophene derivatives under controlled and optimal reaction conditions. The different substituents (CH3, OCH3, Cl, F etc.) present on arylboronic acids are found to have significant electronic effects on the overall properties of new products. The synthesized thiophene molecules were studied for their haemolytic, biofilm inhibition and anti-thrombolytic activities, and almost all products showed potentially good properties. The compound 2-bromo-5-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-3-hexylthiophenein particular exhibited the highest values for haemolytic and bio-film inhibition activities among all newly synthesized derivatives. In addition, the compound 2-bromo-3-hexyl-5-(4-iodophenyl)thiophene also showed high anti-thrombolytic activity, suggesting the potential medicinal applications of these newly synthesized compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology
  6. Ahmad G, Rasool N, Ikram HM, Gul Khan S, Mahmood T, Ayub K, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Jan 27;22(2).
    PMID: 28134790 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22020190
    The present study describes palladium-catalyzed one pot Suzuki cross-coupling reaction to synthesize a series of novel pyridine derivatives 2a-2i, 4a-4i. In brief, Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of 5-bromo-2-methylpyridin-3-amine (1) directly or via N-[5-bromo-2-methylpyridine-3-yl]acetamide (3) with several arylboronic acids produced these novel pyridine derivatives in moderate to good yield. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out for the pyridine derivatives 2a-2i and 4a-4i by using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis with the help of GAUSSIAN 09 suite programme. The frontier molecular orbitals analysis, reactivity indices, molecular electrostatic potential and dipole measurements with the help of DFT methods, described the possible reaction pathways and potential candidates as chiral dopants for liquid crystals. The anti-thrombolytic, biofilm inhibition and haemolytic activities of pyridine derivatives were also investigated. In particular, the compound 4b exhibited the highest percentage lysis value (41.32%) against clot formation in human blood among all newly synthesized compounds. In addition, the compound 4f was found to be the most potent against Escherichia coli with an inhibition value of 91.95%. The rest of the pyridine derivatives displayed moderate biological activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology
  7. Wu XH, Liew YK, Mai CW, Then YY
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Mar 24;22(7).
    PMID: 33805207 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22073341
    Medical devices are indispensable in the healthcare setting, ranging from diagnostic tools to therapeutic instruments, and even supporting equipment. However, these medical devices may be associated with life-threatening complications when exposed to blood. To date, medical device-related infections have been a major drawback causing high mortality. Device-induced hemolysis, albeit often neglected, results in negative impacts, including thrombotic events. Various strategies have been approached to overcome these issues, but the outcomes are yet to be considered as successful. Recently, superhydrophobic materials or coatings have been brought to attention in various fields. Superhydrophobic surfaces are proposed to be ideal blood-compatible biomaterials attributed to their beneficial characteristics. Reports have substantiated the blood repellence of a superhydrophobic surface, which helps to prevent damage on blood cells upon cell-surface interaction, thereby alleviating subsequent complications. The anti-biofouling effect of superhydrophobic surfaces is also desired in medical devices as it resists the adhesion of organic substances, such as blood cells and microorganisms. In this review, we will focus on the discussion about the potential contribution of superhydrophobic surfaces on enhancing the hemocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology
  8. Ikram HM, Rasool N, Zubair M, Khan KM, Abbas Chotana G, Akhtar MN, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 Jul 27;21(8).
    PMID: 27472312 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21080977
    The present study describes several novel 2,5-biaryl-3-hexylthiophene derivatives (3a-i) synthesized via a Pd(0)-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction in moderate to good yields. The novel compounds were also analyzed for their anti-thrombolytic, haemolytic, and biofilm inhibition activities. In addition, the anti-tumor activity was also evaluated in vitro for newly-synthesized compounds, where 3-hexyl-2,5-bis(4-(methylthio)phenyl)thiophene exhibited the best anti-tumor activity against 4T1 cells with IC50 value of 16 μM. Moreover, 2,5-bis(4-methylphenyl)-3-hexylthiophene showed the highest activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 26.2 μM. On the other hand, the compound 2,5-bis(4-chloropheny)-3-hexylthiophene exhibited excellent biofilm inhibition activity. Furthermore, the compound 2,5-bis(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-3-hexylthiophene also exhibited better anti-thrombolytic and hemolytic activity results as compared to the other newly-synthesized compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology
  9. Ravishankar D, Salamah M, Attina A, Pothi R, Vallance TM, Javed M, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 07 18;7(1):5738.
    PMID: 28720875 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-05936-3
    The constant increase in cardiovascular disease rate coupled with significant drawbacks of existing therapies emphasise the necessity to improve therapeutic strategies. Natural flavonoids exert innumerable pharmacological effects in humans. Here, we demonstrate the effects of chrysin, a natural flavonoid found largely in honey and passionflower on the modulation of platelet function, haemostasis and thrombosis. Chrysin displayed significant inhibitory effects on isolated platelets, however, its activity was substantially reduced under physiological conditions. In order to increase the efficacy of chrysin, a sulfur derivative (thio-chrysin), and ruthenium-complexes (Ru-chrysin and Ru-thio-chrysin) were synthesised and their effects on the modulation of platelet function were evaluated. Indeed, Ru-thio-chrysin displayed a 4-fold greater inhibition of platelet function and thrombus formation in vitro than chrysin under physiologically relevant conditions such as in platelet-rich plasma and whole blood. Notably, Ru-thio-chrysin exhibited similar efficacy to chrysin in the modulation of haemostasis in mice. Increased bioavailability and cell permeability of Ru-thio-chrysin compared to chrysin were found to be the basis for its enhanced activity. Together, these results demonstrate that Ru-thio-coupled natural compounds such as chrysin may serve as promising templates for the development of novel anti-thrombotic agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology*
  10. Che HL, Kanthimathi MS, Loganathan R, Yuen KH, Tan AT, Selvaduray KR, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2017 01;71(1):107-114.
    PMID: 27759074 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.200
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence shows that tocotrienols potentially reverse various chronic disease progressions caused by the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single-dose supplementation of gamma and delta tocotrienols (γδ-T3, 1:4 ratio) compared with those in placebo on the insulinemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic responses in metabolic syndrome subjects.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty metabolic syndrome subjects (15 men and 15 women) were recruited to a randomized, double-blinded and crossover study. The subjects were administered a single dose of 200 mg or 400 mg γδ-T3 emulsions or placebo incorporated into a glass of strawberry-flavored milkshake, consumed together with a high-fat muffin. Blood samples were collected at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min after meal intake.

    RESULTS: Plasma vitamin E levels reflected the absorption of γδ-T3 after treatments. Postprandial changes in serum C-peptide, serum insulin, plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acid and adiponectin did not differ between treatments, with women displaying delayed increase in the aforementioned markers. No significant difference between treatments was observed for plasma cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and thrombogenic markers (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and D-dimer).

    CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of a single dose of γδ-T3 did not change the insulinemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic responses in metabolic syndrome subjects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology
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