MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, reprogramming of human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) into iPSC was carried out using non-integrative Sendai virus for transduction. The iPSC clones were characterised based on the morphological changes, gene expression of pluripotency markers, and spontaneous and directed differentiation abilities into cells of different germ layers.
RESULTS: On day 18-25 post-transduction, colonies with embryonic stem cell-like morphology were obtained. The iPSC generated were free of Sendai genome and transgene after passage 10, as confirmed by RT-PCR. NHDF-derived iPSC expressed multiple pluripotency markers in qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. When cultured in suspension for 8 days, iPSC successfully formed embryoid body-like spheres. NHDF-derived iPSC also demonstrated the ability to undergo directed differentiation into ectoderm and endoderm.
CONCLUSION: NHDF were successfully reprogrammed into iPSC using non-integrating Sendai virus for transduction.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tocotrienol-rich fraction was used to treat different stages of cellular aging of primary human diploid fibroblasts viz. young (passage 6), pre-senescent (passage 15) and senescent (passage 30). Several selected targets involved in the downstream of PI3K/AKT and RAF/MEK/ERK pathways were compared in total RNA and protein.
RESULTS: Different transcriptional profiles were observed in young, pre-senescent and senescent HDFs, in which cellular aging increased AKT, FOXO3, CDKN1A and RSK1 mRNA expression level, but decreased ELK1, FOS and SIRT1 mRNA expression level. With tocotrienol-rich fraction treatment, gene expression of AKT, FOXO3, ERK and RSK1 mRNA was decreased in senescent cells, but not in young cells. The three down-regulated mRNA in cellular aging, ELK1, FOS and SIRT1, were increased with tocotrienol-rich fraction treatment. Expression of FOXO3 and P21Cip1 proteins showed up-regulation in senescent cells but tocotrienol-rich fraction only decreased P21Cip1 protein expression in senescent cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Tocotrienol-rich fraction exerts gene modulating properties that might be responsible in promoting cell cycle progression during cellular aging.